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The Fleet Type Submarine Online
Submarine Electrical Installations

Submarine Electrical Installations manual cover

Submarine Electrical Installations, Navpers 16162, is one of a series of submarine training manuals that was completed just after WW II. The series describes the peak of WW II US submarine technology.

In this online version of the manual we have attempted to keep the flavor of the original layout while taking advantage of the Web's universal accessibility. Different browsers and fonts will cause the text to move, but the text will remain roughly where it is in the original manual. In addition to errors we have attempted to preserve from the original (for example, it was H.L. Hunley, not CS Huntley), this text was captured by optical character recognition. This process creates errors that are compounded while encoding for the Web. Please report any typos, or particularly annoying layout issues with the Mail Feedback Form for correction.

Our thanks to Shelly Shelstad, creator of History on CD ROM) for permitting us to use images he has scanned, particularly the oversized images that were meticulously pieced together. History on CD ROM sells a very nice CD or thumb drive version of this manual in PDF format for easy access off the web and for a printing. Thanks also to IKON Office Solutions (now Ricoh USA for scanning services.

Richard Pekelney

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NavPers 16162
Produced for ComSubLant by Standards and Curriculum Division Training, Bureau of Naval Personnel. Submarine Electrical Installations
June 1946

This is one of a series of Submarine
Training Manuals. The series includes:
1. The Fleet Type Submarine NavPers 16160
2. Submarine Main Propulsion Diesels NavPers 16161
3. Submarine Electrical Installations NavPers 16162
4. Submarine Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Systems NavPers 16163
5. Submarine Distilling Systems Navpers 16163A
6. Submarine Air Systems NavPers 16164
7. Submarine Periscope Manual NavPers 16165
8. Submarine Trim and Drain Systems NavPers 16166
9. Submarine Sonar Operator's Manual NavPers 16167
10. Submarine Underwater Log Systems NavPers 16168
11. Submarine Hydraulic Systems NavPers 16169
12. Torpedo Tubes, 21-Inch submerged, Mks 32 to 39 O.P. 1085

The Submarine School, Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, and other activities of Submarines, Atlantic Fleet have collaborated in the preparation of this manual.

All submarine machinery is operated directly by electricity generated initially from energy supplied by the ship's diesel engines, or indirectly through the transmission media of high-pressure air or hydraulic systems. A thorough knowledge of the theory, operation, and maintenance of the electrical machinery is a requisite to successful operation of the submarine and the fulfillment of her mission in life-the destruction of the enemy's ships wherever and under whatever conditions they may be encountered. The accomplishment of this mission necessitates that operating personnel be trained to maintain the machinery in reliable operating condition as well as to operate it correctly.

The purpose of this manual is to acquaint the student with the theory, operation, and construction of the components of the electrical installations. Special emphasis is Oven to the more important maintenance features and methods.

A thorough knowledge of the ship and its machinery may, in an emergency, be the means of keeping it and its crew in battle condition.

The manual is intended as a primary instruction manual, ashore and afloat, for officer and enlisted personnel having duties in connection with submarine electrical installations. For details of construction and maintenance, the manufacturer's instruction books and Navy Department manuals should be consulted.




A. Magnetism 1
B. Electric Circuits 2
C. Electromagnetism 4
D. Electromagnetic Induction 6
E. Direct-current Generators 8
F. Direct-current Motors 13
A. Propulsion 16
B. Main and Auxiliary Generators 16
C. Main Motors 29
D. Cables 37
A. Description 39
B. Operation 56
C. Maintenance 67
A. General 73
B. Auxiliary Motors 75
C. Motor Generator 77
D. Control Equipment 77
E. Magnetic Brakes 80
A. Description 82
A. Circuit Breakers 89
B. Fuses and Fused Switches 91
C. Lighting System 91
D. Lighting Feeder Voltage Regulators 92
E. Heating 95
A. Main Motors and Generators. 97
B. Cables 110
C. Auxiliary Motors and Motor Generator Sets 113
D. Auxiliary Control Equipment 116
E. Panels and Switchboards 116
F. Heating Units 117



A. Circuits 119
B. Interior Communication and Action Cutout Switchboards 120
A. Motor Generator Speed Regulators 124
B. Rotary Solenoid Type Automatic A.C. Voltage Regulator 126
C. Reactor Type Automatic Voltage Regulator 128
A. Description 131
B. Operation 134
A. Motor Order Telegraph System 138
B. Rudder Angle Indicator System 145
C. Bow and Stern Plane Angle Indicating Systems 148
D. Engine Governor Control System 155
A. Rotary Converter and Constant Frequency Control Unit 160
B. Underwater Log System 163
C. Propeller Shaft Revolution Indicator and Counter System 172
A. Engine Order Indicator System 180
B. Lubricating Oil and Engine Circulating Water Alarm System 180
C. Hull Opening and Main Ballast Tank Indicator Systems 185
D. Resistance Thermometer and Pyrometer Systems 189
E. Hydrogen Detector System 195
A. Torpedo Fire Control System 200
B. Torpedo Ready Light, Torpedo Firing, and Battle Order Systems 200
C. Target Designation System 203
D. Torpedo Battery Charging and Hydrogen Burning Systems 206
A. Circuit and Components 209

A. Description 211
B. General Announcing System 211
C. Submarine Control Announcing System 213
D. General Alarm System 213
E. Collision Alarm System 213
F. Diving Alarm System 214
G. Communication and Alarm System Maintenance 214
H. Sound-powered Telephone System and Telephone Call Circuits 215
I. Telephone Call Circuit 221
A. Theory of the Gyrocompass 222
B. Fundamental Characteristics of the Gyrocompass 227
C. Constant Motion Errors 229
D. Units of the Compass Equipment 232
E. The Master Compass 235
F. Motor Generator 243
G. Control Panel 243
H. Operation 245
I. Care and Maintenance 246
J. Auxiliary Gyrocompass 248
K. Dead Reckoning Analyzing Indicator and Tracer Systems 250
A. Meggers 254
B. Ammeters and Voltmeters 257
C. Millivoltmeters 259
A. Precautions, Maintenance of Circuits, Inspections, Trouble Shooting, and Repairs 260
A. Interior Communication Circuits 264
B. Switch Color Code 265
C. Types of Navy Shipboard Cables 265
D. How to Read a Cable Tag on a Submarine 266
E. American Wire Gage (A.W.G.) Working Table 267
F. Definitions 267
G. Conversion Factors 267
H. Commonly Used Electrical Symbols 268
I. Safety Precautions 269
J. First Aid 271

1-1. Lines of force surrounding a bar magnet 1
1-2. Lines of force surrounding the end of a bar magnet 1
1-3. Closed magnetic circuit 2
1-4. Open magnetic circuit 2
1-5. Magnetic circuit of a simple dynamo 3
1-6. Series circuit 4
1-7. Simple parallel circuit 4
1-8. Magnetic field around a conductor 5
1-9. Magnetic field around a single loop of wire 5
1-10. Magnetic field around a coil of wire 5
1-11. Magnetic field around an electromagnet 5
1-12. A conductor cutting lines of force 6
1-13. The simple alternator in four positions 7
1-14. Sectional view of a two-segment commutator 7
1-15. Multipolar field 8
1-16. Field frame of a generator 8
1-17. Diagram of shunt generator connections 9
1-18. Series generator connections 9
1-19. Compound generator connections 9
1-20. Generator armature 10
1-21. Generator brush rigging 11
1-22. Effect of armature reaction on field of generator 11
1-23. Effect of commutating field windings 12
1-24. Construction of compensating windings 12
1-25. Currents in armature conductors, compensating windings, and commutating pole windings 13
1-26. Force acting on a conductor carrying current in a magnetic field 14
2-1. General arrangement of main propulsion equipment, gear drive and direct drive 16
2-2. Cross-section of G.E. main generator 17
2-3. Cutaway of Westinghouse main generator 18
2-4. Cutaway of Elliott main generator cooling unit 18
2-5. Cutaway of Allis-Chalmers main generator cooling unit 18
2-6. Commutator end view of G.E. main generator 19
2-7. Coupling end view of G.E. main generator, section cover removed 19
2-8. Commutator end view of Elliott main generator 19
2-9. Commutator end view of Elliott main generator with front end bell removed 19
2-10. Coupling end view of Allis-Chalmers main generator 20
2-11. Coupling end view of G.E. main generator armature 20
2-12. Commutator end of G.E. main generator, with cooler, end bell, and upper half of bearing housing removed 21
2-13. Main generator brush rigging 21
2-14. Brush holder and bracket 21
2-15. Main generator field frame and windings 21

2-16. Miscellaneous field parts, Allis-Chalmers 22
2-17. Lower half of main generator bearing installed 23
2-18. Main generator bearing, coupling end 23
2-19. Main generator bearing, commutator end 23
2-20. Bottom view of G.E. main generator cooling unit 24
2-21. Cutaway of Westinghouse auxiliary generator 24
2-22. Right front view of G.E. auxiliary generator 25
2-23. Front view of G.E. auxiliary generator, end shield and cooler cover removed 25
2-24. Commutator end view of Elliott auxiliary generator 25
2-25. Elliott auxiliary generator, end bell and cooler-removed 26
2-26. Commutator end view of Allis-Chalmers auxiliary generator, end cover removed 26
2-27. Later type Allis-Chalmers auxiliary generator 26
2-28. Armature for G.E. auxiliary generator 26
2-29. Allis-Chalmers auxiliary generator brush rigging 27
2-30. Miscellaneous field parts, Allis-Chalmers auxiliary generator 27
2-31. Cross-section of G.E. main motor 28
2-32. Cutaway of Elliott main motor cooler section 29
2-33. Cutaway of Allis-Chalmers main motor cooler section 29
2-34. Commutator end view of G.E. main motor 29
2-35. Coupling end view of G.E. main motor, flat cover plate and air duct cover removed 30
2-36. Commutator end view of Elliott main motor 30
2-37. Elliott main motor with end bells removed 30
2-38. Coupling end view of G.E. main motor armature 31
2-39. Main motor brush rigging 31
2-40. Main motor field frame and windings 31
2-41. Main coil on pole piece with compensating field bars 31
2-42. Commutating field coil on pole piece with compensating field bars 31
2-43. Cross-section of Elliott double armature propulsion motor 33
2-44. Cutaway of Westinghouse double armature propulsion motor 33
2-45. Double armature propulsion motor 34
2-46. Double armature propulsion motor with enclosures removed. 35
2-47. Propulsion motor double armature, coupling end 35
2-48. Propulsion motor double armature, thrust bearing end 36
2-49. Double armature propulsion motor field frame and windings 36
2-50. Type SHFL single conductor heat and flame resistant leaded cable 37
2-51. Type DCP double conductor portable cable. 37
2-52. Type MHFA multiple conductor heat and flame resistant armored cable 38
3-1. Front view of main control, installed 39
3-2. G.E. main control cubicle 40
3-3. Cutler-Hammer main control cubicle 41
3-4. Westinghouse main control cubicle 42
3-5. Split type main propulsion control cubicle 43
3-6. Schematic wiring diagram of main propulsion control 44
3-7. Excitation circuits 45

3-8. Protective circuits 46
3-9. After-side view of G.E. after contactor group 47
3-10. Rear view of G.E. control equipment 48
3-11. Operating levers 49
3-12. Diagram of interlocking arrangement 51
3-13. Main generator reverse current relay, closed 52
3-14. Schematic diagram of main generator reverse current relay 52
3-15. G.E. "Thyrite" field discharge resistor 52
3-16. Field rheostat, G.E. commutator type 53
3-17. G.E. field rheostat clutch mechanism 53
3-18. G.E. main motor starting resistors 54
3-19. G.E. main motor starting contactors, arc chutes removed 55
3-20. Position of operating levers for one-generator operation. 59
3-21. Position of operating levers for two-generator operation 60
3-22. Position of operating levers for three-generator operation 61
3-23. Position of operating levers for four-generator operation 62
3-24. Position of operating levers when charging batteries with one generator with other generators supplying propulsion power 63
3-25. Position of operating levers for battery operation at 1/3 and 2/3 speed 64
3-26. Position of operating levers for battery operation at standard and full speed. 65
3-27. Position of operating levers for battery operation at slow speed 66
3-28. Checking contacts with carbon paper 68
3-29. Carbon impressions of contact surfaces 68
3-30. Operating mechanism of G.E. motor, generator, and battery contactors, closed position 69
3-3l. Operating mechanism of G.E. motor, generator, and battery contactors, open position 69
3-32. Ground detector wiring diagram 70
4-1. Diagram of auxiliary power circuits 72
4-2. Forward auxiliary power switchboard 73
4-3. After auxiliary power switchboard 74
4-4. D.C. motor for antenna and periscope hoist, equipped with magnetic disk brake 75
4-5. D.C. motor for air-conditioning compressor 75
4-6. D.C. motor for high-pressure air compressor 75
4-7. D.C. motor for hull ventilation supply fan 75
4-8. D.C. motor for battery ventilation fan 76
4-9. D.C. motor for drain pump 76
4-10. D.C. motor for trim pump 76
4-11. Motor generator set 77
4-12. Magnetic contactor starting panel 78
4-13. Simplified schematic diagram of automatic motor starter 79
4-14. Magnetic disk brake 81
5-1. Cutaway of Exide storage battery cell 82
5-2. Cutaway of Gould storage battery cell 82
5-3. Battery cell jar 83
5-4. Battery installation 84

5-5. Battery disconnect and supply switches in battery well 85
5-6. Battery ventilation ducts and cell connectors 85
5-7. Cutaway of battery cell top. 86
5-8. Battery ventilation air flow indicator, Hays type 87
5-9. Battery ventilation motor controllers, ventilation flow meters, and remote hydrogen detector indicators 87
5-10. Individual cell voltmeter panel 88
6-1. Type ACB circuit breaker 90
6-2. Type AQB circuit breaker, cover removed 90
6-3. Lighting circuit layout dimmer control on 313 class submarine 90
6-4. Emergency lighting circuit layout on 313 class submarine 90
6-5. Schematic diagram of lighting feeder voltage regulator 93
6-6. Lighting feeder voltage regulators and lighting distribution switchboard 94
6-7. Lighting feeder voltage regulator, top removed 94
6-8. Top view of lighting feeder voltage regulator 94
7-1. Leakage paths in cable construction 98
7-2. Megger test record card 99
7-3. Minimum insulation resistance of dry direct current propulsion motors and generators based on readings at 25 degrees C, or 77 degrees F 101
7-4. Effect of temperature on insulation resistance of insulated windings 102
7-5. Brush removal 105
7-6. Method of measuring brush spring pressure 106
7-7. Factory marks on armature slots and commutator bars 107
7-8. Wrench and pinion gear installed for rotating G.E. main motor brush rigging 107
7-9. Wrench and pinion gear installed for rotating G.E. main generator brush rigging 107
7-10. Insulation resistance vs. sheath temperature (SHFA, SHFL, sizes 650 and 800) 112
8-1. Simplified diagram of I.C. power supply 121
8-2. I.C., gyro, action cutout, and I.C. motor generator switchboards, latest type 122
8-3. Action cutout and I.C. switchboards, latest type 123
9-1. Speed regulator for lighting motor generator sets and interior communication a.c. motor generator sets 125
9-2. Schematic diagram of I.C. motor generator voltage regulator, rotary solenoid type 127
9-3. Schematic diagram of I.C. motor generator voltage regulator, reactor type. 129
9-4. Equivalent schematic diagram of I.C. motor generator voltage regulator, reactor type 130
10-1. Sectional view of type "A" transmitter 132
10-2. Sectional view of type "M" indicator 133
10-3. Mechanical analogy of selsyn transmitter and indicator 134
10-4. Elementary wiring diagram of selsyn transmitter and indicators 135
10-5. Elementary wiring diagram showing connections between selsyn transmitter and indicator 136
10-6. Selsyn connections for electrical zero 137
11-1. Schematic diagram of motor order telegraph system 139
11-2. Schematic diagram of motor order telegraph, two units 140
11-3. Motor order telegraph transmitter indicator unit, maneuvering room 140
11-4. Side view of motor order telegraph transmitter indicator unit, maneuvering room 140

11-5 Elementary wiring diagram of motor order telegraph transmitter indicator, conning tower and control room units 141
11-6. Elementary wiring diagram of motor order telegraph transmitter indicator, maneuvering room unit 142
11-7. Schematic diagram of motor order telegraph transmitter and indicator 143
11-8. Schematic diagram of rudder angle indicator system 144
11-9. Rudder angle indicator and case 145
11-10. Rudder angle transmitter 145
11-11. Rear view of rudder angle transmitter 145
11-12. Cross-sectional view of rudder angle transmitter 146
11-13. Wiring diagram of rudder angle indicator 147
11-14. Rudder angle indicator, showing pressure-proof construction for bridge installation, 148
11-15. Schematic diagram of bow and stern plane angle indicating systems 149
11-16. Wiring diagram of bow and stern plane angle indicating systems 150
11-17. Bow and stern plane angle indicators installed at diving station 151
11-18. Schematic diagram of auxiliary bow and stern plane angle indicating systems 152
11-19. Auxiliary bow plane angle indicator at diving station 153
11-20. Schematic diagram of bow plane rigging indicator circuit 154
11-21. Bow plane rigging indicator, bow plane rigging and windlass clutch indicator, bow and stern plane motor ON lights and controllers at diving station. 155
11-22. Schematic diagram of engine governor control system. 156
11-23. Elementary wiring diagram of d.c. governor control, Allis-Chalmers pointer transmitter 157
11-24. Engine governor control panel on main control cubicle 158
11-25. Engine governor control unit at engine 158
11-26. Fairbanks-Morse tachometer installation 159
11-27. Electric Tachometer, engine unit and indicator 159
11-28. Weston electric tachometer magneto, engine unit 159
12-1. Schematic diagram of constant frequency control unit 161
12-2. Frequency control unit, Pitometer Log Corporation type 162
12-3. Schematic diagram of underwater log system. 164
12-4. Elementary diagram showing fundamental principle of operation of underwater log system 165
12-5. Schematic diagram of rotary balance type underwater log system 166
12-6. Arrangement of units of rotary balance type underwater log system 167
12-7. Pitometer log mercury manometer type units 168
12-8. Schematic arrangement of Bendix bellows type log 170
12-9. Schematic diagram of Bendix underwater log master transmitter indicator 171
12-10. Schematic diagram of propeller shaft revolution indicator and counter system 173
12-11. Pitometer log type of shaft revolution transmitter 174
12-12. Schematic arrangement of Electric Tachometer Corporation type indicator and counter system 175
12-13. Top view of propeller shaft revolution transmitter, Electric Tachometer Corporation type with cover removed 175
12-14. Schematic arrangement of shaft revolution transmitter 176
12-15. Schematic arrangement of Pitometer log type propeller shaft revolution indicator and counter system 177

12-16. Details and wiring diagram of Pitometer log type master indicator 178
12-17. Shaft revolution indicator, Electric Tachometer Corporation type, with face removed 178
12-18. Shaft revolution indicator, magneto type, maneuvering room indicator 179
12-19. Shaft revolution indicator, magneto type, shaft transmitter, with cover removed 179
13-1. Schematic diagram of engine order indicator system 181
13-2. Engine order telegraph, maneuvering room transmitter 182
13-3. Engine order indicator installed on engine gage board 182
13-4. Schematic diagram of lubricating oil (low pressure) and engine circulating water (high temperature) alarm system 183
13-5. Elementary wiring diagram of engine lubricating oil (low pressure) and circulating water (high temperature) alarm system for one engine 184
13-6. Lubricating oil (low pressure) and engine circulating water (high temperature) alarm panel 184
13-7. Schematic diagram of hull opening indicator system 186
13-8. On board view of hull opening and main ballast tank indicators 187
13-9. Simplified wiring diagram for one unit of hull opening and main ballast tank opening indicator systems 187
13-10. Schematic diagram of main ballast tank indicator system 188
13-11. Main ballast tank indicator with cover open 189
13-12. Schematic diagram of distant reading thermometer system 190
13-13. Schematic diagram of Brown distant reading thermometer system for main motors and reduction gears 191
13-14. Brown distant reading resistance thermometer indicator and switch panel 192
13-15. Weston resistance thermometer bulbs 192
13-16. Brown resistance thermometer bulb. 192
13-17. Electrical resistance thermometers 193
13-18. Duplex constant reading resistance thermometer gage 194
13-19. Brown pyrometer indicator and rotary switch for main engine exhaust temperatures 194
13-20. Pyrometer unit as installed in engine 194
13-21. Schematic diagram of hydrogen detector system 196
13-22. Schematic diagram of Cities Service type hydrogen detector 197
13-23. Arrangement of units in Cities Service type hydrogen detector 198
13-24. Cities Service type hydrogen detector system, master indicator and remote indicator 198
13-25. M.S.A. type hydrogen detector remote indicator 199
13-26. M.S.A. type hydrogen detector with door open 199
13-27. M.S.A. type hydrogen detector 199
14-1. Diagram of fleet type submarine ready light and firing circuits, for torpedo tube No. 7 only 200
14-2. Conning tower torpedo firing panel 201
14-3. Torpedo room ready light and ready switch panel 201
14-4. Torpedo tube interlock switch and pilot valve solenoid 201
14-5. Spindle switch on torpedo tube gyro setting mechanism 202
14-6. Gyro angle regulating indicator with right handgrip turned to show trigger switch 202
14-7. Schematic diagram of target designation system 204
14-8. Target bearing transmitter, Mark 8 205

14-9. Target bearing indicator, type installed at TDC 205
14-10. Target bearing indicator, type installed at plotting stations 205
14-11. Target bearing indicator, type installed at radar 205
14-12. Bearing indicator and bearing indicator selector switches installed at TDC 206
14-13. True bearing and range indicator at plotting stations, newest installations 206
14-14. Schematic diagram of torpedo battery charging controller 207
14-15. Schematic diagram of hydrogen burning circuit 208
14-16. Electric torpedo battery charging panel 208
14-17. Electric torpedo hydrogen burning circuit controller 208
15-1. Schematic diagram of underwater sound system 210
16-1. General layout diagram of general announcing and submarine control announcing systems 210
16-2. General announcing bridge units, switch box, and bridge reproducer and microphone 211
16-3. General announcing reproducer, class H 212
16-4. General announcing system showing reproducer talk-back switch, reproducer, and transmitter control station 212
16-5. Motor-operated horn, type H-9 214
16-6. Schematic diagram of sound-powered telephone system 216
16-7. Sound-powered telephone diaphragm and armature 217
16-8. Sectional view and wiring diagram of sound-powered telephone handset 217
16-9. Headset sound-powered telephone 218
16-10. Headset wiring diagram 219
16-11. Sectional view of receiver unit 219
16-12. Ship's service handset telephone 219
16-13. Schematic diagram of telephone call circuit 220
16-14. Telephone call bell station 221
17-1. A free gyro 222
17-2. Gyro spinning at equator with its axis horizontal 223
17-3. Gyro spinning at pole with its axis horizontal 224
17-4. Gyro spinning at intermediate positions 225
17-5. Gyro wheel with its rotating axis set in north-south position and level away from the equator moves about its horizontal and vertical axes 225
17-6. Resting position of a gyro spinning at equator 225
17-7. Resting position of a gyro spinning at high latitudes 225
17-8. Effects of applied force on vertical axis with gyro wheel spinning in upward direction 226
17-9. Effects of applied force on vertical axis with gyro wheel spinning in downward direction 226
17-10. Continuous precession 226
17-11. Simple pendulous type gyro 227
17-12. Effect of gravity and resultant precessional motion 228
17-13. Oil ballistic arrangement for damping oscillation 228
17-14. Effect of undamped oscillation 229
17-15. Effect of damped oscillation 230
17-16. Gyro axis parallel to the north-south axis 231
17-17. Gyro axis parallel to the meridian 231
17-18. Speed course latitude errors. 231

17-19. Ballistic deflection error, ship on northerly course 231
17-20. Arma master compass installed, binnacle cover removed 232
17-21. Arma master compass control, repeater, and follow-up panels 233
17-22. Single dial repeater with dimmer 234
17-23. Conning tower double dial steering unit with dimmer switch 234
17-24. Gimbal-mounted double-dial bridge pelorus, pressure-proof type 234
17-25. Master compass with cover removed showing position for 15 degree pitch and 35 degree roll 235
17-26. Diagrammatic drawing of master compass 236
17-27. Arma master compass, cover and spider removed to show sensitive element. 237
17-28. Bottom view of spider, sensitive element 238
17-29. Gyro unit, disassembled 239
17-30. Oil damping system 240
17-31. Flotation and contact assembly 241
17-32. Automatic speed correction and driving mechanism 242
17-33. Spider assembly 243
17-34. Schematic diagram of gyrocompass system 244
17-35. Schematic diagram of auxiliary gyrocompass system 247
17-36. Arma auxiliary gyrocompass Mark 9, cover removed 248
17-37. Arma auxiliary gyrocompass Mark 9, sensitive element 248
17-38. Arma auxiliary gyrocompass Mark 9, lower housing, gimbals, and mercury flotation tank 249
17-39. Arma auxiliary gyrocompass Mark 9 motor, generator set with end covers removed 249
17-40. Arma auxiliary gyrocompass Mark 9 control panel 250
17-41. Dead reckoning analyzer indicator gear diagram 252
17-42. Dead reckoning analyzer indicator 253
17-43. Dead reckoning analyzer indicator with cover open 253
17-44. Dead reckoning tracer with cover raised 253
18-1. Megger magnetic circuit and electrical connections 255
18-2. Megger moving element 256
18-3. Operating principle of direct current instruments 257



Photo of ship sinking seen through periscope.

Electrical power helped do this.

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