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Drawing of bottom of periscope, handles down

The Fleet Type Submarine Online
Submarine Periscope Manual


Submarine Periscope Manual cover
Folks,

Submarine Periscope Manual, Navpers 16165, is one of a series of submarine training manuals that was completed just after WW II. The series describes the peak of WW II US submarine technology.

In this online version of the manual we have attempted to keep the flavor of the original layout while taking advantage of the Web's universal accessibility. Different browsers and fonts will cause the text to move, but the text will remain roughly where it is in the original manual. In addition to errors we have attempted to preserve from the original (for example, it was H.L. Hunley, not CS Huntley), this text was captured by optical character recognition. This process creates errors that are compounded while encoding for the Web. Please report any typos, or particularly annoying layout issues with the Mail Feedback Form for correction.

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Drawing of bottom of periscope, handles down Search MARITIME.ORG


NavPers 16165
Produced for ComSubLant by Standards and Curriculum Division Training, Bureau of Naval Personnel. Submarine Periscope Manual
June 1946
CONFIDENTIAL
 


This is one of a series of Submarine
Training Manuals. The series includes:
 
1. The Fleet Type Submarine NavPers 16160
2. Submarine Main Propulsion Diesels NavPers 16161
3. Submarine Electrical Installations NavPers 16162
4. Submarine Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Systems NavPers 16163
5. Submarine Distilling Systems Navpers 16163A
6. Submarine Air Systems NavPers 16164
7. Submarine Periscope Manual NavPers 16165
8. Submarine Trim and Drain Systems NavPers 16166
9. Submarine Sonar Operator's Manual NavPers 16167
10. Submarine Underwater Log Systems NavPers 16168
11. Submarine Hydraulic Systems NavPers 16169
12. Torpedo Tubes, 21-Inch submerged, Mks 32 to 39 O.P. 1085
 
ii

PREFACE
 
The Submarine School, Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, and other activities of Submarines, Atlantic Fleet, have collaborated in the preparation of this manual. It is designed as both an instruction and service manual. The purpose of this manual is to describe, illustrate, and explain the details of construction and basic procedure for the maintenance of periscopes in submarines of modern classes.

A thorough knowledge of theory and maintenance of submarine periscopes is a requisite to operational effectiveness and the fulfillment of the submarine's mission the destruction of the enemy's ships wherever and under whatever conditions they may be encountered. The accomplishment of this mission necessitates that optical maintenance personnel be trained to maintain these delicate instruments in reliable operating condition.

Detailed descriptive information is given on disassembly, reassembly, and collimation of the three types of periscopes used in submarines.

The manual is presented in seven chapters:

Chapter 1. Description.
Chapter 2. Servicing of Periscopes.
Chapter 3. Reflection-Reducing Films.
Chapter 4. Design Designation 91KA40T/1.414HA Periscope.
Chapter 5. Boresighting Submarine Torpedo Tubes.
Chapter 6. Design Designation 92KA40T/1.99 Periscope.
Chapter 7. Design Designation 93KN36 Periscope.

Each chapter presents the theory of each assembly, disassembly, and reassembly procedure in chronological order for the successful elimination of the more common maintenance and service problems.

 
iii

This page blank
 
iv

CONTENTS
 
CHAPTER 1. DESCRIPTION
A. Introduction 1
B. Materials and Workmanship 7
 
CHAPTER 2 SERVICING OF PERISCOPES
A. Drying 10
B. Fogging 11
C. Instructions for Cycling 14
D. Care of Flooded Periscope 27
E. Removing and Installing a Periscope 27
 
CHAPTER 3 REFLECTION-REDUCING FILMS
A. Metallic Fluoride 37
B. Handling Treated Optics 38
C. Vacuum Coating Apparatus, Mark IV, Type II 40
 
CHAPTER 4 DESIGN DESIGNATION 91KA40T/1.414HA PERISCOPE
A. General Description 43
B. Head Window and Outer Head 43
C. Removing Inner Tube 46
D. Outer Taper Section, Outer Tube, and Inner Tube Assemblies 52
E. Separation of the Five Telescope Systems 55
F. Galilean Telescope System 58
G. Auxiliary Upper Telescope System 69
H. Auxiliary Lower Telescope System 75
I. Upper Telescope System 82
J. Range and Course-Angle Finder 98
K. First Inner Tube Section Assembly 137
L. Eyepiece Skeleton Assembly 142
M. Eyepiece Box and Miscellaneous Assemblies 155
 
v

N. Packing Gland Assemblies 161
O. Eyepiece Window Assembly 174
P. Focusing Knob Assembly 176
Q. Rayfilter Assembly 177
R. Variable Density Polaroid Filter Assembly 184
S. Eye Buffer and Blinder Assembly 189
T. Training Handle Assemblies 192
U. Optical System 208
V. Reassembly of the Upper and Lower Telescope Systems 222
W. Final Collimation and Checks 268
 
CHAPTER 5 BORESIGHTING SUBMARINE TORPEDO TUBES
A. Introduction 276
B. Boresighting Procedure 276
 
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN DESIGNATION 92KA40T/1.99 PERISCOPE
A. General Description 284
B. Removing the Inner Tube 284
C. Outer Head, Outer Taper Section, Outer Tube and Inner Tube Assemblies 285
D. Separation of the Three Telescope Systems 289
E. Galilean Telescope System 292
F. Upper Telescope System 305
G. Range Finder 322
H. First Inner Tube Section Assembly 338
I. Eyepiece Skeleton Assembly 341
J. Eyepiece Box and Miscellaneous Assemblies 341
K. Packing Gland Assemblies 341
L. Eyepiece Window Assembly 341
M. Focusing Knob Assembly 342
N. Rayfilter Assembly 342
O. Variable Density Polaroid Filter Assembly 342
P. Eye Buffer and Blinder Assembly 342
Q. Training Handle Assemblies 342
 
vi

R. Stadimeter Illuminator Assembly 346
S. Optical System 351
T. Reassembly of the Upper and Lower Telescope Systems and Skeleton Head 355
U. Final Collimation 359
V. Final Assemblies and Checking 365
 
CHAPTER 7 DESIGN DESIGNATION 93KN36 PERISCOPE
A. General Description 371
B. Removing the Inner Tube 371
C. Outer Head, Outer Taper Section, Outer Tube, and Inner Tube Assemblies 373
D. Separation of the Three Telescope Systems 378
E. Galilean Telescope System 383
F. Upper Telescope System 393
G. Lower Telescope System 415
H. Eyepiece Skeleton Assembly 421
I. Eyepiece Box and Miscellaneous Assemblies 436
J. Packing Gland Assemblies, Part II 441
K. Eyepiece Window Assembly, Part II 449
L. Bottom Plug Assembly 449
M. Focusing Knob Assembly, Part II 452
N. Rayfilter Housing and Plate Assembly, Part II 452
O. Rayfilter, Eye Buffer, and Blinder, and Stowage Case Assemblies, Part II 456
P. Variable Density Polaroid Filter Assembly, Part II 459
Q. Training Handle Assemblies, Part II 459
R. Hoisting Yoke Assembly (Electric and Hydraulic) 470
S. Optical System 476
T. Reassembly of the Upper and Lower Telescope Systems and Galilean Telescope System 478
U. Final Collimation 480
V. Final Assemblies and Checking 484
 
TRANS. Transparencies End of Book
 
vii

ILLUSTRATIONS
 
1-1. Section through submarine with periscope elevated 4
1-2. Detail of encircled section in Figure 1-1 5
1-3. Example of periscope design 6
1-4. Example of periscope design 6
1-5. Example of periscope design 6
2-1. Cross-sectional view of air inlet valve body 13
2-2. Cross-sectional view of air outlet valve body 13
2-3. Cycling equipment 14
2-4. Periscope elevated 15
2-5. Safe cycling temperature 16
2-6. Observing through periscope 16
2-7. External fogging of head window 17
2-8. Wiping off external fog from eyepiece window 17
2-9. Removal of air outlet plug 17
2-10. Insertion of 50 psi gage in outlet connection and opening outlet valve 18
2-11. Internal nitrogen pressure ranges for servicing 18
2-12. Infinity setting of stadimeter dials of Type II periscope 18
2-13. Infinity setting of stadimeter dials of Type III periscope 18
2-14. Removal of air inlet plug 19
2-15. Insertion of nitrogen fitting in inlet connection and pressure gage in outlet connection 19
2-16. Opening the air outlet valve with an offset screwdriver 19
2-17. Silica-gel dryer 19
2-18. Nitrogen gage indicating 10 psi 20
2-19. Series of 4-pound steps during a 2-hour period 20
2-20. Closing air inlet valve 20
2-21. Pressure testing outer head and head window with soapy water 21
2-22. Pressure testing with soapy water 21
2-23. Pressure testing with soapy water 21
2-24. Pressure testing with soapy water 22
2-25. Mercury manometer fitting in air inlet connection and evacuating fitting in air outlet connection 22
2-26. Kinking of evacuating hose 22
2-27. Mercury manometer reading less than 4 mm 23
2-28. Nitrogen bottle reducing valve gage pressure at 400 psi 24
2-29. Nitrogen passing through cold trap 24
 
viii

2-30. Dewpoint testing equipment 25
2-31. Thermometer raised from inner bottom surface of glass beaker 26
2-32. Clouding film on inner bottom surface of flask 26
2-33. Submarine moored on port side of tender 27
2-34. Elevation of periscope to height required; attachment of hoisting clamp and safety clamp; placement of the hook of the lifting crane in the spreader bar 28
2-35. Raising the periscope to the observing position 28
2-36. Removal of external parts of periscope 29
2-37. Rotation of periscope to detect binding 30
2-38. Hoisting the periscope clear of the submarine to the upper deck of the tender 30
2-39. Attachment of hinge carriage 31
2-40. Periscope and hinge carriage at 45 degree position 32
2-41. Hinge carriage at horizontal position 33
2-42. Upper part of periscope in clamp carriage 33
2-43. Details of horizontal lifting clamps and lifting spreader bar 33
2-44. Transfer of periscope on hinge and clamp carriages to the inboard transfer opening in the upper deck 34
2-45. Overhead chain hoist hook placed in hook opening in the horizontal spreader bar 35
2-46. The periscope is transferred to the overhead chain hoists of the main deck 35
2-47. Garlock chevron packing 36
2-48. Emergency flax packing 36
4-1. Outer head assembly 44
4-2. Special cord attached to shifting wire spindles and held with both hands 47
4-3. Special spindle adjusting nut adapter 47
4-4. The skeleton head assembly is withdrawn 47
4-5. One-inch metal dowel, detail drawing 48
4-6. Shifting wire tapes attached to 1-inch metal dowel 48
4-7. Eyepiece box and outer tube alignment guides 49
4-8. Eyepiece box and outer tube alignment guide handles in contact 49
4-9. Steel lifting plate detail drawing 50
4-10. Chain hoist hook in shackle attached to lifting plate 50
4-11. Adjustable roller stand placed under eyepiece box 50
4-12. Hinged clamp, detail drawing 51
4-13. Lifting spreader bar, detail drawing 51
4-14. Hinged clamp attached to fifth inner tube section with shackle and inserted chain hoist hook 52
4-15. Outer taper section and outer tube, cross-sectional view 53
4-16. Inner tube telescope systems Opposite 42
4-17. Skeleton head assembly 58
4-18. Auxiliary upper telescope system assembly 70
 
ix

4-19. Auxiliary lower telescope system assembly 76
4-20. Upper telescope system assembly, Part I 84
4-21. Upper telescope system assembly, Part I 90
4-22. Lower (split) objective lens and mount assembly 101
4-23. Objective operating mechanism assembly 105
4-24. Stadimeter housing assembly 114
4-25. Operation of stadimeter for obtaining the range of an individual problem 136
4-26. Operation of stadimeter for obtaining the course angle of previous problem 136
4-27. First inner tube section assembly 138
4-28. Eyepiece skeleton assembly 143
4-29. Eyepiece box and miscellaneous assemblies 156
4-30. Stadimeter transmission shaft packing gland assembly (spring type) 161
4-31. Stadimeter transmission shaft packing gland assembly (modified hycar type) 162
4-32. Rayfilter drive packing gland assembly 164
4-33. Special spring unloading and loading wrench with the spring fully loaded 167
4-34. Unloading of the packing gland spring with the special wrench 167
4-35. Eyepiece drive packing gland assembly 169
4-36. Left and right training handle packing gland assemblies 172
4-37. Packing gland pressure testing fixture 173
4-38. Eyepiece window assembly 174
4-39. Focusing knob assembly 176
4-40. Rayfilter assembly 179
4-41. Variable density polaroid filter assembly 185
4-42. Eye buffer and blinder assembly 190
4-43. Left training handle assembly 192
4-44. Right training handle assembly 204
4-45. Head prism elevation and depression limits 212
4-46. Lower (split) objective lens ray diagram 213
4-47. Optical arrangement and ray diagram Opposite 42
4-48. Galilean telescope system diagram 216
4-49. Galilean telescope system diagram 217
4-50. Special eyepiece alignment jig diagram 224
4-51. Lining up the eyepiece jig with machinist's square 225
4-52. Ninety-degree alignment straight-edge 225
4-53. Dial indicator attached to surface gage on 90 degree straight-edge, at the left side for range position 226
 
x

4-54. Dial indicator attached to surface gage on 90 degree straight-edge, at the right side for range position 226
4-55. Machinist's square in contact with 90 degree straight-edge at course-angle position 227
4-56. Temporary mechanical crosswire adapter, detail diagram 228
4-57. Auxiliary telescope adapter 229
4-58. Dial indicator determination of true vertical position on the left side face of the eyepiece alignment jig 229
4-59. Dial indicator determination of true vertical position on the right side face of the eyepiece alignment jig 230
4-60. Skeleton head assembly adapter, detail drawing 232
4-61. Auxiliary eyepiece lens focused on an infinity target in air 232
4-62. Ray diagram of periscope adjusted on 1200-foot target at atmospheric pressure 234
4-63. Ray diagram of periscope showing action of 7 1/2 psi of nitrogen introduction 234
4-64. Collimator reticle lens and objective lens ray diagram 235
4-65. Collimator reticle lens set for 1200-foot target distance, ray diagram 236
4-66. Collimator reticle lens set for 35-foot target distance, ray diagram 236
4-67. Collimator objective lens, detail drawing 237
4-68. Collimator reticle lens, detail drawing 238
4-69. Sperry-Kollmorgen collimator 241
4-70. Collimator micrometer vernier arm 246
4-71. Infinity setting of collimator 249
4-72. Boresight telescope attached in boresight disk and secured in V-block with clamp bracket; crossline disk in V-block at far end of the optical I-beam bench 249
4-73. Collimator secured in a horizontal position 249
4-74. Close-up view of collimator from the boresight telescope end of the optical I-beam bench 250
4-75. Collimator in a horizontal position facing toward the boresight telescope for alignment with optical I-beam bench 250
4-76. Alignment of Mark I checking telescope in trunnion bracket to collimator reticle 250
4-77. Alignment of the collimator using the Mark I checking telescope attached in the trunnion bracket 250
4-78. Collimator reticle lens as apparent to the repairman in the high-power field of the periscope 252
4-79. Six range positions for collimation of the stadimeter dials as indicated by the displacement of the lower (split) objective lens 254
4-80. Collimation of the lower (split) objective lens perpendicular moving half 255
4-81. Incorrect and correct orientation of telemeter lens line by means of the lower (split) objective lens maximum displacement 257
 
xi

4-82. Collimator and head prism set at 74.5 degree elevation 258
4-83. Head prism and collimator set at 10 degree depression 258
4-84. Collimator reticle lens set at 1200-foot target distance 258
4-85. Primary collimation of the horizontal displacement of the collimator reticle crossline image of low power to superimpose with that of high power 259
4-86. Primary collimation of the vertical displacement of the centerline of sight of low power to superimpose with that of high power 260
4-87. Incorrect and correct primary collimation of the horizontal displacement 260
4-88. Incorrect and correct primary collimation of the vertical displacement 261
4-89. Head prism and collimator set at 74.5 degree elevation 269
4-90. Head prism set at 74.5 degree elevation in low power and collimator set at 90 degree elevation 270
4-91. Head prism and collimator set at 10 degree depression 270
4-92. Collimator reticle lens set at 35-foot target distance 271
5-1. Construction of four main targets and four auxiliary targets in perspective 276
5-2. Construction of bow main outside target and auxiliary target 277
5-3. Construction of stern main outside target and auxiliary target 278
5-4. Boresight gage with peephole 279
5-5. Boresight gage for boresight gage bushing and boresight telescope 279
5-6. Boresight gage bushing for insertion in boresight gage and attachment of boresight telescope 280
5-7. Two main targets of six-tube nests in perspective 281
5-8. One four-tube nest target and one two-tube nest target showing position of auxiliary targets and paralleling mean axes 282
5-9. Plumb line adjustment adapter 283
5-10. Transit fixture 284
6-1. Outer head and head window assembly 286
6-2. Outer taper section and outer tube 287
6-3. Inner tube telescope systems Opposite 284
6-4. Skeleton head assembly 293
6-5. Upper telescope system assembly, Part I 307
6-6. Upper telescope system assembly, Part II 314
6-7. Objective operating mechanism assembly 323
6-8. Stadimeter housing assembly 330
6-9. Operation of the stadimeter for obtaining the range of an individual problem 337
6-10. First inner tube section assembly 338
6-11. Left training handle assembly 344
6-12. Stadimeter illuminator assembly 346
 
xii

6-13. Optical arrangement and ray diagram Opposite 284
6-14. Collimator reticle lens set at 3110-foot target distance 363
6-15. Collimator reticle lens set at 47-foot target distance 365
7-1. Outer head, head window, and range window assemblies 373
7-2. Outer taper section and outer tube 375
7-3. Inner tube telescope systems Opposite 370
7-4. Bottom plug assembly removal jig 379
7-5. Skeleton head and antenna array assemblies 385
7-6. Upper telescope system assembly, Part I 396
7-7. Upper telescope system assembly, Part II 403
7-8. Special ramming plunger jig 409
7-9. Objective lens special padded wooden block 410
7-10. Lower telescope system assembly, Part I 417
7-11. Eyepiece skeleton assembly 424
7-12. Eyepiece box and miscellaneous assemblies 438
7-13. Rayfilter drive packing gland assembly 441
7-14. Eyepiece drive packing gland assembly 442
7-15. Left training handle packing gland assembly 442
7-16. Right training handle packing gland assembly 443
7-17. Bottom plug assembly 450
7-18. Bottom plug housing, cross-sectional view 450
7-19. Rayfilter housing and plate assembly 452
7-20. Rayfilter, eye buffer, blinder, and stowage case assemblies 456
7-21. Left training handle assembly 459
7-22. Right training handle assembly 461
7-23. Special revolving grip shaft locknut wrench 466
7-24. Spring barrel wrench guide bushing 468
7-25. Spring barrel wrench 468
7-26. Hoisting yoke (electric and hydraulic) 472
7-27. Optical arrangement and ray diagram Opposite 370
7-28. Collimator reticle lens set at 4800-foot target distance 483
7-29. Collimator reticle lens et at 62-foot target distance 484
7-30. Waveguide funnel 485
7-31. Air hose adapter for antenna array 486
7-32. Bottom plug cycling cup 494
7-33. Electronic diagram 498
 
Transparencies End of Book
 
xiii

Key to Hydraulic Hoist System
 
Ill.
No.
Nomenclature
1 Bottom casting
2 Union nut
3 Gland
4 Union nut
5 Plastic gasket
6 Tail piece
7 Piston rod
8 Chevron packing
9 Cylinder
10 Gasket
11 Hull casting
12 Hull casting gasket
13 Cylinder thrust retaining ring
14 Gasket
15 Thrust collar
16 Periscope bearing
17 Stud
18 Nut
19 Grease manifold
20 Valve plug
21 Ground key cock
22 Male connector
23 Copper tubing
24 Push rod
25 Push rod collar
26 Sleeve
27 Spring
28 Leather washer
29 Leather pad
30 Extension ring (2 halves)
31 Azimuth circle support
32 Stud bolt
33 Stud nut
34 Azimuth circle
35 Azimuth circle screws
36 Retaining ring
37 Machine screw
38 Leather wiper
39 Conning tower structure
40 Periscope
41 Drain pipe
42 Hydraulic line
43 Machine screws
44 Stuffing box packing chevron (see Figure 47)
 
xiv

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