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The Fleet Type Submarine Online
Main Propulsion Diesels


Main Propulsion Diesels Manual Cover
Folks,

Main Propulsion Diesels, Navpers 16161, is one of a series of submarine training manuals that was completed just after WW II. The series describes the peak of WW II US submarine technology.

In this online version of the manual we have attempted to keep the flavor of the original layout while taking advantage of the Web's universal accessibility. Different browsers and fonts will cause the text to move, but the text will remain roughly where it is in the original manual. In addition to errors we have attempted to preserve from the original (for example, it was H.L. Hunley, not CS Huntley), this text was captured by optical character recognition. This process creates errors that are compounded while encoding for the Web. Please report any typos, or particularly annoying layout issues with the Mail Feedback Form for correction.

Our thanks to Shelly Shelstad, creator of History on CD ROM) for permitting us to use images he has scanned, particularly the oversized images that were meticulously pieced together. History on CD ROM sells a very nice CD or thumb drive version of this manual in PDF format for easy access off the web and for a printing. Thanks also to IKON Office Solutions (now Ricoh USA http://www.ricoh-usa.com) for scanning services.

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NavPers 16161
Produced for ComSubLant by Standards and Curriculum Division Training, Bureau of Naval Personnel. Submarine Main Propulsion Diesels
June 1946
RESTRICTED
 


This is one of a series of Submarine
Training Manuals. The series includes:
 
1. The Fleet Type Submarine NavPers 16160
2. Submarine Main Propulsion Diesels NavPers 16161
3. Submarine Electrical Installations NavPers 16162
4. Submarine Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Systems NavPers 16163
5. Submarine Distilling Systems Navpers 16163A
6. Submarine Air Systems NavPers 16164
7. Submarine Periscope Manual NavPers 16165
8. Submarine Trim and Drain Systems NavPers 16166
9. Submarine Sonar Operator's Manual NavPers 16167
10. Submarine Underwater Log Systems NavPers 16168
11. Submarine Hydraulic Systems NavPers 16169
12. Torpedo Tubes, 21-Inch submerged, Mks 32 to 39 O.P. 1085
 
ii

PREFACE
The Submarine School, Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, and other activities of Submarines, Atlantic Fleet, have collaborated in the preparation of this manual. It is designed as both an instruction and a service manual. Included in the text are detailed descriptions of all engines used on modern fleet type submarines, their various auxiliaries, and the submarine systems used in connection with these installations. In addition, general engineering design principles and diesel engine operating principles are used where necessary to supplement the detailed descriptions.

The various classes of submarines in service today have many different types of engine installations and variations in design and operating procedures. No attempt has been made in this book to cover all such variations, but typical installations have been chosen and described in detail, while major variations have been adequately covered. At all times, however, strict adherence to established operating and maintenance principles has been maintained.

 
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CONTENTS
 
CHAPTER 1. DIESEL ENGINE PRINCIPLES
A. Development 1
B. Principles of Design and Operation 4
C. Diesel Engine Types 11
D. Submarine Diesel Engine Installations 20
CHAPTER 2. MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTS
A. Measurements 21
B. Instruments 24
CHAPTER 3. ENGINES AND ENGINE COMPONENTS
A. Engines 34
B. General Description of Engine Components 35
C. General Motors Engine Components 40
D. Fairbanks-Morse Engine Components 59
CHAPTER 4. ENGINE AIR STARTING SYSTEMS
A. General 81
B. General Motors Engine Air Starting System 84
C. Fairbanks-Morse Engine Air Starting System 87
CHAPTER 5. DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEMS
A. Diesel Fuels 92
B. Ship's Fuel System 95
C. Supply from Ship's Fuel System to Engine Fuel Systems 100
D. Fuel Injection Systems 105
E. General Motors Engine Fuel Oil System 107
F. Fairbanks-Morse Engine Fuel Oil System 114
CHAPTER 6. INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS
A. General 119
B. General Motors Intake and Exhaust System 123
C. Fairbanks-Morse Intake and Exhaust System 126
 
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CHAPTER 7. LUBRICANTS AND LUBRICATION SYSTEMS
A. General 129
B. Lubricating Systems 137
C. General Motors Lubricating System 148
D. Fairbanks-Morse Lubricating System 153
CHAPTER 8. COOLING SYSTEMS
A. General 159
B. Fairbanks-Morse Cooling System 168
C. General Motors Cooling System 172
CHAPTER 9. ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND OPERATION
A. Combustion and Efficiency 174
B. Engine Performance 179
C. Load Balance 182
D. Engine Dynamics and Vibrations 185
E. Engine Pressure Indicator 187
CHAPTER 10. GOVERNORS AND ENGINE CONTROLS
A. General 190
B. Regulating Governors 191
C. Governor Drives and Overspeed Governors 211
CHAPTER 11. JOURNALS, BEARINGS, AND ALIGNMENT
A. General 216
B. Couplings 221
C. Alignment 222
CHAPTER 12. AUXILIARY ENGINES
A. General Motors 8-268 and 8-268A Engines 230
B. Fairbanks-Morse 38E 1/8 Engine 246
CHAPTER 13. REDUCTION GEARS
A. Reduction Gear Units 261
B. Main Motor and Reduction Gear Lubricating System 265
C. Propeller Shaft Thrust and Adjustment 267
D. Propellers 268
 
v

ILLUSTRATIONS
 
1-1. Pressure, temperature, and volume relationship in a cylinder, A and B 6
1-1 Pressure, temperature, and volume relationship in a cylinder, C and D 7
1-2. Pressure-volume diagrams 8
1-3. The 4-stroke diesel cycle 12
1-4. The 2-stroke diesel cycle 13
1-5. Single-acting diesel principle 14
1-6. Double-acting diesel principle 15
1-7. Opposed piston principle 16
1-8. Opposed piston cycle, 1 and 2 16
1-8. Opposed piston cycle, 3-6 17
1-9. GM 16-278A, outboard side, control end, right-hand engine 18
1-10. GM 16-278A, inboard side, blower end, right-hand engine 18
1-11. F-M 10-cylinder 38D 8 1/8, outboard side, blower end, left-hand engine 19
1-12. F-M 10-cylinder 38D 8 1/8, inboard side, control end, right-hand engine 19
1-13. Lower crank lead 20
1-14. Cutaway of fleet type submarine showing engine installations 20
2-1. Common ruler, machinist's ruler, and steel tape 25
2-2. Types of calipers and methods of measurement 26
2-3. Micrometer 26
2-4. Feeler gage 27
2-5. Using bridge gage and feeler gage to determine clearance 27
2-6. Fahrenheit and centigrade thermometers 28
2-7. Method of graduating thermometers 29
2-8. Electrical resistance thermometer dial and bulb 29
2-9. Thermocouple pyrometer and thermocouple unit 30
2-10. Mercury and aneroid barometers 31
2-11. Simplex tube type pressure gage and dial 32
2-12. Mechanical revolution counter 32
2-13. Mechanical tachometer 33
2-14. Electrical tachometer 33
3-1. Nomenclature of crankshaft parts 36
3-2. Sections of crankshaft showing oil passages and hollow construction 36
3-3. Main bearing shells 37
3-4. Connecting rod bearing shells 39
3-5. Valve actuating gear assembly 39
3-6. Longitudinal cutaway of GM 16-278A engine 40
3-7. Cross section of GM 16-278A engine 41
3-8. Section of cylinder block, GM 42
3-9. Crankcase handhole covers, GM 42
 
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3-10. Injector control shaft and air box handhole covers, GM 42
3-11. Cross section of cylinder liner, GM 43
3-12. Cylinder head, GM 44
3-13. Cylinder head cross section through exhaust valves, GM 45
3-14. Cylinder head cross section through injector, GM 45
3-15. Crankshaft for GM engine 46
3-16. Main bearing cap installed, GM 47
3-17. Main bearing shells, GM 48
3-18. Cutaway of piston, GM 49
3-19. Piston rings, GM 49
3-20. Cross section of piston showing cooling and lubrication, GM 50
3-21. Piston and connecting rod disassembled, GM 50
3-22. Connecting rod, GM 16-248 51
3-23. Connecting rod oil passages, GM 16-278A 51
3-24. Connecting rod bearing shells, GM 51
3-25. Camshaft, GM 52
3-26. Cross section of cylinder head through injector, GM 53
3-27. Cross section of cylinder head through exhaust valves, GM 54
3-28. Cylinder test valve, GM 55
3-29. Cylinder relief or safety valve, GM 56
3-30. Camshaft drive gears, GM 57
3-31. Camshaft drive assembly, GM 58
3-32. Camshaft drive lubrication, GM 58
3-33. Accessory drive assembly with cover, GM 59
3-34. Cross section of F-M 38D 8 1/8 engine 60
3-35. Cylinder block, F-M 61
3-36. Vertical drive compartment spring-loaded access plate, F-M 61
3-37. Inspection covers, F-M 61
3-38. Cylinder liner, F-M 62
3-39. Upper and lower crankshafts, F-M 64
3-40. Upper crankshaft thrust bearing, F-M 64
3-41. Lower crankshaft thrust bearing, F-M 65
3-42. Torsional damper, F-M 66
3-43. Pistons, F-M 67
3-44. Piston rings, F-M 68
3-45. Needle roller type piston pin assembly, F-M 68
3-46. Connecting rod with needle roller type piston pin bearing, F-M 69
3-47. Connecting rod and piston assembly, F-M 69
3-48. Assembled view of crankshaft vertical drive on 10-cylinder F-M engine 70
3-49. Assembled view of crankshaft vertical drive on 9-cylinder F-M engine 72
 
vii

3-50. Flexible drive with housing cover removed, F-M 73
3-51. Camshaft cross section showing control end of both camshafts, F-M 73
3-52. Camshaft lubrication, F-M 74
3-53. Timing chain, F-M 74
3-54. Timing chain details, F-M 75
3-55. Timing chain link, F-M 75
3-56. Cylinder relief valve, F-M 76
3-57. Cylinder relief valve and adapter, F-M 76
3-58. Indicator valve, F-M 76
4-1. Typical starting air piping system 81
4-2. Grove regulator valve 82
4-3. Engine starting control levers, GM 83
4-4. Control shaft lever, F-M 84
4-5. GM engine air starting system 85
4-6. Air starting distributor valve, GM 86
4-7. Air starting check valve, GM 86
4-8. F-M engine air starting system 88
4-9. Air starting control valve, F-M 89
4-10. Cross section of air starting distributor, F-M 89
4-11. F-M air starting distributor, pilot valve in normal position out of contact with distributor cam 90
4-12. F-M air starting distributor, pilot valve on low point of cam 90
4-13. Cutaway of air starting distributor, F-M 90
4-14. Cutaway of air starting check valve, F-M 90
4-15. Cross section of installed air starting check valve, F-M 91
5-1. Typical installation of ship's fuel oil and compensating water systems 96
5-2. Four-valve manifold 97
5-3. Schematic diagram of liquidometer 99
5-4. Fuel oil supply from ship's fuel system to engine fuel system in one engine room 101
5-5. Fuel oil transfer and purifier pump 102
5-6. Attached fuel oil supply pump F-M 102
5-7. Exploded view of attached fuel oil supply pump, F-M 103
5-8. Exploded view of attached fuel oil supply pump, GM 103
5-9. Fuel oil filter 104
5-10. Isometric view of fuel injection system, GM 108
5-11. Relative arrangement of parts, spherical check valve type unit injector, GM 109
5-12. Unit injector plunger and bushing, GM 110
5-13. Cross sections of needle valve and spherical check valve type unit injectors, GM 111
5-14. Plunger position at no injection, idling, half load, and full load 111
5-15. Fuel oil supply system, F-M 112
 
viii

5-16. Isometric view of fuel injection system, F-M 113
5-17. Arrangement of injection nozzles in F-M cylinder 114
5-18. Cross section of fuel injection pump, F-M 115
5-19. Cutaway of fuel injection pump, F-M 116
5-20. Fuel injection pump parts, F-M 116
5-21. Details of injection pump plunger and barrel, F-M 117
5-22. Cross section through control rack, F-M 117
5-23. Position of F-M fuel injection pump plunger at no injection, idling, half load, and full load 117
5-24. Cutaway of injection nozzle, F-M 118
6-1. Port direct scavenging 120
6-2. Port loop scavenging 120
6-3. Valve uniflow scavenging 120
6-4. Cross section of F-M cylinder with uniflow port scavenging 120
6-5. Typical exhaust system piping 122
6-6. GM cylinder intake and exhaust 123
6-7. Cutaway of blower assembly, GM 124
6-8. Front view of blower, GM 124
6-9. Air silencer 125
6-10. Cutaway of typical air silencer 125
6-11. Cross section through F-M scavenging air blower 127
6-12. Blower impellers and timing gears, F-M 127
6-13. Blower assembly, timing gear end, F-M 127
7-1. Visgage 132
7-2. Section of viscosity blending chart 133
7-3. Formation of bearing oil film 135
7-4. General arrangement of lubricating oil tanks 137
7-5. Typical lubricating oil flushing and filling system 139
7-6. Typical main engine lubricating oil purifying system in one engine room 141
7-7. Cutaway of latest type Harrison heat exchanger 143
7-8. Cutaway of older type Harrison heat exchanger showing internal construction 143
7-9. Edge disk type oil strainer 144
7-10. Cutaway of edge-wound metal ribbon type oil strainer 145
7-11. Absorption type filter 146
7-12. Cross section of Sharples purifier 147
7-13. Lubricating oil system, GM 149
7-14. Engine lubricating system, GM 150
7-15. Crankshaft oil passages, GM 150
7-16. Piston and piston pin lubrication and cooling, GM 150
7-17. Camshaft drive lubrication, GM 151
 
ix

7-18. Attached lubricating oil pump, GM 152
7-19. Lubricating system, F-M 154
7-20. Engine lubricating oil circulation, F-M 154
7-21. Sectional views of F-M piston showing oil passages 155
7-22. Thrust bearing oil passages, F-M 155
7-23. Piston assembly oil passages, F-M 156
7-24. Oil supply to camshafts, F-M 156
7-25. Camshaft and camshaft bearing lubrication, F-M 156
7-26. Drive end of attached lubricating oil pump, F-M 157
7-27. Gear end of attached lubricating oil pump, F-M 157
8-1. Typical fresh and salt water cooling systems 162
8-2. Salt water cooling system in superstructure 163
8-3. Salt water corrosion of zincs 164
8-4. Fulton-Sylphon temperature regulator 165
8-5. Thermostatic control unit 166
8-6. Temperature control element 166
8-7. Method of adjusting automatic temperature regulators 167
8-8. Cutaway of thermal bulb 167
8-9. Temperature regulator bulb 166
8-10. Fresh water system, F-M 168
8-11. Salt water system, F-M 169
8-12. Fresh water passage through F-M cylinder 170
8-13. Cross section of F-M circulating water pump 171
8-14. Cross section of GM cylinder liner showing cooling passages 172
8-15. Fresh water system, GM 16-278A 172
8-16. Salt water system, GM 16-278A 172
8-17. Cross section of circulating water pump, GM 173
9-1. Pressure-time diagram of combustion process 175
9-2. Heat balance for a diesel engine 176
9-3. Compression ratio 177
9-4. Temperature-entropy diagram of modified diesel cycle 177
9-5. Principle of engine indicator 188
9-6. Premax pressure indicator 188
9-7. Kiene pressure indicator 188
10-1. Woodward regulating governor installed 191
10-2. Schematic diagram of Woodward regulating governor 192
10-3. Governor cross section-normal speed, steady load 193
10-4. Governor cross section-increased speed, decreased load 194
10-5. Governor cross section-normal speed, decreased load 196
10-6. Governor cross section-normal speed, new load 197
 
x

10-7. Governor cross section-decreased speed, increased load 199
10-8. Governor cross section-normal speed, increased load 200
10-9. Governor cross section-normal speed, new load 201
10-10. Governor-sections through adapter, power case, power cylinder, and rotating sleeve assembly 202
10-11. Governor-section through speed control column 203
10-12. Governor-section through accumulator cylinder 204
10-13. Governor-rotating sleeve assembly 205
10-14. Governor-speed control mechanism 206
10-15. Governor-measurement of precompression 208
10-16. Governor-adjustment of compensating spring length 208
10-17. Governor control cabinet 209
10-18. F-M governor drive 210
10-19. Governor and tachometer drive, GM 211
10-20. GM hydraulic type overspeed governor 212
10-21. GM overspeed shutdown Servo motor 213
10-22. F-M overspeed governor and emergency stop mechanism 214
10-23. F-M control shaft and control mechanism 215
11-1. Elastic coupling cross section, GM 221
11-2. Crankshaft coupling, F-M 222
11-3. Position of crankshaft for strain gage readings 223
11-4. Measuring crank check deflection with a strain gage 223
11-5. Using hydraulic jack to adjust height of generator body for proper vertical alignment 224
11-6. Using portable block and jack screw to adjust generator body for proper lateral alignment 225
11-7. Measuring generator thrust bearing clearances 225
11-8. Adjusting generator for proper thrust clearance using portable block and jack screw 225
11-9. Measuring crankshaft thrust bearing clearance toward control end of F-M engine 225
11-10. Measuring crankshaft thrust bearing clearance toward generator end of F-M engine 226
11-11. Elastic coupling, outer driving disk removed, GM 228
11-12. Elastic coupling, inner spring holder removed, GM 228
11-13. Elastic coupling, outer driving disk mounted, GM 228
11-14. Elastic coupling, outer driving disk mounted on generator, GM 228
12-1. Blower end control side of GM 8-268 auxiliary engine 231
12-2. Blower end exhaust header side of GM 8-268 auxiliary engine 231
12-3. Longitudinal cross section of GM 8-268 auxiliary engine 232
12-4. Transverse cross section of GM 8-268 auxiliary engine 233
12-5. Cutaway of frame, GM 8-268 234
12-6. Lubrication of main bearings, GM 8-268 234
12-7. Cross section of piston, GM 8-268 235
 
xi

12-8. GM 8-268 cylinder liner cross section showing cooling water passages 236
12-9. Cross section of camshaft, GM 8-268 238
12-10. Cross section of Northern fuel oil pump used on GM 8-268 engine 240
12-11. Cutaway view of GM 8-268 lubricating oil pump 241
12-12. Lubricating oil suction strainer, GM 8-268 242
12-13. Cutaway of lubricating oil cooler, GM 8-268 242
12-14. Salt water cooling system, GM 8-268 and 8-268A 242
12-15. Fresh water cooling system, GM 8-268 and 8-268A 242
12-16. GM 8-268 water pump disassembled 244
12-17. Cutaway of fresh water cooler, GM 8-268 245
12-18. Control side of 7-cylinder F-M auxiliary engine 246
12-19. Longitudinal cross section of 7-cylinder F-M auxiliary engine 247
12-20. Transverse cross section of 7-cylinder F-M auxiliary engine 248
12-21. Engine controls, end view, F-M auxiliary engine 252
12-22. Fuel oil piping, F-M auxiliary engine 254
12-23. Lubricating oil piping, F-M auxiliary engine 257
13-1. Reduction gear, top case removed 261
13-2. Sectional views of reduction gear 262
13-3. Schematic diagram of port main motor and reduction gear lubricating oil system 266
13-4. Cross section of reduction gear thrust bearing 267
 
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