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Courses of a ship under sail.  In the book there is around piece of paper with the wind shown pointing at different points of sail.  It can be spun around the center.  On the page behind are the compass points.  So you can rotate the ship to different courses.
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BEFORE we enter upon the practice of working ships, it becomes proper to introduce to the Reader's notice two figures, which may be of service to the juvenile seaman, and assist him greatly in comprehending the directions given.

The first of these (which is affixed to the opposite page) is a picture of all the courses which a ship can make, the wind being in any given point.

The outer circle of this figure is marked with the points of the compass; the inner circle is moveable round its own center; and, if the arrow be brought to that point of the outer circle from which the wind is supposed to blow, all the various courses, on both tacks, that may be sailed with that wind, will be instantly seen.

Example. Let the wind be supposed at East, then move the inner circle, till the arrow is at the East point, and it will be found, that close-hauled on the larboard tack is S S E; one point large, larboard tack, is S by E; wind on the beam, larboard tack, is S; and thus all the courses are shewn from close-hauled on one tack to close-hauled on the other tack.


 

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The second figure (affixed to this page) is the minature of a ship, so contrived as to convey a very lively idea of the manner of working a ship in tacking, veering, &c.

The extreme circle is supposed to be the horizon, marked with the points of the compass.

The inner graduated circle is divided into 360 degrees.

The moveable circle is intended to represent the direction of a tide, current, or swell of the sea, whenever their setting varies from the direction of the wind; but, in cases where neither tide, current, or swell of the sea exist, or where they run directly to leeward, this moveable circle is to be turned, so as that the lines which cross it are parallel with the wind.

The small ship moves round its supposed center of gravity, and has on it the jib, lower yards, and stay-sails, inscribed jib, fore stay-sail, fore yard, main staysail, main yard, mizen stay-sail, cross jack The yards must be conceived to represent either the whole of the square sails upon each mast, or only such of them as may be necessary to the particular manoeuvre it may be used for: the same observation applies to the staysails; the tiller and rudder need no explanation. The figure is not confused with braces to the yards, nor sheets to the staysails; therefore, when it is necessary to let go a particular sheet, to slack or haul a particular brace, these must be imagined to be done.

THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLE WILL EXPLAIN THE MANNER OF USING IT,

Suppose the wind at North, and that a ship, which is sailing close-hauled on the starboard tack, is to be put about, and got on the larboard tack, close-hauled.

First, place the lines of the moveable circle in the direction of the wind, because we shall now suppose that there is neither tide, current, or swell; then place the ship's head to the W N W, trimming the sails so as to make an angle with the keel of 35 degrees, (the usual angle when near to the wind,) which is easily done by means of the graduated circle, and put the helm in midships.

From this situation the ship is to be got on the other tack.

Now put the helm a-lee, and imagine the fore sheet and fore-top bowline to be let go; move the ship gradually to the wind, as if it were done by the action of the rudder, till the yards are in the direction of the wind, and of course the wind is out of the sails; at which time suppose tacks and sheets to be raised. Then move her head to about a point or rather better from the wind, and the fore sail will be flat a-back, forcing round the ship's head; the wind will now catch a-back the weather leech of the main sail; therefore suppose the main sail to be hauled, and brace round sharp the after yards. The sails being now all a-back, and the ship moved head to wind, it may be supposed that the headway has ceased, and the sternway commenced; now therefore shift the helm. The ship then being moved to bring the wind on the larboard side, bear the stay-sails over to leeward, and keep moving the ship round, till her head is six points from the wind, when it will be seen that the after sails are full; then let go and haul, brace round the head yards, right the helm, trim all sharp, and the ship will be close-hauled on the starboard tack.

If a current, tide, or swell of the sea, set in any particular direction, different from that of the wind, the lines across the moveable circle must be placed in that direction; by which, as the operation proceeds, the mind will more correctly perceive in what degree that tide, current, or swell, will operate either to retard or accelerate the manoeuvre.

In the course of the practice of working ships, an occasional use of this figure may often assist the reader to conceive, with greater readiness and with more precision, the effect of various operations.

 

Figure allowing change of point of sail and position of sails.
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A Representation of Mooring Chains
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THE PRACTICE OF WORKING SHIPS.


THE useful part of a seaman's duty is the application of his theoretic knowledge to the various evolutions of a ship. We are now about to shew how those various evolutions should be performed, consistently with the principles upon which the science of Navigation is founded.

A ship, when launched from the stocks, is furnished with one stream anchor, and another which is termed a launching-anchor, somewhat heavier than the stream-anchor, hanging by stoppers to the catheads; by one or both of these she is first brought up, and afterwards warped to what are termed

HEAD AND STERN MOORINGS;

of which the following is an accurate description. Across the bottom of the harbour or river, two chains, (parallel to each other, if the bed of the river will admit of it), are extended at the distance of 200 feet from each other, by means of anchors, having one fluke only, which is sunk, and secured in the ground by piles, on the opposite sides near low-water mark. To the rings of those anchors these chains are connected by a peculiar sort of link, called a shackle, which is delineated in the plate.

Each of these chains has, at about one-third of its length, a large iron ring, to which is fastened a chain, called an up-and-down span; which, lying on the ground, connects the parallel chains, and serves to keep them steadily in their places. At about 30 or 40 feet distance from each other, along each chain, chain-pendents (from 5 to 9 in number) are fastened, having, at the end which connects with the ground-work, a shackle; and, at the other end, a link called a jews-harp, through which the bridle or hawser of a ship, when moored, is passed. The centre chain-pendent is afixed to the ring of the chain; and the number of the chains must depend upon the number of tiers required, each tier occupying two chains, because the ships are moored head and stern. But every tier does not always occupy two whole chains; because, unless a passage between the tiers is requisite, the chain to which the head chain-pendent of one tier is affixed, has likewise fastened to it the stern chain-pendent of the next tier. A reference to the plate will elucidate this.

 

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These moorings are calculated for and used in rivers, or harbours of small extent; but in other places, where either many ships do not frequent, or the extent of which is considerable, there is another sort in use, called,

SWINGING MOORINGS.

These differ from the former only in this; the ground-work being the same, to the ring of the chain is fixed one chain-pendent, the end of which is passed through a large buoy; and to that is connected a swivel ring by a shackle; and thus kept constantly from sinking to the ground. This is used for mooring one or two ships to. Near each end of the chain is fixed one more chain-pendent, supported likewise by a buoy, which is used only for the purpose of warping ships from the middle to any intended place.

OF MOORING TO HEAD AND STERN MOORINGS.

To these moorings ships are thus fastened: clench the end of a bridle to the jews-harp of the chain-pendent, and pass it into the hawse-hole; then heave it up and bit it. Take the after bridles into the gun-room port, or in upon the quarters; and take a round turn round the beam of the after hatch, and cross it with a throat and round seizing; or if more convenient, round the jeer bits.

OF MOORING TO SWINGING MOORINGS.

Pass out the ends of the bridle; one on each side, through the hawse-hole next the stem; then pass them through the swivel-ring of the chain-pendent; then return them into the ship through the after hawse-holes, and bit them.

In this situation a ship is fitted for sea, by regularly stowing her ballast, and getting on board her rigging, stores, &c.

We shall therefore proceed to discuss the Theory and Practice of ballasting, and afterwards treat of the manner of getting on board and stowing the anchors and cables, before we enter upon the method of navigating a vessel in various situations

 

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OF THE BALLAST AND LADING.

WHEN a ship is loading, it should be considered, that her tendency to pitch or roll depends not alone on her form, but even more upon the more or less advantageous distribution of the heaviest parts of her cargo.

Particular attention is to be paid to moderate her pitching, as that is what most fatigues a ship and her masts; and it is mostly in one of these motions that masts are seen to break, particularly when the head rises after having pitched. Although the rolling be proportionably a more considerable movement than pitching, it is seldom any accident is seen to arise from it, as it is always a slow one. It is however not less proper to prevent it as much as possible. This will in general be easily obtained, without being any way detrimental to the ship's stiff carrying of sail, if, when the ballast is iron, you stow it up to the floor-heads; because it will recall the ship with less violence after her having inclined, and it will act on a point but little distant from the center of gravity. To make this clearer, let us consider it by the assistance of a figure.

First, let it be understood, that the CENTER OF GRAVITY of a body is that point by which it may be suspended, and the parts remain in perfect equilibrium.

That the CENTER OF CAVITY is the center of that part of the ship's body which is immersed in the water; and which is also the center of the vertical force that the water exerts to support the vessel:

That the CENTER OF MOTION is the point upon which a vessel oscillates, or rolls, when put in motion.

That the METACENTER is that point, above which the center of gravity must by no means be placed; because, if it were, the vessel would overset.

Various methods have been recommended to find all these different points; some of them are in their nature fixed, others varying. Thus, when a ship is completely loaded, the center of gravity is fixed, howsoever the vessel may alter her position.

The center of motion is always in a line with the water's edge, when the center of gravity is even with or below the surface of the water; but, whenever the center of gravity is above the water's surface, the center of gravity is then the center of motion. This must be understood of bodies not perfectly circular; for, if circular, the center of motion will be the center of the circle.

The center of cavity varies with every inclination of the ship, because that depends upon the shape of the body immersed.

The metacenter (which has been likewise called the SHIFTING CENTER) depends upon the situation of the center of cavity; for it is that point where a vertical line drawn from the center of cavity cuts a line passing through the center of gravity and being perpendicular to the keel.

 

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Figure of centers.

Let the segment of a circle 1 2 3 represent the transverse section of a vessel's bottom; W L the surface of the water; M the metacenter as well as the center of motion, because this is a circle; C the center of cavity; G the center of gravity; and the line 2 4 the vertical axis of the vessel which may be turned round the point M, as on a fulcrum supported by the center of cavity. By thus simply considering the vessel as a lever in the direction of her vertical axis playing round her center of motion, it is plain, that if the center of gravity was placed above the point being the metacenter too, the vessel would upset; therefore, that the ship may have stability, the center of gravity must be below this point: and it may be observed, that the farther G is removed from the metacenter, the greater must be its force, as the gravity then acts with a greater length of lever, considering the fulcrum of that lever to be at the center of motion; or, if the weight at C be augmented, it will likewise increase the force; therefore the force of G may be expressed, by multiplying the balance of weight beneath the center of motion, by the distance of the center of gravity from the center of motion.

The centers of cavity and motion (in circular bodies) will ever be in a line perpendicular to the horizon, but the center of gravity may be either on one side or the other of this line. When such a body is at rest, the center of gravity will be in this line; but if in motion it will be diverted from it. Thus the points M and C, will always be perpendicular to W L, but the point G, by the body's rolling, may be on either side; for instance at g. While G is perpendicularly beneath the center of motion its action can only tend to preserve this circular body in her erect position; but if it is removed to either side as to g, its action is to return it to the erect position; and this action increases as the distance G g, which is the sine of the angle of roll g M G, the distance M G being considered as the radius. Thus, to gain the force of gravity with any roll as g M G, let the balance of weight beneath the center of motion be multiplied by the sine of the angle of roll G g.

But the tendency to roll may be also diminished by the shape of the hull: for, let us suppose that the transverse section be allowed more beam, and increased by the dotted lines. Now, when this vessel is rolled over, it is plain that. the cavity will be augmented towards the side L, of course its center must remove towards L, say to c; and, if from c be erected a perpendicular to the horizon, it will cut the vertical axis at n, which will, in this case, be the metacenter, above which if the center of gravity were placed, it would act in conjunction with the center of cavity to overset the vessel: but, as the center of gravity is here below it at g, her stability will be increased by the increased distance of G from n, the metacenter; and the vessel will roll round the point M as her center of motion.

When sailing in smooth water, the greater the stability the better; but if a vessel with a heavy cargo, stowed low in her bottom, be sent out into a rough tempestuous sea, where every wave will throw her from her equilibrium, she will return with such violence as to endanger her masts; and should she

 

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be dismasted, her roll will then be with still greater force, possibly to the destruction of her hull. Was the cargo in this laboursome vessel to be removed higher up towards the center of motion, so as to lessen her stability, she would be found considerably easier; her roll would be by such deliberate motions, as to lessen the danger to her masts and hull.

The ballast is placed round and very near the center of gravity of the ship, because it will prevent the motion of the pitching being so hard as it would, if that weight were distant either afore or abaft that point. Whenever the sea runs a little high, the ship is never carried by a single wave; there are generally two or three always passing under at the same time, unless when the sea is extremely long, the swells coming from a great distance, and in latitudes very remote from land: for, then, it happens that the largest ships are sometimes carried by one single wave. But, in either circumstance, the ballast ought not to be stretched afore or abaft the center of gravity, as soon as the ship is in the parallel to her draught of water marked for the ballast, which it is absolutely essential to pay attention to. To prove this principle, suppose in either case a long or short surge, and that the water strikes the ship forward, that thereby she may be exposed to the greatest and hardest pitching: for, when the wave takes a ship under the stern, her motions, if she has got a little head-way, are not dangerous; because, as she flies before the wave, she recedes in some measure from its impulse; while, in the first case, she increases on the contrary that same impulse in the ratio of the square of all her velocity.

FIRST, the ship, whose extremities are light or little loaded, being supposed to run with any velocity whatever against the wave which comes to her a-head, shocks that wave with a force expressed by the square of the sum of the two velocities: she divides it and goes through it, at the same instant that she is raised by the vertical impulse of that column of water, which opposes to her a supporting power too considerable for her weight to displace: the wave which follows produces the same effect in receiving the fall of the ship, because the first is already under the middle of the ship, whence it passes to the stern, which is supported by it, while the second takes its place in the middle, and the third is come to support the head; and this is an uninterrupted succession. This motion continuing thus as long as the sea is agitated, it follows that the ship is never at rest: no sooner has she been raised by a wave, but she falls again when that wave is gone, which falling is proportionably less sharp as her head is less heavy: the shake is then less violent, since she shocks the water with a less mass, which prevents her pitching so deep as she would, if she were more heavy; consequently, the masting does not suffer, and the head-way is less delayed, as the fullest part of the bows is not so much exposed to the shock of the water.

SECONDLY, When the ship is carried by one single wave, her fall is still less sharp, if little loaded a-head, than when she is carried only by the middle. She rises, Therefore, more easily at the moment the other wave comes to strike her, and the shake is not so violent. Was she to plunge deeper into the fluid, it might happen that the column of water would become higher than her head, and, passing partly over it, would expose her to the danger of foundering.

IN the stowing of the cargo, it is proper to place the heaviest part of the stowage as low as possible, taking care to preserve that draught of the ship which is most advantageous for her, whether she be in ballast or when laden. Those points are marked both at the head and stern: In a word, the great art of stowing lies, in endeavouring that each of the vertical parts, in which the extremities of a ship may be supposed to be equally divided, be lighter, when her lading is complete, than the weight of the mass of water they are to displace; observing always, that the vertical parts of the middle admit of being loaded more heavily than the weight of water they are able to displace.

 

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THE PRACTICE OF STOWING BALLAST, &c.

In the royal navy, the iron ballast is first stowed fore and aft, from bulkhead to bulkhead in the main hold, next to fir cants nailed on the limber-strakes on each side the kelson, five or more inches clear of the limber-boards; and is winged up 3 or more pigs above the floor-heads in the midships, or bearing part of the ship, and there are two tiers of pigs in the wake of the main hatchway and well-wings. Ships, built with a very clean run aft, seldom have any iron ballast stowed abaft the pump well or after hold. Ships that have floor and futtock riders, have the iron ballast stowed, either lengthways or athwart-ships, agreeably to the length of the chambers, which are the clear spaces between the riders.

The shingle ballast is next spread and levelled over the iron ballast; on which is stowed the ground tier of water, bung up and bilge free from the sides, either chine and chine, or bouge and chine, beginning at the coal-room bulkhead, that being the foremost, and making the breakage, if any, at the main hatch: The midship tiers, fore and aft, are the first laid down, and the casks are sunk about one quarter of their diameter into the shingle; the sides are filled-in with wingers of small casks, as half-hogsheads, gang casks, or breakers; observing not to raise the wingers above the level of the tier, to cause a breakage in the next tier above, which is stowed in the cuntline of the ground tier, bung up and bilge free; and so on, for as many tiers as can be stowed sufficiently clear of the beams.

In the after hold, between the aft-side of the pump well and fish room bulkhead are stowed the provisions above the ground tier: between the casks, billet, or other wood and shingle ballast.

In the fish room are stowed some of the spirits, or wine, and sometimes coals; and, in the spirit room, are stowed the wine and spirits for the ship's use.

In the merchant-service, the stowage consists, besides the ballast, of casks, cases, bales, boxes, &c. which are all carefully wedged off from the bottom, sides, pump well, &c. and great attention paid that the most weighty materials are stowed nearest to the center of gravity, or bearing of the ship; and higher or lower in the hold agreeably to the form of the vessel. A full low built vessel requires them to be stowed high up, that the center of gravity may be raised, to keep her from rolling away her masts, and from being too stiff and laboursome; as, on the contrary, a narrow high-built vessel requires the most weighty materials to be stowed low down, nearest the kelson, that the center of gravity may be kept low, to enable her to carry sail, and to prevent her oversetting.

By the 19th. Geo II. it is enacted, that if, after June 1, 1746, any master or owner, or any person acting as master of any ship or other vessel whatsoever, shall cast, throw out, or unlade, or if, there shall be thrown out, &c. of any vessel, being within any haven, port, road, channel, or navigable river, within England, any ballast, rubbish, gravel, earth, stone, wreck, or filth, but only upon the land, where the tide or water never flows or runs; any one or more justices for the county or place where or near which the offence shall be committed, upon the information thereof, shall summon, or issue his warrant for bringing, the master or owner of the vessel, or other person acting as such, before him, and, upon appearance or default, shall proceed to examine the matter of fact, and upon proof made thereof, either by confession of the party, or on view of the justice, or upon the oath of one or more creditable witnesses, he shall convict the said master, &c. and fine him at his discretion for every such offence any sum not exceeding 5l. nor under 50s. &c. and for want of sufficient distress, the justice is to commit the master, or person acting as such, and convicted as aforesaid, to the common goal or house of correction, for the space of two months, or until payment of the penalties.

 

Practice of Stowing a Ships Ballast etc.
and of Stopping Gun-Shot Leaks.
A Twenty Gun Ships Iron Ballast and Ground Tier
A Ships tendency to pitch or roll may be greatly diminished by a judicious distribution of her stowage the heaviest part of it should therefore be as near as possible to the centre of gravity.
The Iron ballast is first stowed upon the foot watings in the main hold next to fir cants nailed at 5 or more inches from the limber boards  It is winged up 3 or more pigs above the floor heads in midships.  Two tiers of pigs are in the wake of the main hatchways and web wings.
Of Iron ballast there are two sorts; one of 7, the other of 21 pigs to the ton. Sloops etc. use the latter only.  The large pigs are 3 feet long and 6 by 5 inches square, the small are one foot 6 inches long and 5 by 4 Inches square:  Eighth or more pigs are reserved for ballasting boats etc. and are placed conveniently for use, down the main hatch way after the hold is stowed.
Ships having a clear run aft seldom have Iron ballast abaft the pump well. Large Ships that have floor and futtock riders, have the Iron ballast stowed lengthwise or athwartships, according to the length of the chambers.
The quantity of shingle ballast is discretionary. It is spread and levelled over the Iron.  The ground tier of water is then stowed; the Casks have their bungs upwards: are wedged free from each other, and are sunk 1/4 of their diameter into the shingle. They are stowed either chine and chine, or bouge and chine: beginning at the foremast or coal room bulkhead: the breakage, if any is made a the well bulkhead: the midships tiers, fore and aft, are first laid down; and the side are filled with wingers of small Casks, as half Hogs heads, etc. which must not be raised above the level of the tier, or they will cause a breakage in the tier above, which is stowed in the the cuntline of the ground tier.  The stowage is thus continued for as many tier as will lie sufficiently clear of the beams; a proper quantity of shingle being laid between every tier.
Abreast the well over the ground tier are stowed wet provisions; above the ground tier in the after hold are stowed dry provisions; and between the Casks are wood and shingle ballast. The fish room will commonly take one longer of pipes; in it are stowed some of the spirits and Wine: sometimes Coals: In the spirit room are the Wind and Spirits for the Ships use.

In Merchant Ships the various Casks packages etc. must be wedged off from the bottom sides, pump well, etc.

Mr. Hills invention for Stopping Leaks, occasioned by Gun-shot holes.
This invention consists of a circular piece of Elm from 2 to 4 Inches thick and of a circumference sufficient to cover the shot hole.  The outside convex and the inside somewhat concaved; to be lined with several folds of Flannel or Kersey dipped in warm Tallow.  Through the Centre of this piece of Elm and Flannel is a hole for a Rope to be passed through, from 2 to 4 In. in Circumference and about Six Feet long with a double-wall-knot on the outside end, tapered and served to an eye at the other end.  The whole is thus used.  From the inside of the Vessel is thrust through the Shot Hole, Spun-yard or small Line of sufficient length to float on the Water: the inner end being retained on board, the outer or floating one is taken up and fastened to the eye in the tapered Rope: the Spunyard is then hauled upon until the stopper covers the Shot hole and it a greater strain is wanted to press the flannel round the edges of the hold, a Tackle must be used.
NB. Should the Shot hold not be sufficiently clear to admit the Spunyarn through it, an auger must be used.
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Besides the above general act relating to ballast, there are the 6. Geo. II. c. 29 and the 32. Geo. II. which regulate the ballasting of merchant-vessels in the River Thames, placing it under the direction of the Corporation of Trinity-house.

MANNER of GETTING ON BOARD AND STOWING THE ANCHORS AND CABLES.

ANCHORS though they bear different names on board of ships in the royal navy, as sheet, best bower, small bower, and spare, are of the same weight. The stream and kedge anchors are smaller, and grapnels are for boats.

Ships of 110 to, 100, 98, and 90 guns, have seven anchors; from 80 to 20 guns inclusive, 6 anchors; ships of 300 tons, and sloops, have 5; and brigs and cutters 3 anchors.

In fitting out ships, the anchors are brought in craft near the bows, being most convenient to the hawse-holes, through which the cables pass to be clenched.

The bower anchors are first catted; which is performed by hooking the hook of the cat-block into the ring of the anchor, and bowsing upon the fall that leads in through a snatch-block on the forecastle; the cat-falls being previously reeved through the sheaves of the cat-head and cat-block, keeping the hook of the cat-block downwards, and its point inwards. They are then fished, by means of the half-davit, pendent and tackle, thus: The davit is first stopped in the channel on the side wanted, and supported by guys: the masthead guy goes over the end of the davit, with an eye. The other end fastens round the fore-masthead, with a round turn and two half hitches. The foremost guy goes over the end of the davit, the other end fastens round the cathead, with two half hitches, and securely stopt. The after guy goes over the end of the davit, and makes fast with two half-hitches, through an eye-bolt in the after part of the fore channel. At the outer end of the davit is hung, by its strap, a large single block; through which is reeved the pendent, with a large iron hook spliced in the lower end, to hook the anchor within the flukes; then, to the inner end of the pendent, is made fast a tackle, by thrusting a toggle through an eye in the blockstrap; after that has passed through an eye in the pendent, the other block of the tackle is hooked in an eye-bolt in the fore part of the quarter-deck; the effort of the tackle is communicated to the hook, by means of the pendent, by men's bowsing on the tackle-fall. Thus the flukes of the anchor are raised and placed on the gunwale, where it is made fast by the shank-painter chain. That the flukes may lie level, the stock is bowsed upon by the anchor-stock tackle, the double block of which is hooked to a selvagee, fastened round the stock of the anchor under the first hoop, and connected by its fall to a single block, hooked to a selvagee fastened round the laniard of the main stay: the fall leads in upon the forecastle.

The best bower is then placed forward near the bows on the starboard side; the small bower near the bows on the larboard side, a little abaft their respective catheads; and are secured by their stoppers, from the catheads and shank-painters. The stopper has one end clinched round the cathead; the other end passes through the ring of the anchor, returns upwards, and leads over a large thumb cleat bolted to the cathead, and is made fast with several turns, and the end hitched round the head-rail and timber-head, on the fore side of the cathead. The shank-painter hangs the shank and fluke of the anchor to the ship's side outboard; and when stowed, the shank-painter is passed under the inner fluke round the shank of the anchor, and made fast with two or three turns, and the end stopt round timber-heads on the forecastle. With these two bower anchors ships are generally moored when lying in a tide's way or in a fleet.

 

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The sheet and spare anchors are hoisted by runners and tackles, main-stay and yard tackles, and are stowed securely with stock and bill lashings at the after part of the fore shrouds, before the chess-trees on each side of the ship, with one of their arms resting on a chock, bolted to the gunwale; the stock being bowsed-to by the anchor-stock tackle. The sheet anchor is stowed on the larboard side, and is the first resource in a gale of wind, after parting with either of the bowers; for which reason, when in port, the sheet cable is kept bent, and the anchor is over the side, suspended by the stopper and shank-painter, ready for cutting away in case of necessity. The spare anchor is stowed on the starboard side, and is seldom used, but when one of the others is lost. The stream anchor is stowed on the spare anchor; and, when used, it is sent in the long-boat or launch, with its cable bent, and let go at any particular spot, either for steadying the ship, when riding by only one bower, or to assist a ship when in shore, or to warp her, &c.

The kedge is stowed on the stream and spare anchors, and is frequently used to stop a ship for a tide in little winds; but, if the wind is too powerful for the kedge, the stream anchor is substituted. The kedge is sometimes used in moderate weather, to warp the ship so as to shift her birth.

The cables also are brought in craft alongside; and, should they be new from the rope-walk, let them be coiled down in the craft, the same way they are to be coiled on board.

It is recommended to merchant-ships, especially of the smaller size, that their cables should be coiled the way they bit, or the way they run round the windlass; and their tiers should be on the side opposite to that on which they lead. But this practice cannot be approved of for the royal navy, nor is it indeed there adopted; because, when heaving in upon one cable, and veering out upon another, the cables, by being crossed, are apt to foul in the hatchway. The best bower, which is mostly the working cable, should lead foremost up the hatchway on the starboard side; then the small bower on the larboard side; and, afore the latter, the sheet; which, being the least used, can be triced close round the fore part of the hatchway, out of the way.

A cable generally grinds or kinks from more turns being forced into it by the coiling, than it had when first made; and the only way to get rid of those grinds or kinks, is to coil the cable across the hatchway, from side to side, in large fakes, with the sun; then take the upper end through the coil, and coil the cable down in the tier the way required. By this means, as many turns will be taken out of the cable, as there are fakes coiled round the hatchway.

It should be a rule in coiling cables, never to lay out near the hatchway, but to keep that part of the tier as low as possible, that the bends may have sufficient room to upset.

Were all store cables first coiled down from the rope walk against the sun, they would be better adapted to coil on either side of the ship; for a cable coiled against the sun will more easily reverse, and have less grinds or kinks in it than a cable coiled with the sun.

Anchors (except when at sea) should always have a cable clinched to the ring ready for letting go; and a buoy rope with a buoy.

To CLINCH A CABLE; run it through the hawse-hole and the ring of the anchor, three or four fathoms in length; then haul the bight up in the head, and pass the end of the cable over the bight, and through the ring, between it and its own part: then pass the cable bends, and cross them with strands, well greased, one at the end, and the other about one foot from the end; and be careful not to form the clinch larger than the ring of the anchor.

FROM the MOORINGS a ship, when fitted, removes, in order to take in her guns and proceed to sea; but, before she finally sets sail, she generally comes to anchor, and is moored once with her own anchors and cables, which will be treated of hereafter. At present it is sufficient to give the following caution at

 

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GETTING UNDERWAY FROM RIVER MOORINGS.

If it be in a tideway and with a leading wind, so that the ship can stem the tide; let it be a rule, when the tide serves, to get underway, and sail against the flood; which gives time to clear a ship of her moorings, and affords a more powerful effect to the helm, to steer the vessel clear of other ships and any particular danger.


PREPARATIONS NECESSARY TO BE MADE FOR ANCHORING.

On approaching an anchorage, the anchor and buoy are got clear, and a range of cable stretched along the deck suitable to the depth of water. Care should be taken, that nothing is in the way to check the cable, or stop its running out: then, at a proper distance, a turn is taken round the bits with the cable, thus: First pass the cable from the anchor underneath the cross-piece, then take up a bight of the cable abaft the bits, and throw it over the bit-head. The end of the cable is clinched round the orlop beams in the royal navy, and round the main-mast in the merchant service.

It is necessary to have water near the bits to prevent its firing by the friction. Stoppers and ring ropes of all kinds should be ready for use. The stock lashing being cast off, and nothing but the anchor stopper and shank painter retaining the anchor, men are stationed to stand by them, and let go at the moment ordered.

To secure the cable when out, DECK STOPPERS are thus previously prepared: they are turned into the ring bolts on the deck, round a large iron thimble, and fastened with a throat and end seizing. Each stopper has a laniard spliced round the head, under the knot, by which several turns are taken round the cable, and the end stopt.

BESIDES the deck stoppers, others are used as an additional security to the cable; such are the BIT STOPPERS, &c.

BIT STOPPERS. Each stopper is reeved through a hole in the standard knee, against the fore part of the riding-bits, and is turned in or spliced. It has a laniard spliced round the head, under the knot. When used, several turns are taken with the laniard round the cable, and the end stopt. It is to check the cable in bringing up the ship. Another bit stopper much approved of, is about four fathoms long, and tailed out like a nipper at one end, and knotted at the other. Let this stopper be rove through the hole in the standard knee. To pass it, let it be held aft, inside, over the cable, and under the bits, outside the cable; then worm it round the cable before the bits. Then, as the cable runs out and it is required to check the ship, haul tight the worming; and, by the cables drawing forward, it will tighten the stopper, and bend the cable so close to the bits as effectually to bring the ship up. This stopper is not likely to jamb, Therefore is extremely well calculated for bringing a ship up with ease; as, by slacking, and hauling tight the worming, the cable may be suffered to run out, or be checked at pleasure.

In heaving up in a heavy sea, when, by a sudden pitch of the ship, the messenger or nippers give way, this kind of stopper will be found extremely serviceable; for, upon these occasions, this stopper may be always passed ready, and the bight triced up abaft the bits, with a rope-yarn clear of the cable.

 

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Another bit stopper, made with a large eye, that it may be thrown over the bit head, and shifted over from side to side, is also much approved of.

DOG STOPPERS. One end is clenched round the main-mast, and the other end wormed in the cuntlines of the cable, and stopt in several places; then brought back with several turns over its own part, and the end stopt. It is of little service, unless it be long enough to clap on above the coamings.

WING STOPPERS. One end is clenched round the orlop beams in the wings, and the other end is clapt on as the dog stopper.

RING ROPES are occasionally made fast to the ring bolts in the deck and to the cable, by passing the ends through the ring of the bolt, and through the bight, then clapt on the cable with cross turns, and the ends stopt. Ring ropes may be better single than double; they are passed with less confusion of turns. To pass a single ring rope, and have it in readiness to check upon veering away the cable, take also three slack turns through the ring bolt and round the cable, one before the other, and hold up the parts fair; then take as many slack turns of worming round the cable, before the ring, and they held up fair, leaving sufficient room for the cable to pass through. When the cable is to be checked, haul tight the worming; and by the cables running out, it will readily draw the turns tight through the ring, and bind the cable so close to the ring, as to prove an excellent stopper. Ring ropes are similar to the laniards of stoppers, to check the cable when freshening the hawse, or to add security to the stoppers in a heavy sea.

LENGTHENING OF CABLES. Cables are lengthened by splicing one to the end of the other, thus: The closest and best method is to put the ends in twice each way; then, to pick out the strands, and worm part of them round the cable, and taper away the rest; which should be closely marled down, and a good throat and end seizing clapt on, of six-thread ratline.

The strands of the best bower and stream cable, had better be pointed, that these cables may be more quickly spliced and unspliced, in cases of necessity.

TO PREVENT CABLES FROM CHAFING by friction in the hawse, and against the stem or cutwater, they are rounded or served thus: They should be served against the lay. The most expeditious way of clapping on rounding is with a top, here room to work it will admit; otherwise it must be beaten on with mallets; and care taken to stop the service with spun-yarn at every six or eight turns.

Mooring services are clapped on about fifteen fathoms from the end or cable splice. Large vessels should have twelve or fourteen fathoms of service, half of it rounded and the rest plaited and keckled. Upon the best bower or working cable, there should be a short service of eight or ten fathoms at the half-cable.

Mats of the width of the cable's circumference, and about three fathoms long, are very convenient to have ready to lace on the cable with expedition, in cases of necessity, in the way of the hawse or cutwater.

The best service to prevent a cable's chafing is cut from a tanned horse hide, big enough to wrap two or three times round the cable. The method of putting it on is, first to parcel the cable with two or three turns of old canvas, the length of the leather service; which, if too stiff to put on, only requires dipping in water and beating, which makes it soft and pliable: then pass it tight and smooth round the canvas, and stop it on with sennit or three-yarn knittles, well greasing them, and the service, before veering it into the hawse-hole. Avoid raising the surface of the leather by knittles, &c. underneath the canvas.

 

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OF COMING TO ANCHOR.

A ship ought always, unless under some particular circumstances, to be brought to anchor under an easy sail, such as the three topsails, jib, or fore topmast staysail, and sometimes the mizen, according as the vessel has more or less inclination to fall off or come to the wind.

There are, no doubt, cases when more sail may be required; but they are exceptions to and do not destroy the general principle. Nor should an anchor ever be dropt to leeward of the place you mean to bring up in; because that would often occasion a necessity of casting two anchors at once, for fear of dropping still more to leeward.

When the wind is so violent as to bring the anchor home, and make the vessel drive, the cable is veered away; and, in veering away, the turns of the stopper laniards are slackened, and a portion of the cable suffered to go out of the hawse, to let the vessel further a-stern of her anchor; in which situation she bears less strain on the flukes, and is less liable to drag the anchor; for, the more cable is out, the flukes become deeper buried, and the ship rides in greater safety.

In letting go an anchor, great care should be taken that the water be not so shoal as to endanger the ship hurting herself upon it, and that the anchor be not fouled by the cable getting about the fluke or stock.

Nor should the water be too deep, because the cable, when out, should approach as near as possible to an horizontal direction. Indeed, this principle is so true, that three cables spliced together, an end of each other, are kept bent to the best bower anchor, to be used in cases of necessity; and it is found, that one good anchor, with a long range of cable, is a safer anchorage than two anchors with short cables. However, when the ship has not room to drive, and, if the night be dark, let fall a second anchor under foot, with a range of cable above the deck. At all events, the deep sea lead should be thrown over the gunwale, and the line frequently handled, to be certain that the ship does not drive.

In hard and rocky bottoms, where anchors cannot have much hold, cables are chafed and cut to pieces. When necessitated to anchor in such places, a chain should be run up the cable from the ring of the anchor to a certain distance, to secure it from danger. When a chain is not to be had, (although the top chains may serve) empty casks well bunged are good substitutes, slung and fastened to the cable at equal distances, to support and keep it from the bottom.

When ground is soft and oozy, and anchors will not hold securely, but come home with little wind, it is common to cover the flukes, with a broad triangular piece of plank, much larger than the fluke. Sometimes the anchor is backed, or retained, by carrying out the stream, or kedge, a-head of the anchor the ship usually rides by. In this situation, the bower anchor is confined by the stream, or kedge, in the same manner as the ship is restrained by the bower anchor.

In preparing to come to anchor, when the wind is not violent, the topsails ought always to be clued up at the mast heads; that is, let go the sheets and haul the clue lines and bunt lines close up; lower away the topsails and take in the slack of the braces as the yards come down. In this manner you run less danger of spliting and tearing the sails than by any other method.

In all operations hereafter treated of, it should be observed, that whether the wind is moderate or blows fresh, it makes this only difference, viz. The velocity of the ship's movements, in the latter case, being considerably increased, the sails will require an earlier diminution, to stop the headway; and that of course less time in general is taken up in performing every operation.

 

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TO ANCHOR IN FINE WEATHER, IN A PLACE WHERE YOU WILL RIDE HEAD TO WIND, BEING CLOSE HAULED.

BEING under the three topsails, fore-topmast stay-sail, and mizen, stand on until you are within about two ships lengths of the place where you mean to drop your anchor; then put the helm a-lee, and haul down the fore-topmast stay-sail. As soon as the topsails shiver, clue them up briskly, before you lower; except the mizen topsail, which is to be laid to the mast, and the mizen sheet hauled flat aft, the instant the ship begins to have stern-way, by reason of the wind being a-head. Then shift the helm to windward, and let go the anchor, veering away the cable, to give it time to settle in the ground, until the vessel falls off, when she is to be checked, to bring her head to the wind. When that is done, right the helm, and haul up the mizen.

DEMONSTRATION.

THE ship is hove up in the wind by hauling down the fore-topmast stay-sail (§ 31.), when nearly two ships lengths from the spot where the anchor is to be dropped, because the head-way is sufficient to shoot her that distance; and as, by this movement, the ship is generally bound to stop a little to windward of the place where you mean to bring up, you wait till she begins to go a-stern a little before you let go the anchor, and the helm is at the same time shifted hard over the other way (§ 58.) to moderate the ship's falling off when she is head to the wind. The topsails are clued up as soon as they begin to shiver, not only because it can at that time be done easily, since they come in of themselves as they lower; but because, if delayed longer, the stern-way would become too rapid, since the sails would be all a-back, and would soon drive the ship to leeward of her intended anchorage. Besides, the celerity of her falling off would be such, as to cause her to drag the anchor before it had got a proper hold of the ground; and that is the reason why the cable is veered away in order to give the anchor time to sink into the bottom by its weight. The mizen topsail is braced perpendicular to the keel; because, in that situation, the ship is impelled (§ 36.) a-stern exactly in the direction of her keel. The mizen sheet is hauled flat aft, to bring the ship's head sooner to the wind (§ 40.); and, as soon as she arrives at that point, that sail shivers; in which case it is immediately brailed up, as being no longer of use. The helm is righted, having no longer any power; since the vessel is now brought up, and all the sails are furled, except the mizen topsail, which is flat a-back to the mast, to keep the ship steady at her anchor.


TO ANCHOR IN FINE WEATHER IN A PLACE WHERE YOU WILL RIDE HEAD TO WIND, THE WIND BEING LARGE.

IF you have the wind large, whether on the beam, or more aft, the operation is still the same, only hauling up a little sooner to keep to windward, because it is in your power to drift as much as you think requisite, and because the ship will be entirely stopped as soon as all her sails begin to catch a-back, and you will have done cluing them up when they begin to shake. The mizen topsail is next to be heaved to the mast, the helm put a-weather (§ 58.), and the anchor let go, as soon as the headway ceases: then, after giving her a sufficiency of cable, bring the ship up. If she has been going large, she will not range precisely head to wind, since her headway ceases as soon as the sails are taken

 

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a-back, and the effort of the wind acts on all the rigging of the ship to impel her both a-stern and to leeward, which is indeed augmenting the effect of the rudder, as the helm is a-weather to bring the vessel to the wind (§ 58.): but, as the power of the wind is very great to pay the ship's head off, it balances wholly or partly (according as the ship goes a-stern with more or less velocity) the effort of the rudder and that of the mizen: thus she drifts, and remains as it were lying-to with all her sails a-back. This is the reason why we keep a little to windward, and let go the anchor, to bring the ship head to wind at the proper time; which she will do the more readily as she is withheld forward only by the cable, while the wind on her side forces her to leeward.


TO ANCHOR IN FINE WEATHER IN A PLACE WHERE YOU ARE TO RIDE HEAD TO THE STREAM AND WIND, THE WIND BEING LARGE.

IF you are obliged to ride with the head to the stream, you must, when it comes from to windward, put the helm a-lee in setting the mizen, then clue up all the sails; and, when the ship's head is right in the direction of the stream, let go the anchor, provided she has quite lost her headway; for, else, you would get foul of the anchor stock by running over it. This must never be neglected, unless you find yourself under the necessity to bring up in any situation in which you may happen to be, which is almost always the case when you are taken too short to have time to stop the vessel: a reason why there is often a necessity of casting a second anchor, which generally catches the ground by assistance of the first, which has begun to diminish the velocity of the ship; and as many of the sails are to be hauled down as you can, and as quick as possible.


TO ANCHOR IN FINE WEATHER IN A PLACE WHERE YOU WILL RIDE HEAD TO THE STREAM, WHICH COMES FROM LEEWARD, THE WIND BEING LARGE.

When the current comes from to leeward, you must keep the ship away till her head comes to the set of the stream, and take in all the sails, to diminish as speedily as possible her head-way, which always continues of itself long enough when the wind is aft or very large; and when the ship is stopped by the effort of the water, let go the anchor without waiting for the vessel gathering stem-way, if the current is rapid; and, in this case, as well as all those wherein there is a sea, or blowing fresh, the ship requires a great length of cable.


TO COME TO AN ANCHOR WITH THE WIND AFT.

FIRST hand the main topsail, and then lower the fore topsail down on the cap; and, when you are within a reasonable distance of the place where you mean to drop anchor, (which distance is to be judged of from the readiness of the ship to obey the helm, and from her velocity,) the tiller may be put either one way or the other (§ 50.), the fore topsail and fore topmast staysail clued up and taken in, the mizen topsail braced sharp up, and the mizen sheet hauled flat aft. When the ship ranges close to the wind, she is, as it were, lying-to under the mizen and mizen topsails, with the last mentioned sail full, or a-back, according as you may have occasion to shoot a-head or drop a-stern;

 

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so that, if you are too much to windward of the spot where you mean to bring to, you drift till you arrive at it: if you are precisely in the proper birth, you let go the anchor in lowering down the mizen topsail, which is to be furled as soon as the vessel is brought up; then the ship will come head to wind by the power of the mizen, which must be brailed up as soon as it shakes.

DEMONSTRATION.

THE main topsail is taken in, and the fore topsail lowered down, to diminish the great velocity which a ship commonly has when the wind is aft, in order to estimate the distance with greater precission, and to have her movements more under command. When you think yourself at the necessary distance the ship requires to stop close hauled, at the place you wish to anchor, you put the helm on board one way or the other, (§ 50.); you brace sharp the mizen topsail for the tack you haul upon (§ 41.), and haul the mizen out to bring the ship rapidly to the wind (§ 40).

In the same moment, the fore topsail is to be clued up and handed, and the fore topmast staysail hauled down, because they oppose the movement of the ship (§ 31, § 32, § 33.) as she is coming to. When you are close to the wind, the anchor is let go, if you are in the birth you wish: If too far to windward, you can drift, keeping the mizen topsail full; and, when you are to windward, should you find yourself too far a-head, lay the mizen topsail a-back, to go astern (§ 44.) putting at the same time the helm a-weather (§ 58). When the vessel has drifted sufficiently, let go the anchor, and furl the mizen topsail; because the cable might be injured, should it blow fresh: then the ship will soon range head to wind, though the mizen be still out (§ 40.) and, when that is attained, the mizen is brailed up to prevent the ship sheering; and the helm is righted for the same reason.

In some cases you are obliged to come to an anchor with the wind aft, standing end on, because there is not always a space necessary to deaden the ship's way. In this situation the sails are to be taken in as soon as possible, in order to lessen the velocity of the ship. When come to your birth, let go the anchor, and veer away the cable plentifully, that the anchor may have time to take the ground; then begin to check her gently, veering still more cable as the ring ropes or stoppers, placed on it before-hand, break away; for they should be permitted to break, in order that you may not be exposed to drag your anchor, by bringing the vessel up at once.


SCUDDING UNDER A FORE SAIL, TO COME TO AN ANCHOR.

THE foresail must be clued up when at some distance from your birth, and some part of the way, run under bare poles. When near enough to sheer to the wind, you execute it by putting the helm hard a-lee; and, as soon as the ship is come to, let go the anchor, giving her a large scope of cable, and observing to check her handsomely, in order to make her ride head to wind: as stopping her at first too short might very well endanger her cable or anchor. Should the first not bring her up, a second must be let go.

DEMONSTRATION.

AS you cannot run for an anchorage under a foresail, unless before the wind, or very free, you are necessarily obliged to furl that sail at a great distance; because, in that position, the velocity of the ship will, by the violence of the wind, be but too much kept up, so as to make you run the rest of the way,

 

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which may perhaps be a quarter or half a league, under bare poles, the wind being nearly aft. If you were obliged to run at that distance close hauled, you would never reach your birth, should the foresail even be set; because, the ship would be laid-to, as was shewn before. You put your helm over to sheer to windward when you think you are at the necessary distance, that you may have time to deaden the ship's head-way: and as, when she stops coming to, her head-way ceases, you let go the anchor, and veer away a great extent of cable; because, when it blows hard, there is commonly a great swell, and the pitching motion it gives to the ship, joined to the effort of the wind on the rigging, would bring home the anchor. You are therefore obliged to veer away a great length of cable, to give the anchor time to settle, and to cause the cable to make a very acute angle with the ground, by which the strain is much reduced.


TO ANCHOR WITH A SPRING, IN ORDER TO PRESENT THE VESSEL'S SIDE TO A PLACE OR SHIP YOU WISH TO CANNONADE.

THIS is executed when you know that the wind or current will bring your head, when at anchor, towards the object you mean to attack: for, should the wind or tide bring your broad-side to bear on the object you mean to cannonade, the spring would only be a precaution, to get under way more quickly in case you were obliged to retreat; or in case the wind or tide should shift.

Get a large snatch-block in the aftermost port, on the same side you wish to present to the wind or current, and on the same side with the anchor and cable with which you mean to bring up; then, through the block, reeve a hawser, the end of which is to be clinched to the ring of the anchor you mean to let go; the other part is brought to the capstern, with necessary ranges of the cable and hawser on deck. That done, and the ship being arrived at the birth, you are to deaden her way according to circumstances: you let go the anchor, and veer away enough cable and hawser, now a little more of the one, and then a little more of the other, according as you wish to present more head or stern; which you can do by heaving on the spring, or, what is the same, veering away more cable; but should you find it requisite to shift your position, you have only to veer out more of the hawser.


TO COME TO AN ANCHOR IN ROADS THAT ARE OFTEN CROWDED WITH SHIPS, AND TO LEAVE CLEAR BIRTHS FOR OTHERS.

THE best anchoring births in these places are mostly known by marks, and of course are occupied by the first ships.

In a tide or trade-wind road-stead, the next ship that comes should not anchor right a-head or a-stern of the first if and so as to lie in the other's hawse, but should come-to on the bow and quarter, at a sufficient distance to prevent other ships from coming between, and in a slanting direction from the tide or wind. This might contribute to the safety of ships when it blows strong upon a lee-tide or in strong sea breezes, as each single ship may then veer away what cable necessary, and keep clear of the other ship's hawse a-stern; or, in case of driving or casting, they have a better chance of keeping clear of each other.

A good anchoring birth in a crowded road-stead is obtained by first running down through the middle of the fleet, and taking notice where a good birth is left vacant by some ship that has sailed

 

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from the middle of the fleet; then steer out from among the ships, and turn to windward so far, as to give time to take in and furl all the sails, and run down before the wind amongst the ships with out any sail, and let go the anchor at the intended birth.


TO COME TO AN ANCHOR WITH THE WIND ACROSS THE TIDE.

THE ship should if possible, be put upon the tack that stems against the tide when the anchor is let go; and, if it be designed to continue at a single anchor, in order to keep it clear, sheer the ship and keep her to leeward of the anchor, by keeping the helm a-weather and the fore topmast staysail set, with the sheet to windward.

Much benefit may result from letting go the anchor-stemming against the tide, especially with a rapid tide, for it gives an opportunity to observe, at what rate the ship drives a-stern, so as to judge whether it may not be necessary to keep sail set, in order to bring the ship up to ride easy in a rapid tide, and to keep her clear of shoals, &c. a-stern.


TO COME TO AN ANCHOR WHEN THE WIND IS RIGHT AGAINST THE TIDE, THE SHIP DRIVING WITH THE STRENGTH OF THE TIDE AGAINT THE WIND.

SHOOT the ship a-head of her anchor, or sheer her clear of it, upon the same tack, as she is meant to shoot upon, the next tide, always endeavouring to keep the ship, in swinging with the tide, on one side of the anchor, to clear it. Suppose that the ship, driving to windward, has got to an anchoring birth, or that the tide is so far spent that she will drive no further to windward, and must come to an anchor on the starboard tack. In letting go the anchor, the ship should be shot a-head of it, and kept a-head with the helm a-weather, the yards braced full with the larboard braces, the fore topmast stay-sail and mizen set full, till the windward tide is done; then she falls to leeward and rides windroad, with the wind and anchor right a-head in which position she will lie clear of the anchor till the next windward tide.


TO COME TO AN ANCHOR WITHOUT TENDING.

IF it happens that a ship is to be brought up in a place where there is not sufficient room to tend her, reduce her head-way as much as possible, before she comes to her anchoring birth, so that a less scope of cable will bring her up.


DESCRIPTION OF A FLOATING ANCHOR TO RIDE A VESSEL BY IN A GALE OF WIND.

THIS simple machine is made to dive beneath the swell of the sea, and retain the vessel where there may be no other anchorage.

It consists of two flat bars of iron, each in length half the breadth of the midship beam of the vessel for which it is used, and rivetted together in the middle by an iron saucer-headed bolt, clenched at its point, that they may be swung parallel to each other for easy stowage. At each end of the bars is

 

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a hole for a rope, or swifter, to pass through, which must be hove tight, to extend the bars at right angles. To this swifter is marled a double or fourfold canvas cloth (N° 1.) of the same shape, so as to be on that side of the iron bars nearest the vessel when used.

In each bar are two holes, at equal distances from the center; and to these holes the ends of two pieces of rope are fastened: the ropes are seized together in the middle so as to form a crowfoot, having an eye in the center, which is well served with spunyarn, and to this is bent, when the anchor is used a cable or hawser, by which it is made to sink and incline in the water. See the Plate.

In the end of one of the bars is fitted an iron ring, to which a buoy is made fast, by a rope about 12 fathoms long, to prevent the anchor from sinking to the bottom. When it is thrown overboard, the cable and a rope made fast to the head of the buoy, are veered away sufficiently to ride the vessel.

To get it on board, haul upon the buoy-rope, which will bring it to the water's surface so as to be easily drawn to the vessel. Have the mizen staysail ready to hoist, to keep the vessel to the wind till the anchor is hauled on board.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SHIPS AT SINGLE ANCHOR.


OF SHEERING A SHIP.

IF the side of a ship at anchor is presented to the tide by any means, the water will act upon her two ways; one in the direction of her keel, the other in the direction of her beams; the last will cause her to sheer out to one side of her anchor, which was a-head before. Suppose, for example, the power which presents the ship's side to the tide to be a spring; from the anchor coming in aft on the starboard side upon heaving in the spring, the ship will sheer over to port, bringing the anchor upon the starboard bow: the more the spring is hove in, the more the ship will go a-head, and over to port, until her side makes an angle with the tide of 45 degrees, as the furthest she can go over from her anchor: for the spring hove in after this will cause the ship to return, and be in the stream of her anchor when she is hove round a broadside to the tide. Now, if the helm is put over to starboard, it will act as the spring, by forcing the ship's stern to starboard; and thus, by causing the water to act upon her starboard side, the ship will be forced over to port: on the contrary, had the helm been put to port, the larboard side would be presented to the action of the water, and the ship will go over to starboard; but the power of the rudder being according to the strength of the tide, its action lessens upon the rudder, as the ship sheers obliquely to the stream, and cannot produce so great an effect as the spring.

 

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RIDING AT ANCHOR IN MODERATE WEATHER.

WHEN riding in a tideway with a fresh of wind, the cable should have a short or windward service, of about 45 or 50 fathoms from the manger-board outwards, always sheered to leeward, (not to windward, as thought by some) not with the helm hard down constantly, but more or less so, according to the strength or weakness of the tide. Many ships have sheered their anchors home, driven on board other ships, or on sands near which they rode before the anchor was discovered to have moved from the place where let go.


TO BACK A SHIP

WHEN the wind is cross, or nearly off shore, or in the opposite direction, ships will always back by the mizen topsail, assisted if necessary by the mizen staysail. If no mizen topsail, the main topsail is used.

In backing, always keep a tight cable to wind the ship that the anchor may be drawn round. If the wind is not sufficient for this purpose the ship must be hove a-peek.


OF BRACING THE YARDS.

RIDING with the wind afore the beam, brace the yards forward: if abaft the beam, brace them all a-back.


OF RIDING WHEN IN DANGER OF BREAKING THE SHEER.

IF the wind is so far aft that the ship will not back, she must be set a-head; but never attempt to back, if, when the tide ceases, the ship forges a-head, and brings the buoy on the lee quarter. If the wind is far aft and blows fresh, the greatest attention is required; as ships, riding in this situation, often break their sheer and come again to windward of their anchors; to prevent which, the after yards must be braced forward, and the fore yards aft: thus she will be safe, so long as the buoy can be kept on the lee quarter; or, suppose the helm to port, so long as the buoy is on the larboard quarter. With the helm thus, and the wind right aft or nearly so, the starboard main and fore braces should be hauled aft if led aft, and forward if they lead forward.


HOW TO MANAGE A SHIP WHEN HER SHEER IS BROKEN.

IF the ship tends to leeward, and the buoy comes on the weather quarter, and she breaks her sheer, brace about the main yard quickly; if she recovers and brings the buoy on the lee or larboard quarter, let the main yard be again braced about; but if she comes to her sheer the other way, by bringing the buoy on her starboard quarter, change the helm and brace the fore yard to.

 

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OF TENDING TO LEEWARD WHEN THE SHIP MUST BE SET A-HEAD.

WHEN the ship begins to tend to leeward, and the buoy comes on the weather quarter; first brace about the fore yard; and, when the wind comes near the beam, set the fore staysail, and keep it standing until it shivers, then brace all the yards sharp forward, especially if it is likely to blow hard.

It sometimes happens that when the fore staysail is set too soon, the ship's head will pay round off, and she will break her sheer: to prevent this, and to keep the wind broad upon the beam, it will often be necessary to set the mizen staysail also; which should be hauled down as soon as the wind comes before the beam, otherwise the ship's head will be thrown in the wind too soon.


WHEN THE SHIP IS LIKELY TO GO TO WINDWARD WITH A LONG SERVICE OUT.

RIDING leeward tide with more cable than the windward service, and expecting the ship will go to windward of her anchor, begin, as soon as the tide eases, to shorten in the cable. This work is sometimes hard, but very necessary; otherwise the anchor may be fouled by the great length of cable the ship has to draw round, or the cable would be damaged by the bows and cutwater.

When a ship rides windward tide, the cable should be keckled from the short service towards the anchor, as far as will prevent its touching the cutwater.

When the ship tends to windward, and must be set a-head, hoist the fore staysail as soon as it will stand; and, in moderate weather, the jib also; and, when the buoy comes on the lee quarter, haul down the fore staysail, and jib, if set, brace-to the fore yard, and put the helm a-lee; for, till then, the helm must be kept a-weather, and all the yards full.


TO MANAGE IN A STORM.

WHEN a ship rides leeward tide, and the wind increases, give her more cable, otherwise the anchor may start by not doing so in time, and the ship will not easily be brought up again: this is the more necessary when riding in the hawse of another ship. Previously to giving a long service, it is usual to take a weather bit, or a turn of the cable round the windlass end, that, in veering away, the ship may not overpower you. Grease the service, to prevent its chafing in the hawse.

If the gale increases, the topmasts should be timely struck, but the fore yard seldom, if ever, should be lowered down, that, in case of parting, the foresail may be always ready. At these times, let there be more people on deck than the usual anchor-watch, that no accident may happen from inattention.

 

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TO TEND A SHIP FOR A WEATHER TIDE.

A SHIP riding at anchor upon a lee tide, with the wind in the direction of the tide, requires, upon the tide's setting to windward, to tend clear of her anchor: for this purpose, when the weather tide sets, and brings the wind broad upon either bow, hoist the jib and fore staysail, and brace full the yards to shoot the ship a tight cable from her anchor: then put the helm a-lee, and wait until the buoy comes upon the lee-side: this done, brace-to the head yard, and keep the after yards full to assist the helm. If the buoy bears nearly a-beam, the jib and fore staysail may be hauled down; but, if the wind is fresh, and shoots the ship nearly end-on with the cable, bringing the buoy upon the quarter, keep up the fore staysail; as, in this situation, the ship will be in danger of breaking her sheer against the helm; and the fore staysail will be ready to catch her before she can fall to windward of her anchor. As the weather tide slacks, the ship will gradually fall wind-road; then haul down the fore stay-sail and right the helm: should it blow fresh, let the yards be braced forward, and give the ship sufficient cable.


TO TEND A SHIP WITH THE WIND A FEW POINTS ACROSS THE TIDE.

IF a ship riding at anchor upon a lee tide, with the wind two or three points upon the bow, is to be cast for a weather tide; when the tide is done, the ship will become wind-road, and of course must cast with her head to the weather shore. As the lee tide makes and brings the wind on either side, put the helm a-lee, hoist the jib and fore staysail with the sheets to windward, brace aback the head yards, and fill the after yards. When the ship has sheered tight to windward of her anchor, haul down the jib and fore staysail; and as the wind is broad upon the quarter, she will lie quiet the remainder of the tide. As the weather tide slacks, the ship will shoot end-on with the cable, bringing the buoy upon the weather quarter. When the wind is abeam, if it is thought necessary, the jib and fore staysail should be hoisted to force the ship a tight cable from her anchor; and hauled down when they shiver. Should it blow fresh, give the ship sufficient cable before the lee tide makes, and point the yards to the wind.


TO TEND A SHIP WITH THE WIND ACROSS THE TIDE.

THE simplest way of tending a ship, is to keep each tide to leeward of her anchor. At each slack water the ship will become wind-road, and as she tends, and brings the wind on either side, put the helm aweather, and hoist the fore staysail with the sheet to windward, to force the ship a tight cable from her anchor. When the tide is set, and the ship upon a proper sheer to leeward of her anchor, the fore staysail may be hauled down.

 

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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

IF at any time the anchor-watch should wind the ship, or permit her to break her sheer, the anchor should be hove in sight immediately, or on the first opportunity.

When lying in a roadstead, the anchor should be hove in sight once a week, though there be no suspicion of its being foul, for sometimes the cable is damaged by sweeping wrecks, or lost anchors, or from rocks or stones. It is often needful to trip the anchor, to take a clearer birth, particularly when any ship brings up too near; but if there is the least suspicion of the ship's having come near her anchor, it should be sighted the first opportunity.

A good roadstead is much better than a bad harbour, and more safe: therefore never leave a good roadstead for the latter, without real necessity, which can only be when you can ride no longer, and have no lee road to fly to.

There are roadsteads where an anchor will bury itself, so that the bight of the cable cannot foul it. In such places, where there is room, it is better to lie at single anchor, than to moor.

If it is possible, always shoot a ship on the same side of her anchor each tide, to prevent danger from the anchor's not turning as the ship swings; for the anchor by not turning in the ground endangers fouling the cable round the upper fluke or stock, which will either trip the anchor or damage the cable: and it often happens, when an anchor is tripped out of stiff ground, that it will not take hold a second time, without the upper fluke should cant down; for the quantity of clay sticking to the fluke prevents its setting into the ground again; so the anchor keeps tripping over the surface, and another anchor must be let go before the ship can be brought up. As a ship, by being sheered, presents one bow to the tide, if the wind is against the tide, it must blow upon the opposite quarter.

It is not always necessary to use the yards in tending a ship, to shoot her a tight cable from her anchor. In general the jib, fore stay-sail, and main topmast stay-sail, will be sufficient for the purpose. Should the wind shift at any time, it will be necessary to alter the sheer of the ship accordingly.

 

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ON MOORING.


WHEN a ship is come to anchor in a place where she is intended to remain, prudence dictates that she should be well secured. For this purpose the putting down additional anchors is calculated, and has been denominated MOORING. The various situations of places, settings of tides, &c. occasion the necessity of the following particular directions.

When the best bower is gone, and about two cables length is run out, the small bower is let go; and, when that has taken the ground, you heave in one cable's length upon the best bower, and veer away a cable's length of the small bower; and thus the ship is kept at an equal distance between both, the one lying to the head, and the other to the stern.

In roads where there is much tide, and freshes are expected, ships moor according to the set of the current, one anchor riding to the flood, and the best anchor and cable to the ebb.

In roads where there is little or no tide, ships moor according to the set of the most prevailing wind on the coast.

It may so happen, according to circumstance and situation, that the vessel must ride by a greater scope on one cable than the other, but still the manner of letting go the anchors is the same.

Another method of mooring is, by carrying the last anchor out in a boat to the place appointed, and there letting it go. Steadying or mooring with a kedge is usually done in this manner.


OF MOORING WITH TWO, THREE, OR MORE ANCHORS A-HEAD.

THIS is done by letting go the number of anchors necessary, and veering away; this being no ordinary practice, but only adopted in cases of danger, and peculiarity of circumstance; time, place, and situation, must be the only guide to such an operation: as one instance, suppose a ship cannot clear the shore under her lee by sailing, owing to a strong wind and high sea, the only resource is to let go all the anchors to the best advantage. For this purpose, let the cables that are bent be got clear for running. Then furl all the square sails, as quick as possible, and shoot the ship along the shore under the staysails. When the square sails are furled, let go the weathermost anchor, and veer away the cable quickly; then let go the next weathermost, and so on, till all the anchors are gone nearly in a line along the shore: thus when the ship becomes windroad, all the cables may be made to bear an equal strain, and are separated from each other.

 

Anchoring details.
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TO BACK AN ANCHOR.

TO back an anchor, is to let go a small anchor a-head of a large one, to which it is fastened, to partake of the strain, and to serve as a check upon it, should it come home.

The backing anchor is carried out in a long boat, to the buoy of the one already down, whose buoy rope is cast off and bent to the cable or hawser of the backing anchor; that done, the boat is rowed farther a-head, till the buoy rope and cable of the backing anchor become tight, when it is let go, the buoy that was taken from the large one being previously bent to it.

In this situation, should the large anchor come home, the scope of cable from it to the anchor a-head, participating of the strain communicated to the innermost one, checks its progress, and ensures to the vessel a greater security.

Where there is more room to drive without danger, and it blows so hard, that the sea runs too high for boats to work, an anchor is backed by clenching, round that part of the cable next the hawse hole, the end of a cable bent to another anchor on board. This being done, the second anchor is let go under foot; the ship is then suffered to drive, and the cable, by the driving of the ship, becomes tight from the ring of the anchor last down to its own anchor, which, by the driving also, is now become a cable's length a-head of the former anchor.


TO MOOR IN A TIDE'S WAY.

TO bring a ship up at high water, with an intention to moor with the best bower to the ebb, let go the best bower, and bring her up with the cable stoppered, until the ebb makes strong; then veer away two cables; and, if possible, assist her astern with the mizen-topsail. If, when the two cables are out and the ship in the stream of her anchor, it is thought, when moored, she will ride too near any other vessel, sheer her over from that vessel, and let go the small bower anchor; then ship the capstern bars, bring-to the best bower, veer away the small bower, and heave in the best bower to the whole cable service; then bitt and stopper the cables, leaving sufficient service within board, to freshen the hawse.


TO MOOR WITH AN OPEN HAWSE TO ANY PARTICULAR QUARTER.

SUPPOSE, for example, the roadstead or river intended to moor the ship in, to lie north and south, (in which direction the anchors are to be laid,) and that her best bower is carried on the larboard side, and it is meant, when moored, the ship shall swing with an open hawse to the eastward. In this case the best bower must be the northern anchor; but, if the hawse had been required to be open when her head was swung to the westward, the best bower must have been the southern anchor.

 

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OF KEEPING A CLEAR HAWSE.

WHEN a ship is moored, she is often thought to be in such a state of security, that the keeping a clear hawse is too often neglected.

If the hawse is clear, the ship must ever swing with her stern to the side on which the headmost cable leads.

If, to keep a clear hawse, the ship should swing with her stem to windward, it will be impracticable to get her the right way by any sail that can be set; for, as the tide slackens, she will fall wind-road; and, when the tide sets, it will take her upon the wrong side. However, if the wind continues, she cannot foul her hawse any more, as, at the next tide, the same wind will undo the cross it caused. When the wind is either a-head or a-stern, by the assistance of the mizen topsail or jib, the ship can mostly be made to swing the right way. For example, suppose the wind a-head, or even a little upon the starboard bow, and that the ship's stern is to swing to starboard: in this case, set the mizen topsail, with the starboard yard arms braced forward, haul up the starboard bowline, and hoist the jib with the sheet to windward; then, before the lee tide is done, put the helm to starboard, to give the ship a sheer, which will be preserved by the position of the sails. At slack water shift the helm: thus, when the tide makes, it will act against the larboard side of the rudder and stern, and very much assist to swing the ship the right way. Again, should the wind be a-stern, and a little upon the wrong quarter, if the helm be attended to, and the mizen topsail braced full the right way, in all probability the ship will swing as wanted.

If the helm were only properly attended, it would often save the labour of clearing the hawse.

It would be highly necessary, at all times, to have a small anchor and rope ready abaft, to run out and haul the ship round in calm weather.


HOW THE WEAKEST MOORINGS MAY BE BEST APPLIED TO HELP A SHIP TO RIDE OUT A STORM.

IT may happen that the small bower cable may be too much worn, or the small moorings known to be too weak, to ride a ship out a storm, when the anchor at the best cable is in danger, or expected to come home. In this case, to make the weak moorings serve for a backing to the best anchor and cable; contrive a traveller, of sufficient sized rope, to go slack round the best cable, without the hawse, and well secure it with rolling hitches seized to the weak moorings, that may be veered away, or let go, as occasion may require; if short of rope to make a proper traveller, a large stopper may be clapt on without the hawse, till the end of the small moorings is fastened round the best bower cable, with a bowline knot open enough to slide along the best cable, until it comes to the ring, which may prove such a sure backing, as to prevent its coming home.

When a ship is moored, attention must be paid to her swinging at the turn of tide, or shift of wind, to prevent the cables overlaying each other, or getting a foul hawse, which is prejudicial, as the cables chafe each other, and as the vessel is not in that perfect state of security enjoyed by riding with an open hawse. The explanation of this turn will be better comprehended by a reference to the plate,

 

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For example: if a ship be moored east and west, and swings to the northward, the cable of the anchor lying to the eastward, is from the hawse-hole on the larboard side, and that to the westward from the hawse-hole on the starboard side; should the wind or tide change, so as to bring the ship to the southward of her anchors, the western anchor will be on the larboard side the vessel, and the eastern anchor on the starboard side. These two cables (the one from out of the larboard hawse-hole, and leading toward the eastward, or starboard of the ship, and that from out of the starboard hawse-hole leading to the westward, or larboard side of the ship) must consequently cross each other; that by which she rode, when making the movement of swinging, remaining above the other. Suppose, in the present case, the ship has swung by the anchor to the western side, it will then be found in the position expressed in the plate, fig. 1.

If, in a second change of situation, the ship is observed to turn round the same anchor, and to the westward, the cross will be taken out, and the cables will resume their first disposition, as represented in the plate, fig. 1.

If, on the contrary, the cross is not taken out, but she swings to the eastward, the cross will be doubled, and form an elbow, fig. 2; and should the continue to turn westward to the southward, the cables will be again twisted, and form a round turn, as fig. 3, which should be carefully avoided.

When two cables are crossed, to take the cross out, the ship must swing to the upper cable, drawing it tight, and by that means slacking the other cable: when the cross is doubled, and becomes an elbow, the cable, which at first was the uppermost, being overlaid by the other, and making a turn, it is always on the first that the ship should make the evolution to take the turn out.

On the position to take out the cross in the cables, and prevent their taking a turn, the ship must be swung, making the circuit as on the plate.


OF CLEARING THE HAWSE.

THIS can only be attempted when the ship does not ride by the clearing cable. To execute it, bend a fish-hook to the fore-bowline, hook this to the cable the ship is riding by, below the turns in the hawse, and bowse it well up out of the water: then lash the cables together at the turns. If the cable, by which the hawse is cleared, leads on the starboard side, send the larboard fore-top bowline into the hawse-hole under the cable, or under and over, according as the cable to be cleared is either below or above the other, which must be bent about three fathoms within the hawse. Then send in the starboard bowline, which should be bent well in towards the end of the cable, and stopped along the cable at every fathom, and let a hawse rope be bent to the end of the cable. When all the bowlines are fast, unbit the cable, and haul out upon the starboard bowline: let the stops be cut, as the cable comes out of the hawse. When a long bight is out, haul upon the larboard bowline, and trice this bight up to the bowsprit. Should this one bight nor sufficiently expend the cable, that its end may be taken round the other, hang it to the bowsprit, and send down the larboard bowline for a second bight. When the end of the cable is round the other, shift the hawse rope, and haul it in again. The hawse being clear, bitt the cable and unlash it.

Should it blow fresh, and the tide run to windward, it will be imprudent to trust only to the lashings, lest the cable should run out end for end. In this case, bend a hawser, with a rolling hitch, to the clearing cable, below the turns in the hawse, and let it be hove tight, as a double security.

 

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If it is moderate weather and an easy tide, the hawse may be readily cleared, by bowsing the headmost cable well up out of the water, and bending to it a hawser from the hawse below the turns. Then unbit the cable, veer away upon the hawser, and pass the headmost cable round the other until its end is clear; then heave in upon the hawser, take in the cable, and bitt it. Should it come on to blow a gale of wind, when a ship is moored, from that quarter which will oblige her to ride equally by each cable, and the hawse is clear, it will be necessary to splice a second cable to the small bower, and to veer away equally upon both cables: but, should the hawse be foul, and it is expected that the cables will damage each other, bend a hawser below the turns in the hawse to the small bower, which slip, and let the ship swing to the best bower. When the weather moderates, heave in the end of the small bower, and the ship will be moored as before with a clear hawse.


OF GETTING UP OR WEIGHING ANCHOR


PREVIOUSLY to entering upon directions for UNMOORING and GETTING UNDER SAIL, it is necessary to shew the various modes of GETTING UP AN ANCHOR, as this operation is often requisite where it is not designed to unmoor; and as it is necessary to know how to overcome the difficulties of getting up an anchor in all cases whatever.


TO GET UP AN ANCHOR, IN SHIPS WHICH HAVE A MAIN AND JEER CAPSTERN.

IN large ships which have a main and jeer capstern, and the strain is thought too great for the messenger alone, the viol is used thus; three or four turns are taken round the jeer capstern with one end, so as to leave that side clear on which the cable is coming in; and pass the other end through the viol block, which is lashed round the main mast on the lower deck. It is then carried forward, and passed round the rollers in the manger near the hawse-holes; then brought aft, and spliced to the other end with a short splice, and the ends marled down tight. That side of the viol on which the cable is coming in is fastened to the cable by nippers; and thus the continued efforts of the capstern are conveyed to the cable, until it is hove in. The nippers are clapt on in the manger, from one to two fathoms asunder; and the viol is applied to the midship, or inside of the cable. Nippers are clapt on by taking three or four turns round the viol; four turns round the cable and viol; and then three or four turns round the cable., This method is an exceeding good one, and very suitable to quick heaving; but, when the strain is great, and the cable muddy, the nippers clapt on after this method will not nip sufficiently; and sometimes recourse is had to the following method: Throw sand or ashes upon the cable, and take a long dry nipper; which middle, and pass one half aft, racking

 

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it in and out round the cable and viol; then worm its end round the viol only. After this, pass the other half in the same manner forward, but worm its end round the cable only, and let each end of the nipper be held on. The advantages of this method are, that, as the strain of the cable lies forward, and that of the viol aft, the nipper will be drawn so tight as effectually to hold the cable till something gives way: Also they can never jamb, for both ends are clear for taking off. Another method, when the strain is great, is, to have nippers with an overhand knot made at one end; and with that end a round turn taken round the cable and viol, leaving three or four feet of the end; then, with the other end, take three or four racking turns, and expend nearly the remainder with turns round the cable and viol, laying the knotted end under and over each of the last turns; the end is then held fast. The men who clap on the nippers are attended by boys, who hold the ends of them; and follow the progression of the cable as it is hove in: and, as the nippers arrive near the main hatchway, they are taken off and carried forward, where they are again clapt on: and so in succession, until the cable is hove in sufficiently to raise the anchor above the water. It is then stoppered round all before the bitts: that is, round the cable and viol. The anchor is then catted, and afterwards fished. To shift the viol for heaving in a second anchor, it must be unspliced, and the turns round the capstern reversed. When the strain is so great as to require other purchases, the top tackles may be used thus: the double block is lashed to the main mast or topsail sheet bitts, the treble block is lashed on the cable, and the fall brought to the capstern. If the top tackle falls are thought insufficient, any hawser may be used that will reeve through the blocks.


TO GET UP AN ANCHOR IN SHIPS WHICH HAVE NOT A JEER CAPSTERN.

SHIPS without a jeer capstern have no viol, but heave in their cables by the messenger, which has an eye spliced in each end; one of which ends is passed with three or four turns round the capstern on the upper deck, and the other end is passed forward round the rollers, at the forepart of the manger; then brought aft to the other end, and lashed thus: several turns are passed through the eyes crossing each other in the middle, then a half hitch is taken round the parts, and the ends stopped with spunyarn. The remainder of the operation is performed as by the viol, with this exception, the messenger is applied to the outside of the cable; and, when the nippers are insufficient, the messenger may be hitched thus: the bight of the messenger is fastened round the cable at the manger with a rolling hitch, and the bight seized round the cable before the hitch: This practice is by no means so good as the others.

When getting under way in a sea gale, a viol is better than a messenger, as the sending of the ship carries all the strain to the main capstern, and endangers the men at the bars; whereas, with a viol, the strain is taken to the viol block, and the men at the fore jeer capstern heave in security.


TO GET UP A SECOND ANCHOR.

SUPPOSE, by the former methods, that the starboard anchor is gotten up, and that the cable of the second anchor enters the larboard hawse-hole, the operation of getting up the second anchor

 

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is the same, observing only, that the messenger must be shifted, and the turns on the capstern reversed, to change the disposition and side: and the men, who before held on the larboard side in the first operation, will hold on the starboard side now: the motion of the capstern is performed the contrary way, and the cable on the larboard side is fixed and hove in.


TO GET UP AN ANCHOR IN MERCHANT-SHIP.

Most merchant-ships and small vessels heave up their anchors by a windlass; round which are taken three turns of the cable, and held on by hand, or by a jigger, thus: The end of the rope which has the sheave is passed round the cable, with a round turn, close to the windlass, the leading part of the rope coming over the sheave, and stretched aft, by means of the fall passing through the jigger block; the standing part of the fall is made fast round a stantion, at the fore part of the quarter deck, and the leading part is bowsed upon, which jambs the turns taken round the cable; and, when the jigger arrives abreast of the hatchway, it constantly removes forward, and the cable is jambed by a handspeck at the windlass, until the jigger is refixed.


TO WEIGH AN ANCHOR WITH THE LONG BOAT.

THIS is done, by taking the long boat to the buoy of the anchor, and putting the buoy rope over the davit of the long boat, and a tackle on the buoy rope; by which, with the assistance of men on the fall, the anchor is weighed out of the ground. This being accomplished, the cable is hove in on-board; the buoy rope and tackle being second in the boat, they-approach the ship as the cable is hove in, and the anchor catted and stowed. Small anchors and grapnels are got up by the davit, hauling upon the cable or grapnel rope by hand.


TO WEIGH AN ANCHOR BY UNDER-RUNNING.

THIS is by placing the cable over the davit-head, and under-running it, till it is nearly a-peek, when it is tripped by means of tackles as before by the buoy rope. This method is troublesome, and is only adopted when the buoy is gone, and a ship cannot get near her anchor for want of water.


OF CUTTING OR SLIPPING THE CABLE TO MAKE SAIL.

THIS is a quick but very expensive method, and practised but in cases of the greater necessity; such as when the anchor is hooked to rocks, and cannot be purchased; in bad weather; when at anchor on a lee shore and in danger of being embayed; or when compelled to fly from or pursue an enemy. The cable is cut by an axe at the hawse-holes or at the bits. Slipping the cable, if time

 

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will permit, (which prevents losing the anchor and cable, and is more prudent than cutting,) is by letting the cable run out end for end. Observing however before it is either cut or slipped to pass a spare buoy rope in the hawse-hole, and fasten it near the end with a rolling hitch, worm the end in the cuntline and stop it, that it may be easily regained.


TO SWEEP AN ANCHOR.

TO sweep an anchor, is seeking at the bottom for one lost, by means of a rope called a sweep. This rope has its two ends made fast to two boats abreast of each other, at a small distance asunder. On the bight of the sweep is fixed a weight of shot, &c. to keep it at the bottom. The two boats row on toward the place where the anchor is supposed to be, and consequently draw along the sweep; which, taking the bottom, hooks or entangles itself with the object of their search. The boats then row across each other twice, so as to take a round turn with the sweep, which being a hawser, both parts are brought into the hawse-hole, and to the capstern; (or if small to the long boat;) and hove in upon as before.


TO UNMOOR.


SHOULD the ship to be unmoored have her best bower to the ebb, let her be unmoored upon the ebb tide: but, if there were a necessity to unmoor upon the flood, the stream cable must be spliced to the small bower, supposing the small bower has but one cable. To unmoor upon the ebb, when it has made strong, veer away the best bower, bring to and heave in the small bower, and keep veering away the bell, till the small bower is up-and-down; then stopper the best bower.

The small bower being up, cat the anchor, shift the messenger, bring-to the best bower, and heave in to the whole or half-cable service, as may be thought necessary, then bit the cable, and fish the small bower anchor.

Should a ship be under the necessity of unmooring upon a windward tide with a strong wind, it will be very difficult and dangerous to take up the sternmost anchor. In this case, if there be no ships in the way, the headmost anchor may be the first taken up with safety, and the sternmost cable be hove in towards slack water,

 

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OF GETTING UNDER SAIL.


SOME general observations relative to getting under sail are very necessary to be attended to.

Whenever a ship is preparing to get under sail, the topsail yards ought to be at the mast-head, and her sails stopped with rope yarns. And indeed all persons that pique themselves on rapid execution ought to observe this precaution when the wind is not too powerful.

When the tide takes a ship on the beam, and she is to cast the other way, it is evident that the tiller in the first instant must be put on the side the current runs from, because the rudder will be in such a situation as to receive very obliquely the impulse of the fluid, and consequently will but little oppose the ship's falling off, provided the ship's velocity does not exceed that of the current.

When in a situation where it is indifferent whether the ship be cast one way or the other, always let it be to leeward of the anchor, that there may be no risk of its getting foul of the cutwater.

It happens sometimes, in getting under sail, that you are obliged to heave the anchor up to leeward; which often requires a dangerous strain to the capstern; because the ship, driving to leeward as soon as the anchor is a-weigh, causes the cable to girt against the lee bow, and the stock of the anchor is very apt to catch the cutwater. To avoid this, let the ship, (if you are near the land) get offing enough to wear and bring the anchor on the weather bow: then the ship, lying to leeward of the anchor, or standing-on under an easy sail, drifts, and consequently leaves the anchor disengaged to windward; in which situation it may be hove with facility.


TO GET UNDER SAIL WHEN THE SHIP IS SWINGING HEAD TO WIND, AND YOU WANT TO CAST EITHER TO STARBOARD OR LARBOARD, IN A PLACE WHERE THERE IS No CURRENT.

TO CAST TO STARBOARD.

HEAVE short on your anchor till it is a-peek: then haul in quite home the larboard braces forward, and starboard braces abaft: loosen, sheet-home, and hoist the topsails, should they not be so already: put the helm a-starboard, and heave till the anchor is a-weigh. The moment the anchor quits the ground, the ship will begin to fall off to starboard. As soon as this movement is perceived hoist the jib and fore-topmast stay-sail, if necessary, to help her: and, when she has sufficiently fallen off, her sails abaft (which are trimmed sharp for the larboard tack) will fill. But, unless for very superior reasons, you had better continue lying-to till the anchor is catted, taking care to haul the mizen-sheets close aft, if the ship be inclined to fall off too much.

 

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TO CAST TO LARBOARD.

HAUL in the starboard braces forward, and the larboard aft, and put the helm a-port. The rest of the operation is the same as the preceding; and will be equally proved in the following demonstration, by only changing starboard for port.

DEMONSTRATION.

YOU heave short before the top-sails are loosened, in order to facilitate the working of the capstern, which would require dangerous efforts, if they were set; since they would be a-back, and consequently in a situation to send the ship a-stern; whereas she should go a-head when you are heaving on your cable. The larboard braces are hauled in forwards, because in that situation, the sails are so braced as to cast the ship's head to starboard, since they make with the keel the most acute angle possible a-starboard forward, and are at the same time a-back. Besides, the after-sails being braced sharp up to starboard, are also taken a-back like the others, and receive the wind in such a manner as to turn the after-part to port. So that there are always two powers acting in contrary directions, one before and the other abaft the center of gravity of the ship; the one forcing the fore-part to starboard, and the other impelling the after-part to larboard. As these two effects cannot happen without the ship's going a-stern the moment the anchor quits the ground, since she is no longer with-held by any thing, and is moved by an exterior power, the fluid, which carries her in this direction, part of the effect of her sails giving her stern-way (§ 21.); it follows, that the helm must be put to starboard, that the rudder may help her after-part round to larboard (§ 58). Thus every thing is disposed to make the ship fall off to starboard. The jib and fore-topmast stay-sail are not added, unless there be reasons to fear the ship will not fall off fast enough; and when you find she has sufficiently done so, the mizen is to be hauled out, to procure the contrary effect, and thereby to counterbalance the jib and stay sail, which it is very often necessary to keep set.


TO GET UNDER SAIL, WHEN THE SHIP IS RIDING HEAD TO WIND AND TIDE.

IF a ship, riding head to wind and tide, wanted to get under sail; after having decided on which side it is best to have her cast, it must be performed according to one of the foregoing methods, except with regard to the helm, which must be put to starboard, either before the anchor loosens, or while it does, if you wish to cast to port; because the water, coming from forward, acts with the same force on the rudder as if the ship went with the current, impelling the rudder to starboard, and the head to port. Therefore it is evident, in this case, the helm ought to be put to starboard; which, on the contrary, would be put to larboard, was the ship to be cast to port.

If the ship, after the anchor is out of the ground, goes a-stern faster than the current runs, the helm must then be used as if there was no current, because the excess of velocity, whereby the ship exceeds that of the water, acts upon the rudder.

If it blows fresh, so that you cannot set your topsails without reefing them, let that be done before they are sheeted home; and if it blew so hard as to be obliged to go only under a fore-sail, it

 

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would be then sufficient to loosen the fore-topsail, without sheeting it home, after having braced it quite close on the side opposite to that you want the ship to cast, not forgetting however to put the helm the same way as you call, as soon as you perceive the ship going a-stern; and when the ship has fallen off sufficiently, then is the time to fill and trim the fore-sail.


TO GET UNDER SAIL WHEN THE SHIP IS SWINGING WITH HER HEAD TO THE CURRENT, AND WITH THE WIND A-POINT ABAFT THE BEAM.

THE topsails being stopped with rope-yarns, let them and the mizen topsail be hoisted, and properly trimmed, as if they were set; and, when every thing is properly disposed, heave short on your anchor till it is a-peek; next to this, loosen, sheet home the fore-sail and mizen topsail, keeping the wind in, and heave vigorously at the capstern till the anchor is a-weigh. At the same time hoist the jib and fore-topmast stay-sail, or haul out the mizen, according as circumstances may require. Whether you wish to come to windward, or fall off more quickly, you must still continue to heave round the capstern briskly to get the anchor up, till you find yourself sufficiently offward to bring to, in order to stow it with ease, or to stand on under an easy sail with the anchor hanging out to windward, if the situation of things will admit of it. You may sometimes also hoist up both the main and fore topsails, as soon as you get ready; but, in certain cases, as when obliged to make the best of your way from an enemy, every sail possible must be set at once which the weather will admit of; especially when obliged to haul by the wind; in which case, the anchor must be got up and catted as well as it can: there are cases even when, without losing your time in weighing it, you crowd as many sails as you possibly can, and depart in cutting or slipping the cable.

DEMONSTRATION.

THE topsails and mizen topsail are hoisted up, because the sails in that situation are more easily sheeted home and trimmed; and because, as soon as the rope-yarns are cut, the sails fill, and give the ship head way, the moment the anchor quits the ground. The mizen topsail is used to make the ship steer well, by keeping it either filled or loose to the wind, according as the ship is griping or the contrary.


TO GET UNDER SAIL WITH A SPRING.

IF a ship be in a place too confined to cast under her sails only, or being obliged to put to sea in a gale of wind, without hoisting the anchors; you must, for greater safety, in casting the right way, get a spring out, to be clapped on the cable by which the ship swings, by passing a hawser or a stream cable through the aftermost port, on the opposite side to that you mean to cast; and, after that springs is well hove tight at the capstern, hoist the jib and fore-topmast stay-sails, look, and sheet home the fore-topsail; when that is done, and if the weather permits, brace quite close the head sails on the same side with the spring. When this is executed, slip or cut the cable, heaving briskly at the same time on the spring, till the ship has paid off sufficiently. Then fill the sails, by setting the mizen topsail

 

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and every other sail you mean to employ, and slip or cut the spring, as circumstances may require. Care must be taken, not to let the ship fall off too much before the spring is cut; because, having no way through the water, she will not come to the wind so soon as might be wished; and, for the same reason, the spring must not be cut, till she has fallen off as much as is necessary; because, although she has no other motion but that of falling off, the vessel might perhaps not wear enough to answer the purpose.

DEMONSTRATION.

AS the reasons have been shewn before why the head sails are braced up on the opposite side to that on which the ship casts, they need not be repeated here. Although we suppose the wind so strong as to keep the ship wind-road, it may be proved that the ship turns almost on the middle of her length; since the moment the fore part begins its movement of falling off on one side, the after part makes another to approach the point from which the head is receding. Now she turns so much the more surely on her center, and her evolution is so much the more rapid, as the force used in heaving at the capstern is stronger: because the more powerful the heaving is, the more of the hawser comes in, and consequently the more easily and with the greatest rapidity will the after part approach the point the head of the ship has left.

When she has fallen off enough, slip the spring, because she gathers head-way in proportion as the sails are filling, and in that case the hawser would only hinder the ship going a-head, or cause her to fall off more, which would be equally prejudicial. The hawser or stream cable is passed aft as far as possible; because, being at the extremity of the ship, the capstern strains less, and the vessel turns with more celerity.

If this operation is performed when it blows hard, you must not sheet home the fore-topsail: for, if the wind is absolutely too strong, you must only loosen this sail, and hoist the fore-topmast staysail: but, if the weather is pretty tolerable, it will be found sufficient to sheet home the fore-topsail without hoisting it.


TO GET UNDER SAIL WITH A LEADING WIND IN A TIDE WAY.

IF the ship to be got under sail has a leading wind, and is in the midst of vessels, or in a narrow channel, where it would be difficult to cast her upon the lee tide, she should be got under sail before the weather tide is done. Thus the casting of the ship would be avoided, and she may be steered through the fleet, or channel, with safety.

Should it, however, blow so fresh upon the windward tide, as to force the ship end-on with her cable, it will be impossible to heave it in, without sheering the ship over from side to side, and heaving in briskly, as the ship slacks the cable; but, as this is attended with much danger, by the ship suddenly bringing up upon each sheer, it will be best to heave a-peek upon the first setting of the windward tide, before the ship swings, to bring the wind aft.

 

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TO CAST A SHIP UPON THE LARBOARD TACK, AND BACK HER A-STERN OF DANGER.

WE suppose the ship to lie at single anchor, with the wind and tide the same way, and ships or shoals right a-stern, in the intended course, and that, to clear them, you must cast upon the larboard tack, and make a stern board.

Make every thing as ready as possible before weighing: let the three topsails be hoisted, the yards braced up sharp with the larboard braces, and the mizen hauled out. Thus situated, when the anchor weighs, put the helm a-port. The tide, running aft, acts against the starboard side of the rudder; and, in that direction, it will cast the ship the right way, and bring the wind upon the larboard bow. The wind may be thus kept, at pleasure, by the helm, till the ship begins to get sternway through the water, which should be attentively noticed, to put the helm hard a-port. The wind, being on the larboard bow and the topsails a-back, will soon give the ship sternway through the water; then the water will act against the larboard side of the rudder, and powerfully prevent the ship falling too fast off from the wind. Thus she will drive till the anchor is got quite up, and may be so continued till she has past the shoals, and has room to veer, and get upon her proper course.

It is advantageous to make a stern board in getting under way from a single anchor in the above situation. The anchor heaves up more easily when the ship goes a-stern; and, while heaving up, it serves to keep the ship's head to the wind. A ship, however, cannot long be steered stern foremost when under sail, so as to keep the wind before the beam; but she will in a little time drive broadside through the water, till she gets headway, and then it is proper to veer, provided the anchor be quite up.


TO CAST A SHIP ON THE LARBOARD TACK, IN A TIDE WAY, WITH THE WIND TWO POINTS ON THE STARBOARD BOW.

A ship riding in a tide-way, with the wind two points on the starboard bow, and so near the shore on the larboard side, that she must be cast upon the larboard tack, to clear the shore, the three topsails, must be hoisted, and the yards sharp braced up, with the larboard braces forward, and the starboard braces aft, with the starboard fore top bowline well hauled, putting the helm hard to port, at the anchor's weighing; the tide acting upon the rudder, and the wind upon the sails braced in that direction, brings the ship about, with the wind on the larboard bow, before she gets sternway, which should be always strictly noticed; for, in all proceedings of this kind, if a ship gets sternway, before she brings the wind right a-head, she will not come about the right way. In that case, it is best to veer away the cable directly, and bring the ship up again: and carry out a kedge or small anchor, on the larboard bow, hauling its cable or hawser in tight, on the larboard quarter, when the bower anchor's a-peek. If this fail, the ship must lie till the windward tide makes, to bring the wind on the larboard bow, when the ship may be got under-way, and clear the shore.

 

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TO CAST A SHIP UPON THE LARBOARD TACK, AND SHOOT HER BY THE WIND A-HEAD OF DANGER.

IF there is but just room enough close by the wind to clear a danger lying to leeward, much depends on heaving up briskly the anchor after it is out of the ground, and having proper sails ready to set to the best advantage. The three topsails must be hoisted, and the yards sharp braced up with the larboard braces forward, and the starboard braces aft, when the anchor is at a long peek. At weighing the anchor, put the helm hard to port, then the action of the tide upon the rudder, and the wind on the fore-topsail will cast the ship off the right way, so as to fill the after sails, when the foretopsail may be soon braced about and filled before she gets sternway. The helm will keep the ship under command sufficiently to steer her by the wind a-head clear of danger; but, if the ship gets sternway in casting, the helm should be kept hard a-weather to prevent her falling off too much from the wind; and, when she gets headway again, be cautious how the weather helm is eased with the anchor much below the bows, by which the resistance forward is increased, and the ship may be brought up in the wind, so as to prevent her shooting clear of the danger. This must be guarded against by the weather helm, and head sails, as jib, fore-topmast &c. As soon as the ship has shot far enough a-head to clear the danger to leeward, and there be but little room a-head, it is best to bring the ship to and drive with the helm a-lee with the main and mizen topsail aback, and the fore-topsail shivering till the anchor is up, then take proper time to veer.


TO CAST A SHIP ON THE LARBOARD TACK, WHEN RIDING WITH THE WIND RIGHT A-HEAD, AND TO VEER HER SHORT ROUND BEFORE THE WIND IN LITTLE ROOM.

THE head sails should only be loose, viz. the fore-topsail hoisted and the foresail loose, braced sharp up with the larboard braces, the jib and fore-topmast staysail set, with the larboard sheets flat aft, When the anchor is a-peek, and a lee tide running, at weighing the anchor the helm should be put to port so far as to bring the wind two points on the larboard bow, which should be kept so by steering the ship till the tide ceases to run aft. Then put the helm hard to starboard, or a-lee; and when the ship gets sternway, the water will act powerfully on the starboard, or lee side of the rudder, turning the ship's stem to windward, whilst the wind, acting at the same time upon the head sails a-back, will box her round off upon her heel, so as to bring the wind nearly aft, by the time she loses her sternway. Then the ship will cease falling off and soon get head-way, which should be attended to, and the head sails braced about flat with the starboard braces, and the helm shifted hard to port at the same time.

When there is no tide, but still water at weighing the anchor, the helm must be hard to starboard; and, as the ship gets sternway, the water meets with so much resistance against the starboard side of the rudder in that direction, that the rudder acts with great power to turn the ship's stern round to port, and the head sails being set and trimmed as before mentioned, and the foresail let fall with the starboard bowline hauled close forward, will assist to cast the ship so far round the right way, by the time she looses her sternway, as then to permit your proceeding as before directed. To ensure success, heave the anchor up briskly. The same methods are adopted in casting the ship on the starboard tack, only the helm and sails are managed the contrary way.

 

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ON TACKING.


TO TACK A SHIP IN GETTING TO WINDWARD AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE.

TO execute this with propriety, care must be taken that the ship does not yaw, that she is not too near or too far from the wind; because both situations are equally prejudicial.

When this medium is obtained, haul the mizen out, while you put at the same time the helm a-lee, and brace the bowline quite to leeward, that the mizen may be as much as possible exposed to the wind. When the ship is come to the wind, so as to cause the square sails to shiver let go the jib and all the staysail sheets before the main mast: at the moment when all the sails catch a-back, and particularly the mizen topsail, let it be braced sharp about the other way; hauling up at the same time the weather clue of the main sail; and, when the wind is right a-head, or even a little before, haul the main sail, and trim sharp for the other tack as fast as possible. The jib and staysail sheets are also to be shifted over at the same time, in righting the helm, whether the ship has lost her way, or even still advances a-head. Then, as soon as she has passed the direction of the wind about 45°, in continuing her evolution, shift the foremast's sails, which are to be trimmed with the same celerity as in putting the helm a-lee, if you fear the ship (which must still go a-stern if the operation be slowly executed) will not fall off sufficiently: for, if the sails are braced about briskly, she will never have sternway; on the contrary, she will get a great deal to windward.

DEMONSTRATION.

IF the ship be too near the wind, when the helm is put a-lee, she will most probably miss stays; since not having sufficient way through the water, the rudder will not have a sufficient power to cause the ship to double the critical point where all the sails shiver. The power of the rudder to turn the ship, is in proportion to the force with which the water strikes it (§ 58). Hence it follows, that if the ship has not sufficient velocity, the rudder will not have force enough to cause her to double the point, where all that can augment or keep up the rapidity of sailing (and of consequence the power of the helm) will cease, the sails being all shivering. The ship must then necessarily fall off, since the helm is a-lee, and none of her sails tend to shoot her a-head. On the contrary, her mizen being out, and braced quite to leeward, forces the stern and the ship athwart (§ 40.); while, by the wind which strikes her sails, rigging, and hull, she is but too ready to drive a-stern, as a ship always finds great difficulty to divide the fluid laterally. Thus it is clear, that, every thing being disposed for driving the ship the sternway, she must infallibly both go a-stern and leeward (§ 58). This is confirmed by experience; for, whenever a ship misses stays, she is visibly perceived to fall abaft.

 

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If, previous to tacking a ship is kept too much a-way, she will be longer in ranging to the wind; which must consequently be disadvantageous to the evolution. We should not have mentioned this custom, did not many seamen, through mere habit, put it in practice, and thereby fail in this operation, which would however have succeeded, had they not had the habit of letting go the fore-jib, and staysail sheets. When these have been kept fast, the edging away can only prolong the time of the evolution; but, if the fore, jib, and staysail sheets be let go, as a great many do at every turn, and as in some particular cases it is really found necessary, care must be taken not to suffer the ship to fall off too much: because the velocity of the ship not being sufficiently kept up (§ 46.) till the ship comes to the wind, it follows that she has lost a good deal of it, before she arrives at the critical part of the evolution, where all the sails shake. So that, when the ship is at that point, the velocity is so much diminished, the rudder has not power enough to make her double it: on the other hand, the fore part of the ship is no longer carried to the wind with the same force, since the vessel no longer shocks the fluid (§ 47.) with her first velocity.

The mizen is hauled out to help the rudder; because these two forces act together in impelling the after part of the ship to leeward (§ 40. & § 50). When the helm is a-lee, the ship of course comes head to wind; and continues that circular motion, first by the effect of the rudder, till the head way ceases, and then by that of the mizen, till the other sails take the wind from it. Therefore, when the mizen is becalmed by the other sails, the evolution is sure, as this could not happen if those sails were not taken a-back.

You must wait till the square sails begin to shiver, before letting go the jib and all the staysail sheets before the main mast; because, till that moment, these sails concur to maintain an equilibrium with the others, and keep up the ship's velocity; since it is the disposition of the different sails set on the different parts of the ship, which gives her more or less way through the water (§ 46). These however being now the only sails which tend to make the ship fall off (§ 31.), since they are the only sails full, the others being shivering, it is absolutely necessary at this moment to suppress that effect, since it is contrary to the movement of coming to; the action of the mizen is, however, to be preserved as long as possible, in order to help the rudder, which, in keeping up the movement of rotation of the ship, will soon make her clear the critical point of the evolution.

Experience teaches that the motion of the ship, in coming to the wind, at the moment the jib and staysail sheets are let go, is very rapid, provided the other sails shiver; because the velocity of the ship, at that moment, is as great as when all the sails were exposed to the impulsion of the wind. Consequently, the effort of the rudder is likewise very powerful (§ 50.), since the rapidity of sailing has not diminished.

The mizen sail is to be braced up so far as to join the main shrouds to windward; because in that situation it is exposed as much as it possibly can to the wind, and receives consequently a stronger and longer impulsion; and, again, because it is trimmed as it will remain even after the evolution has been performed.

The mizen topsail should be braced about as soon as it is taken a-back, because it will then impel the stem to leeward, jointly with the mizen (§ 44,), and, by this new disposition, accelerate the evolution: whereas, if it were continued in its first situation, it would retard the circular motion of the ship, by impelling the after part to windward (§ 45). It will also, in this situation become very useful, in moderating the stern and lee way of the ship.

At this same time, the weather clue and sheets of the main sail are hauled up, in order that all may be ready to brace round for the other tack.

 

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The main sails are to be hauled about and filled when the wind is right a-head; because 1st, at this time the sails on that mast are becalmed by those of the fore mast: 2dly, should they be left longer in this situation, they would counteract the head sails (§ 37, § 38, § 44, & § 45.) which are braced up for the same tack, and in the same manner; and, finally, because, were it not for this, the sine of incidence of the wind on them would be continually increasing as the ship were falling off, which would more and more retard her bearing away.

It is, notwithstanding, not untrue, that the evolution would be more rapid, if the sails on the main mast were filled as soon as they are taken a-back: because (§ 44.) they would impel the after part of the ship to leeward. But, this effect of the after sails ought not to be attended to, except when the ship has lost her velocity, and the rudder its power. Whence it must be concluded, that the ship will always fall off with great celerity, as soon as the main sail is hauled.

The jib and staysail sheets are also shifted at this time, if they have not been lowered before; because, if sooner, they would take the wind in again, which must not be done before the ship has fallen off sufficiently to clear the direction of the wind.

The helm is to be righted if the ship has lost her way; because, if it were continued a-lee, as in the first instant, and the ship should get sternway, the rudder (§ 58.) would oppose the evolution, which must now be finished with sufficient rapidity by the whole effect of the head sails, as those are now fully exposed to the power of the wind. Great care must be taken not to slack the bow lines, as is often done by people who act more from custom than reflection.

The head sails are to be braced about and filled, when the ship has got over the direction of the wind by 45°, or thereabouts; because, if they were left longer a-back, the motion of falling off the ship would become too rapid, and too great. If they are braced about briskly at the time before mentioned, they may be made to shiver, which, by diminishing their effect, will moderate the great velocity of falling off which the ship has acquired (§ 37).

The helm ought to be put a-lee (§ 58.) if the ship goes a-stern, to aid her falling off, which is now carried on only by the jib and stay sails before the center of gravity. Thus the ship falls off moderately, in yielding to the wind by 12° or 20° only, more large than if close hauled; because the after sails, being trimmed sharp, soon bring the ship to the wind, and give her head way (§ 41). Let it not be forgotten, that the helm ought not to be put a-lee in hauling off all, unless you judge the ship not sufficiently inclined to fall off, which however seldom happens when she is come to this point.

THE DEMONSTRATION OF THIS EVOLUTION COMPREHENDS THE WHOLE PLAY OF THE SAILS AND OF THE RUDDER; SO THAT ALL OTHER DEMONSTRATIONS MIGHT BE CONSIDERED AS SO MANY COROLLARIES DEDUCED FROM IT.


TO TACK A SHIP, WITHOUT ENDEAVOURING TO GET TO WINDWARD.

THERE are circumstances sometimes when it is found necessary to tack, without caring much whether the ship looses to windward. For, example; when a ship is found suddenly to be close to the land; in the night, or in foggy weather; near a danger, or some vessel, which must instantly be avoided by staying the ship, because you find yourself to windward, and too near the object from which you wish to recede. In this case, when it is necessary to deaden the ship's way, and tack at the same time, you must suddenly put the helm hard a-lee; and, in the same instant, let go the jib,

 

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fore, and stay sail sheets, without touching the bow-lines; and great care must be taken that the effect of the mizen is preserved as much as possible. When the sails begin to shiver, the mizen is to be hauled quite in the lee braces: then, if the ship takes well the wind a-head, the remainder of the operation must be executed as directed in the preceding case: but, if you should miss stays, you must proceed according to the second method of veering, called BOXHAULING.

DEMONSTRATION.

It is easily conceived that, in letting go the fore, the jib, and staysail sheets, the ship's head way will be diminished (§ 46), while, at the same time, almost all the forces forward are taken away which might hinder her coming to the wind (§ 31): therefore the ship must come to it rapidly, by the effect of her after sails (§ 41. ) which are trimmed sharp, and by the power of the helm (§ 50), till all the sails shake. It is also easy to conceive that when the mizen is hauled in the lee braces, it has a greater power to impel the after part of the ship to leeward, and the sails consequently to take a-back. So that the ship's head way will the sooner be stopped; and, the fore sheet being gone, the sail to windward makes a large cavity between the mast and shrouds; which very much contributes to send the ship a-stern. Attention ought therefore to be paid to catch the instant, when the head way ceases, to shift the helm and aid the ship in her evolution; as we hinted already. The reason this method is not always practised, is because the ship would lose a deal of ground in driving to leeward, in wearing thus. It ought, therefore, never to be used but when necessity obliges, and the vessel has good way through the water; for, if she has not, she will generally miss stays.


TO TACK A SHIP IN A DANGEROUS ROUGH SEA WHEN HER STAYING IS DOUBTFUL.

LET every thing be got clear and ready; the hands at their proper stations; the sails trimmed fair; and the ship steered just full, and close by the wind. Take the advantage of the smoothest time when the ship has the most head way. The other necessary precautions are, to haul down the jib, if set, and not to put the helm a-lee all at once, but to luff the ship up by degrees, to shake the sails. When they shake, give these orders-The helm hard a-lee; let go the lee sheets forward, but not the lee braces and foretop bowline, as that usual practice backs the head sails too soon, and stops the ship's head way, which ought to continue to give power to the helm, till the wind is brought a-head, or the ship will not stay. Raise tacks and sheets, and main sail haul, when the wind is a-point on the weather bow: this swings the yards round sharp, that the main tack may be got close down, whilst the head sails becalm the fore leech of the main and main topsails; while the wind, blowing aslant on the after leech of these sails, acts jointly with the rudder to turn the ship's stem, so as to bring her about the right way. When she has fallen off five or six points, let go and haul.

When a ship comes about, she is sure to have sternway by the time the head sails are hauled: therefore, the helm should not then be shifted a-lee, but should be kept hard a-weather, till her sternway ceases. The water acting upon the weather side of the rudder prevents the ship falling round off from the wind, which the helm, when hard a-lee, occasions, while the sternway continues, Notice should be made by the compass, that the ship continues coming about till the wind is on the

 

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other bow; for, if she stops with the wind a-head, and her headway is perceived to be done, the helm should be directly shifted to the other side, so that, by the sternway, the water may act upon the rudder and bring her about, and then the helm should not be kept a-lee, but directly shifted and kept hard a-weather, till her sternway ceases. For the reason just given the head sails may be hauled as soon as possible; for the ship will be sure to fall off the faster and faster in proportion to her sternway; so that the weather braces should be tended, to prevent the head yards flying fore and aft, as they will do when it blows fresh; and to keep the head sails shivering, that the fore tack may be got close down easily, and the ship stopt the sooner from falling off. Shift the helm a-lee when the sternway ceases; and the head sails may be trimmed sharp as the ship is perceived to come-to.


ON TURNING TO WINDWARD IN VERY NARROW CHANNELS.

AT weighing, if the wind is partly across the tide, it will cast the ship with her head towards the weather shore, which she may be kept clear off, by driving with the sails a-back till the anchor is up and stowed; and, as the tack towards the weather shore, is the shortest, it is prudent to back, as near the lee side as possible, in order to make the first board the longer; to get the three topsails, jib, staysail, and mizen, properly set; and to get all ready in time for tacking. Make as bold as possible with the weather shore, because on that side a ship is always surest in coming about; and, in case of missing stays, a ship may be backed off from the weather shore, till she has room to fill and set the sails, and get sufficient headway, to try her in stays again, without danger. But, when the ship is got about, and standing towards the lee shore, it may be necessary to put her in stays in good time; because she does not so certainly stay, when going slanting with the tide as when going across it.

By staying her thus in good time, if she even miss stays, there may be room enough to fill, and try her the second time, or to use such means as may prevent her going on shore.

But, when the wind is right against the tide, which begins to make to windward, be cautious not to weigh the anchor, till the ship swings end-on to the tide, and brings the wind so far aft, that she may be steered right against the tide till the anchor is up and stowed, and the sails with which the ship is to work are all ready.

Haul the wind and get ready for tacking, when you are close over to one side, to gain the whole breadth of the channel for getting underway. For this purpose, let the first trip be made as short as possible, till it is found how the ship works upon both tacks; and then make longer or shorter boards accordingly, but take care not to stand into an eddy tide, on either side, which has often occasioned ships to miss stays, and go on shore. If a ship will not stay, she must be veered, box hauled, or club hauled.

 

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OF VEERING.


TO VEER A SHIP WITHOUT LOSING THE WIND OUT OF HER SAILS.

TO execute this evolution, both the main sail and mizen must be hauled up, the helm put a weather, and the mizen topsail a shivering, which will be kept so till the wind be right aft, suppressing for that purpose the effect of all the staysails abaft the center of gravity. As the ship falls off, (which she will do very rapidly,) round in the weather braces of the sails on the fore and main mast, keeping them exactly trimmed to the direction of the wind, and remembering also that the bow-lines are not to be started till the ship begins to veer. As she falls off, ease away the fore sheet, raise the fore tack, and get aft the weather sheet, as the lee one is eased off; so that, when the ship is right before the wind, the yards will be exactly square. Then shift over the jib and staysail sheets; and the ship continuing her evolution, haul on board the fore and main tacks, and trim all sharp fore and aft, remembering to haul aft the mizen and mizen staysail sheets as soon as they will take the right way, or when the ship's stern has a little passed the direction of the wind. When the wind is on the beam, right the helm, to moderate the great velocity with which the ship comes-to; the sails being trimmed, stand on by the wind.

DEMONSTRATION.

THE main sail and mizen are hauled up, and the mizen topsail shivered, in order to facilitate the evolution (§ 40 & 41). The main sail, however, might be excepted from this rule, by letting go the main sheet (§ 49), and working it like the main topsail. The helm is put a-weather, because, in that situation, the rudder (§ 50.) causes the ship to fall off, or yield to the impulse of the wind, by impelling the after part of the ship to windward with so much the more velocity as the power of the head sails exceeds that of those abaft (§ 47), and as, the rapidity of sailing increasing, the effect of the helm augments in the same proportion. The sails are trimmed to the direction of the wind, as the ship veers, to increase her head way, and of course the power of the rudder (§ 58); which, in great evolutions, is the chief mover, and principal agent of the movement of the ship. So that, its effects being augmented, the ship's circular motion is of course accelerated in the same ratio; and, if the wind be well followed, every sail will be found properly trimmed when the evolution is finished. Since the sails must kept in a proper situation with respect to the wind, except the mizen topsail, (which, from its situation on the after extremity of the ship, would retard her veering), the fore sheet must be eased off to leeward, and gathered aft to windward, but in proportion as the ship falls off. It is also evident, for the same reason, that the bowlines must not be started, till the ship begins

 

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to veer. When the wind is right aft, the jib and staysail sheets, which are then becalmed by the square sails, are shifted, because the ship coming to the wind, they are ready trimmed, and highly serviceable in keeping her under command.

The mizen is hauled out as soon as the ship's stern has passed the direction of the wind, to accelerate her coming to (§ 40); and the sails fore and aft ought to be trimmed sharp at the same moment, in order to keep to the wind without losing any time. For the above-mentioned reasons the main tack is got on board, and the sheet aft, when the wind is on the quarter.


TO VEER A SHIP THAT HAS LOST HER FORE MAST.

RUN out the end of a cable or hawser over the lee-quarter, and buoy it up from the ground with empty casks, &c. in case of coming into shoals water, with little wind. This will assist the helm with such power, as to make the ship veer and steer at pleasure.

A spare yard or boom, rigged out abaft the mizen shrouds, may guy the end of the cable or hawser more or less on either quarter, according as the ship may have occasion to sail. It may be easily shifted from side to side, and guyed out to leeward in proportion to the ship's griping, to answer sailing upon both tacks: and, when sailing before the wind, it may be secured over the middle of the stern, which will prevent the ship's broaching-to against the helm either way.

This would likewise much assist deep-laded bad steering ships, and prevent their broaching-to; to which they are liable in spite of the best helmsmen, often occasioning them to lie-to, even with a fair wind. With a little contrivance, by blocks, lashed to the rails on the quarters, to lead the guys fair to the steering wheel barrel, it may be made to steer a ship that has lost her rudder: The invention of Capt. Pakenham is, however, far preferable for this purpose.


TO VEER WHEN LYING-TO UNDER A MAIN SAIL.

ADVANTAGE must be taken of the ship's falling off to put the helm a-weather, and ease away the main sheet roundly; and, when the ship has fallen off about 30°, let go the main bowline, and round in the weather brace, taking care to keep the sail full. When the ship is before the wind, get on board the main tack, and right the helm, to moderate her coming-to.

If, in the beginning, the ship is found difficult to veer, the fore staysail may be hoisted, and the sheets hauled well aft: but it is to be hauled down as soon as the ship is before the wind.

DEMONSTRATION.

OPPORTUNITY must be taken of the ship's falling off, because that motion of the ship gives her way, and makes her of course better disposed to gather way. For that reason also the helm is then put a-weather (§ 50, 58), and the main sheet eased off roundly (§ 49.) that only that part of the sail which is before the center of gravity of the ship may be left to act. The main bowline is kept fast till the ship has fallen off 30°, at least, and then let go directly, because the wind is then more easily kept in the sail, the velocity of the ship increased, and consequently the power of the

 

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helm (§ 58.) and the movement of rotation is also accelerated (§ 16, 17, 18). By hauling in the weather brace, you follow the wind with the sail; and when the wind is right aft, that sail will be found square. To trim it, you have but to ease off the brace, and bring the tack on the same board as you take the wind; an operation for which you have full time sufficient, as, by righting the helm, you moderate the velocity with which the ship flies to the wind, since by that action the effect of the rudder is totally suppressed.

A SECOND METHOD.

MAKE fast a four inch rope to the slings of the main yard; and when the ship comes-to, so as to shiver the main sail, bring it down before the sail to the topsail-sheet-bits, and let it be hauled tight and belayed. Then, as soon as she falls off, put the helm a-weather, and let go the main sheet. By these means the lee part of the sail no longer has any power to keep the ship to the wind, and the weather part acting before the center of gravity will cause her to veer faster than by the first method; though, in general, the first method will answer the purpose.


TO VEER UNDER BARE POLES.

THE fore staysail must, if circumstances will allow it, be hoisted (§ 31). But, if that cannot be done, the head yards are to be braced up as sharp as possible, and those abaft pointed to the wind. Then, if the ship veers, she will steer under the masts and ropes only. A number of seamen, sent up and placed close to each other in the weather fore shrouds, will be found also of very great service.


TO BOXHAUL A SHIP, OR THE SECOND METHOD OF VEERING.

IN this evolution, the most rapid execution is necessary. Briskly, and at the same instant, haul up both the main sail and the mizen; shiver the main and mizen topsails; put the helm hard a-lee; raise the fore tack; let go the head bowlines, and brace about the head yards sharp the other way; and let the jib and staysail sheets go in the same instant. When the ship has fallen off 90°, brace the after yards square, in order to give the ship a little way, and to help her (with the rudder, the situation of which must be changed) to double the point where all the sails shiver; and, when the wind is aft, you will proceed as in the method of "Veering without losing the wind out of the sails."

If the circular motion of the ship, after she has fallen off 90°, continues pretty rapid, the filling of the after sails, to give the ship headway, may be dispensed with; because she continues to turn by the effect of her helm, which must not be shifted (§ 58), since the vessel still continues her sternway. Therefore, after having veered a few degrees more, the wind will fill all the sails, and the ship consequently, will have headway (§ 35 & 43). Then change the situation of the rudder (§ 50), to bring her before the wind.

In a case of absolute danger, when it might be necessary to go a-stern and fall off more rapidly, put the helm a-lee, brace all the sails a-back, observing not to brace the after sails more than square, that they may not counteract the head sails, which are braced sharp a-back to pay the ship's head off;

 

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because the effect of the aftersails, in this situation, is to impel the ship abaft in the direction of her keel (§ 36); which, with those forward, contribute to give her fresh sternway, in order to cause the ship to veer (§ 58.) with greater celerity. The jib and fore topmast staysail sheets being hauled over to windward, will assist the ship in falling off and going a-stern, (§ 31).

When a ship is taken a-back, by bad steerage or a shift of wind, she may sometimes be brought on the same tack again, by instantly bracing sharp round the head sails, and keeping fast the jib and staysail sheets. One must recollect, also, the aftersails are not to be touched (§ 45), till the ship has sufficiently fallen off; and, when that shall be the case, trim the sails and stand on as before. The rudder is to be used, as occasion may require, according to § 50 and 58, whether the ship has head or stern way.

DEMONSTRATION.

THIS operation should be performed with the greatest alacrity, because it is only practised in critical situations; such as finding the ship unexpectedly too near the land, or because the ship misses stays.

The reasons for hauling up the main and the mizen sails, and shivering the mizen topsail, having been given before, we have only to add, that the reason why the main topsail is shivered is, that, if it were kept full, it would bring the ship to the wind (§ 41), by shooting her a-head, so that she would almost be laid-to. If this sail were braced a-back, more than perfectly square or perpendicular to the keel, it would still keep the ship to the wind, since it would be braced the same way with the head sails. Therefore, it would impel the afterpart of the ship to leeward (§ 44), and act consequently against the power of the head sails, which ought to cause the ship to veer rapidly, because they receive the wind on their anterior surfaces (§ 37, & 38.) with a very great sine of incidence. It is therefore absolutely necessary to keep the after sails shivering till the ship has fallen off 90°, or thereabouts; because, then, all the sails are trimmed and shivering in the same direction, since the head sails were suddenly braced sharp a-back, in the beginning, to promote the ship's veering; and the after sails were also changed at the same time, by bracing them by little and little to the wind, to keep them shivering, as the ship falls off. If the sails are well worked, they will all be found shivering at the same time; and then they no longer act on the ship, which will not double this point by the sole effect of the helm, for the helm was put hard a-lee in the beginning, to heave up in the wind, with all possible expedition; but the ship, soon after getting sternway, falls off rapidly, both by the effect of her sails, and by that of her rudder, which is well disposed for this movement (§ 58), but has not always sufficient force to cause the ship to double the point where all her sails shiver; because the wind, being then on her quarter, acts on the whole machine, to send her a-head; so that, if one ceased working here for a moment, the ship would be motionless for a time, having lost her sternway. To put her again in action, and prevent her from driving more than is necessary to leeward, fill the after sails, as mentioned above, to give her headway, in order that, by shifting the helm (§ 50), the wind may be quickly brought aft.

The jib and staysail sheets are let go, because they tend to draw the ship a-head (§ 31).

Boxhauling is deemed the surest and readiest way to get a ship under command of the helm and sails, with the least loss of ground to leeward, when a ship refuses stays. The masters of sloop-rigged vessels, turning to windward in narrow channels, when they want but little to weather a certain point, run up in the wind till the headway ceases, then they fill again upon the same tack: this

 

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they call making a half-board. Thus a ship, in boxhauling, may be said to make two half-boards, first running with her head, then with her stern, up in the wind; by which two motions a ship rather gains to windward.


TO CLUBHAUL A SHIP.

CLUBHAULING is practised when it is expected that a ship will refuse stays upon a lee shore. Place the hands to their stations for putting the ship about, and come by the lee anchor; then put the helm down, and if the ship make a stand before she brings the wind a-head, let go the anchor, and haul the main sail. When the wind is a-head, cut the cable, and the ship will cast the way required. The aftersails being full, let go and haul.

ANOTHER METHOD.

BEND a hawser to the kedge anchor on the lee bow, and bring the end into one of the after ports, or over the taffarel. Let go the anchor, brace up all sharp the contrary way, put the helm a-lee, and haul in briskly on the hawser. As soon as she gets head way, cut or slip the hawser, and carry a press of sail.


OF LYING-TO, &c.


OF LYING-TO IN FAIR WEATHER.

LYING-TO is the art of disposing the sails in such a manner, that, counteracting each other, they render the ship as it were, for a time, immoveable.

This is seldom practised but under the three topsails; yet it is indifferent whether the fore or main topsails be braced a-back, or kept full; because, as these two sails have surfaces nearly equal, they have nearly the same power either to stop the ship's way, or to cause her to run a-head. When these two sails act together, or one against the other, one always tends to pay the ship's head off, and the other to keep her to the wind (§ 32, 37, 41, & 44). But there are other considerations to be attended to, when necessity requires this operation to be praticed.


TO LIE-TO TO WINDWARD OF A SHIP, SO AS NOT TO DRIFT NEAR HER.

THE main topsail must be braced sharp a-back, keeping the fore and mizen topsails full; because the wind acts with a very small sine of incidence on a sail when full, in comparison to what it does

 

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when braced sharp a-back: so that the fore topsail, being full, draws the ship a-head, and the effect of falling off is opposed by the main and mizen topsails. She will of course not fall off much; nor will her leeway be very considerable; for the ship is well kept to the wind, by the disposition given to her sails.


TO LIE-TO UNDER THE LEE OF ANOTHER SHIP.

THE fore topsail ought to be braced sharp a-back, the main and mizen topsails kept full, because these two last-mentioned sails tend to give the ship headway, and keep her to the wind: they may be assisted by the mizen, which will oppose the falling off occasioned by the fore topsail. Thus, should the ship to windward fall off violently, or drift too much, you are more ready to veer short round, and avoid being boarded; because the fore topsail being braced sharp a-back, the impulse of the wind on it is much greater than if it were full; and it is well disposed to veer suddenly, as soon as the power of the other sails is suppressed.


TO BRING-TO WITH THE FORE OR MAIN TOPSAILS A-BACK TO THE MAST, OR FILLED.

EITHER the fore or main topsail must be braced sharp a-back, and the lee bowline hauled up a little: the other two topsails trimmed sharp; with the mizen hauled out, and the helm a-lee.

If you bring-to with the fore topsail to the mast, the head yards may be only laid square. Then the wind will act obliquely on the sail, and the ship will fall off but little, because its effect is in the direction of the keel from forward aft, and the sails abaft keep the ship to. The main topsail may be worked in the same manner, if you wish not to expose yourself much to the wind.

DEMONSTRATION.

IT has already been demonstrated, that if the fore or main topsail be braced sharp a-back, while the other remains full by the wind, the ship stands as if it were immoveable, for their actions are absolutely contrary with respect to the center of gravity (§ 18), and very nearly equal; therefore, in this situation, the ship can but drive to leeward at the rate of about half a league an hour.


TO BRING-TO WITH THE THREE TOPSAILS A-BACK.

THE jib and staysails being hauled down, brace sharp round at once all the sails you wish to lay a-back in hauling up the lee bowlines, the better to expose the sails to the action of the wind; haul out the mizen, and put the helm hard a-weather.

 

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DEMONSTRATION.

THE jib and all the staysails are hauled down, because they are before the center of gravity (§ 31.); and the head sails being braced sharp a-back, have force enough (§ 37.) to balance the effect of those abaft (§ 44); which, being braced in the same manner, receive the wind with the same sine of incidence as those forward. But, as, in that situation, the head sails have more power to cause the ship to fall off (§ 12.) than those abaft, being a little becalmed by those forward, have to bring her to the wind, the mizen is hauled out (§ 40), and the helm is put a-weather (§ 58), because the ship goes a-stern with all the topsails to the mast. In this situation, then, the sails, assisted by the rudder, act the one against the other, and balance reciprocally their effects of springing the luff and falling off: and, though the ship goes a-stern and drifts a great deal, she is layed-to; because, in that situation, she yields but with great difficulty to the impulse of her sails, on account of the resistance of the water (§ 5.) opposed to the very great surface of her bottom under the lee.

If there were occasion to keep the mizen topsail full, it might be done with advantage; because the effect of its acting against the other sails is so inconsiderable, that it cannot admit of a comparison, as its surface is hardly half that of the main topsail.

If it be desired to go a-stern without falling off, the head sails are to be laid square only.


TO FILL, WHEN LYING-TO WITH THE FORE TOPSAIL TO THE MAST.

BRAIL up the mizen, hoist the jib and fore topmast staysail, shiver the main and mizen top-sails; and, when the ship has fallen off 20° or 30°, fill the fore topsail, which was a-back before, and stand on.

DEMONSTRATION.

THE mizen is hauled up, that its effect of keeping the ship to the wind may cease (§ 40). The jib and fore topmast staysails are hoisted, to help the ship in falling off (§ 31). The main and mizen topsails are shivered, because their effects are contrary (§ 41. & 44.) to the movement expected from the ship. Every thing, therefore, which causes her keeping to the wind, ceasing to act, and all that promotes her falling off, now operating, it follows that she must fall off with a rapidity so much the greater, as the helm is still a-lee (§ 58). The ship goes a-stern, since her head sails are braced a-back, and her after sails so disposed and shivering, that, when she has fallen off sufficiently, the head sails fill, and you stand on directly.


TO FILL, WHEN LYING-TO WITH THE MAIN TOPSAIL TO THE MAST.

BRACE sharp and briskly the fore topsail a-back; shiver the main and mizen topsails; hoist the jib and fore topmast staysails, and brail up the mizen, all at the same time; and, when the ship has fallen off 20° or 30°, fill the fore topsail, and stand on.

 

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If you are obliged to keep the wind on the same tack as that on which you are lying-to, you have only to right the helm, fill the topsail which is a-back, and trim it sharp, to continue your course.

DEMONSTRATION.

THE fore topsail is braced sharp a back, in order to cause the vessel to fall off more readily, as then it receives a very strong impulse from the wind (§ 37): the rest of the demonstration will be found in the preceding.

A SECOND METHOD.

TRIM the topsail which was to the mast, in order to give the ship way through the water, and be able to tack, or run large, according as may be found necessary. But this method is very tedious, unless you mean to heave in stays, in which case it will be most expeditious.

A THIRD METHOD.

SHIVER the main and mizen topsail, keeping the fore topsail full, righting the helm, and running up the jib and fore topmast staysail at the same time. As soon as the ship has fallen off enough to get headway, fill the after sails, and keep the ship in the direction you mean to follow. It is easily seen that this method, though the most common, is not the most expeditious, when you have to veer considerably.


TO FILL, WHEN LYING-TO WITH ALL THE SAILS TO THE MAST.

BRAIL up the mizen, lay the after yards square, and shift the helm a-lee. When the ship has fallen off sufficiently to fill the after sails, those forward are then to be braced about and trimmed full also, in order to stand on.

DEMONSTRATION.

THE mizen is brailed up, because its effect is to keep the ship to the wind (§ 40). The after yards are laid square, because then they give the ship sternway (§ 36), which causes her to fall off, since they increase her velocity in the last-mentioned direction, the helm being a-lee so as to turn the stern to windward (§ 58). The head sails are braced about and filled at the same time as the after sails are, that the ship may not be as it were laid-to, and that she may get headway to continue her course.


OF LYING-TO IN A GALE OF WIND.

TO lie-to, when it blows hard, is to keep as close to the wind as possible under some one sail well trimmed, with the helm lashed a-lee as much as may be requisite for the ship: and, as ships commonly bring-to from the stress of contrary winds, care should be taken to heave-to under that which will least strain the ship; because there are some ships which lie-to better under the fore sail than the main sail; others are more easy under the main sail; some under a mizen; and many vessels lie-to best under a main staysail.

 

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LYING-TO UNDER A FORESAIL.

THIS is advantageous for veering (§32.) when you are well to windward; but it augments the lee way, and is more subject to break the sea on board, on account of the ship's continual falling off: because, in that movement, she gathers way by yielding to the impulse of the gale, and is afterwards recalled to the wind by the helm (§ 50): so that, in springing the luff, she meets the wave which comes from to windward.


LYING-TO UNDER A MAINSAIL.

THE ship does not, in this situation, fall off so easily as in the last-mentioned mode, because its effect passes abaft the center of gravity of the ship (§ 41); but it keeps the ship more to the wind, and consequently occasions less lee way.


LYING-TO UNDER THE MIZEN.

UNDER the mizen, ships keep better to the wind, than under any other sail, because it is farther abaft the center of gravity (§ 40.) than any of the rest; consequently ought to keep the vessel from drifting more than any of the others; but it is inconvenient, should you have occasion to veer suddenly.


LYING-TO UNDER THE MAIN STAYSAIL.

UNDER the main staysail a ship will not make so much leeway as under a fore sail, because its effort passes very near the center of gravity; but it will however cause her to drift more (§ 31.) than the main sail (§ 41): so that this mode of lying-to is a mean between the two others, and is preferable when it blows strong enough for that sail to support the rolling of the ship. It ought likewise to be preferred, because the ship will veer under that sail, the action of which passes at a small distance from the center of gravity (§ 31), and the power of which overcomes the resistance which all ships meet from the fluid under their lee; a resistance which always gives them a great inclination to fly up in the wind, when it blows hard, or when under a heavy press of sail.


LYING-TO UNDER THE FORE, MAIN, AND MIZEN STAYSAILS.

ALL the preceding modes of lying-to have their peculiar faults; but the preferable way is under the fore staysail, the main staysail, and mizen staysail; because, under these sails, the ship will steer (§ 46), and is in a better situation for veering than under any other sail; for, only haul down the mizen staysail, and put the helm a-weather; when the two other sails, being before the center of gravity, (§ 30, & 31.) will cause her to fall off; she will then soon gather way, and steer easily.

 

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Should the gale continue very hard, and one of these staysails be blown away, the loss is not of much consequence, as the courses, in case of an emergency, are ready to set; whereas the courses are not so readily replaced, when lost. This mode, therefore, appears preferable in every respect., whether you wish to veer, or keep your wind: because, if the ship does not sufficiently keep the wind, you may haul out the balanced mizen (§ 40), or take in the fore staysail (§ 31), or even the main staysail. One of these staysails, before the center of gravity of the ship, is sufficient to make her veer as soon as the after ones are suppressed. There are, besides, these following considerations for so doing. The ship will carry sail better; because, as the center of effort of those on her is very low, she drifts less, holds a better wind, and goes faster through the water (§ 25, & 46); and these three or four sails are so situated as to give the whole body of the ship play; which will strain her less than when under one single sail, which cannot by itself work it from aft forward.

DEMONSTRATION.

THE object of lying-to being to keep to windward as much as possible, when foul winds, and tempestuous weather, prevent you from pursuing your course, it follows, as much sail should be carried, as is consistent with safety; and, as you are often unable to set more than one sail, it is trimmed sharp, that the ship may keep her wind as much as possible. It is likewise for this reason that the helm is at the same time put a-lee; because the ship having but very little way (§ 46), falls off, in yielding from time to time to the impulse of the wind, which unceasingly acts on her; but, as soon as she has fallen off, she is brought-to again by the effect of the rudder (§ 50), which must act upon her if the water has the smallest power upon it.

The same happens in lying-to under the three staysails (though the ship makes more headway under any other sail), because the effect of these sails is better distributed (§ 46.) than when one only is set; notwithstanding they have not power enough to procure the ship much velocity, nor to make her steer properly; the helm is therefore put a-lee as in lying-to under any other sail. It is always more advantageous to keep the ship under way and lively, than to let her lie motionless, at the mercy of the wind and waves.

When the wind is so violent that no sail can be carried, you lie-to a-try; that is to say, under bare poles and ropes, which serve instead of sails, and lash the helm a-lee as usual.


OF SOUNDING IN FAIR WEATHER, WHETHER CLOSE HAULED OR GOING LARGE.

CLOSE HAULED.

IF close hauled, brail up the mizen and mizen staysail; let go the main sheet that the sail may shiver; put the helm a-lee; and back the mizen topsail by bracing it square. The head sails, as well as the jib and staysails, are to be kept in their first situation; recollecting to haul tight and belay the

* Should the sea run too high for the lower stay-sails to keep the ship steady, a close-reefed main-topsail (particularly if it has four reefs in it to come close down to the cap) will be found to answer the purpose admirably.

 

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lee braces. When the ship has nearly lost her headway, though continuing still to come to the wind, you catch that moment to heave the lead; and it is to be hauled in again with all possible dispatch. To fill again, haul aft the main sheet; trim the mizen topsail, and right the helm.

GOING LARGE.

IN going large, you have only to put the helm a-lee, to brail up the mizen, and to belay the lee braces quite tight, to prevent the yards having too much play when the sails are shivering. It is impossible to tack in this situation, as the jib and head sails are always in action (§ 31); and the square sails soon coming to shake, on account of their sheets not being tacked, they lose all their power; and the ship is soon at a stand.

DEMONSTRATION.

THE mizen and mizen staysail are brailed up, because their effect to bring the ship to the wind would be too powerful (§ 40). For the same reason the main sheet is let go (§ 41), though there is another reason for it, which is, that it destroys the equilibrium that existed between the sails forward and the sails aft (§ 46, 49); whence the rapidity of sailing is diminished, as well as the effect of the helm, which acted (§ 50.) to bring the ship to the wind, while at the same time it opposes her velocity (§ 59). The mizen topsail is braced a-back, to impel the ship a-stern in the direction of her length (§ 36); so that her headway being now much diminished, the ship, by the effect of the rudder, ranges to the wind so far as to shake the main topsail and the sails on the foremast, which, to that very moment, had acted to keep up the celerity of sailing (§ 32. 41). But, as the effect of the rudder is very faint, since the velocity of the ship is greatly diminished (§ 58), when the sails have lost their action, the ship must stop, and is not able to come sufficiently to the wind, to bring her about, because the jib and staysail sheets being hauled aft, oppose the effect of the helm; so that she rests as it were motionless for an instant, which must be seized to throw the lead with the greatest dispatch; because, should the ship fall off by the effect of her jib and staysail, which are the only ones in action, the other sails might suddenly fill and give her headway, which would prevent you from getting soundings, were you too dilatory in throwing the lead. Whether you do, or do not, find any bottom at all, in hauling in your line as fast as possible, you must seize the opportunity of the ship's falling off, to fill and stand on again.

If the ship, in spite of the disposition given her, should come head to wind, (which could only happen from her having preserved some velocity,) the helm must be kept a-lee, but the head sails should quickly be laid square, and the jib and staysails hauled down; then the ship will soon after be found to veer.

ANOTHER METHOD PREFERABLE TO THE FORMER.

GOING LARGE.

BRACE the head sails square, haul down the jib and staysails, without stirring the after sails, and put the helm a-lee. While the ship has still a little headway, heave the lead from the place where you haul it in; that lead will go first a little a-stern; but the ship being head to wind, will soon herself go a-stern right upon the line; and, as the helm is a-lee, the ship easily veers. But, if you wish to keep her to longer, right the helm, and haul the mizen out, to prevent the ship's falling off.

If you have studding sails set, they must be hauled down, particularly the lower ones; because, should the wind take them a-back, their power on the boom might bring the ship round entirely:

 

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for, they act on a lever without the ship, the fulcrum of which is on the outside of the vessel before the center of gravity. If, however, the helm is continued a-lee till the ship falls off, she will not come about, because then the vessel goes a-stern with great velocity, and the rudder acts powerfully to make her veer; but the fact is, that the ship will go a great deal sternway, and continue so much longer.

CLOSE HAULED,

IF close hauled, or a very little from the wind, the helm is to be put a-lee; and, the instant the sails are taken a-back, the head sails are to be filled by briskly bracing them square, without waiting for the wind being right a-head; then, a little before the ship has lost her way, heave the lead from the place where you haul it in, and then proceed as before.


ON SHIPS DRIVING


WHEN it happens that there is not sufficient room to work in a tide's way, through a crowd of ships, or in a narrow channel, but that a ship must drive by the help of the tide, it may be done, provided the tide be strong enough, in proportion to the wind. This art consists of keeping the ship in a fair way, by a management of the rudder and the sails.

TO DRIVE TO WINDWARD, WHEN THE WIND IS AGAINST THE TIDE.

IF the channel is sufficiently broad, the ship should be drifted broad side to the wind, as the tide will then have the greatest power on her; and, could the ship be backed a-stern or shot a-head at pleasure, she might be kept drifting upon the same tack with safety; but ships in a tide's way can never be backed so far a-stern as they will shoot a-head. At the first of a stern-board a ship will go briskly a-stern, but will soon fall off, and drift with the wind abaft the beam, forging a-head; for this reason she must be drifted with the helm a-lee. It follows, as a ship will shoot more a-head than she can be backed a-stern, that she will at length arrive at the opposite shore, when she must be stayed or veered, and drifted upon the other tack. If she is to be stayed, (which is preferable, because less drift will be lost by it,) let the sails be filled in time, to give the ship sufficient headway to bring her about; then put the helm a-lee. Should she come about, the sails and helm, having now a proper position for a stern-board upon the other tack, need not be touched till her sternway ceases, when the helm must be shifted a-lee; but, should the ship refuse stays, then brace sharp round the head yards, and box-haul her, by which method she will lose much less drift than by veering.

If the ship, now drifting broad-side, is approaching a narrow channel, where drifting in this she must be veered and dropped stemming the tide, stem foremost. In this case, that the

 

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drift may be as much as possible, it will be necessary to take in sail, and reduce the ship's headway till she has only steerageway left; thus a vessel may be dropped through a fleet of ships at anchor without danger.


TO DRIVE, WHEN THE WIND IS ACROSS THE TIDE.

SHOULD the wind be a little across the tide, a ship may be easily drifted in the fair way, with her head towards the weather shore; for thus it will be found that she can be backed and filled at pleasure, and generally be drifted with the sails shivering, in which position they oppose least power to prevent the drift.

It frequently happens in serpentine rivers that the tide sets across; in this case the ship must be drifted with her head to the side from which the tide sets. These sets are best discovered by observing the opening or shutting of two objects in the direction of the channel.


TO BEND A COURSE IN FAIR WEATHER.

STRETCH the sail a-thwart the deck, the starboard side of the sail to the starboard side, the larboard to the larboard side; then bend yard ropes to the earing cringles, and make fast the head earings a few feet up upon the yard ropes. The bunt-lines, leech-lines, clue-garnets, and all the geer bent, make fast a rope-band to each bunt-line and leech-line leg, that the men may be enabled to catch the head of the sail from the yard. Now man well the yard ropes, bunt-lines, leech-lines, and clue-garnets, and run the sail up to the yard. The sail aloft, send the hands up to bring it to, and let them haul out the weather earing first, then the lee; and if it is a new sail, let them ride the head rope to stretch it. The sail being hauled square out upon the yard, make fast the rope-bands, keeping the head of the sail well upon the yard.


TO BEND A TOPSAIL IN FAIR WEATHER.

OVERHAUL the leeches of the sail, put in the earings, bend the bowline legs, lay out the clues, and open them if necessary, and make the sail up snug again; then round down upon the lee top-sail haliards till the weather fly block is high enough to bring the sail up over the guard iron: then rack the tie over to the weather rigging. Now pile the sail upon slings, with the lee side uppermost; hook on the topsail haliards, and run the topsail up into the top; then stretch the sail round the fore part of the top, bend the jeer, and make fast the head earings a few feet up upon the reef tackle pendents, with a rope-band or two to each bunt-line leg. The jeer being bent, man the reef tackles, buntlines, and clue-lines, and haul out the sail. Now let the hands lay out upon the yard, and haul out the weather earing first; then haul out to leeward, and ease off to windward till the sail is square, when make fast the rope-bands, keeping the head of the sail well up upon the yard.

 

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UPON SETTING AND TAKING IN SAILS IN BLOWING WEATHER.


TO SET A MAIN SAIL.

BEFORE the sail is loosed let the double block of a tackle be made fast to the weather clue, and the single block be hooked low down upon the chestree, and the fall led aft. Then man well the main tack and fall at the same time; and, when the sail is loosed, ease away the weather clue-garnet, let go the bunt-lines and leech-lines, bowse down upon the tackle and take in the main tack: the main tack being down, haul aft the sheet, brace up the yard, and haul the main bow-line.

TO SET A FORESAIL.

A FORE sail is set after the same manner as a mainsail; but, as the fore tacks generally lead double, they are a sufficient purchase without the aid of a tackle to the weather clue.

TO SET A TOPSAIL.

LET a tackle be in readiness to clap on either sheet, as may be required. First, man the lee sheet, and the sail being loosed, ease down the bunt-lines and weather clue-line, and haul home the lee sheet; then haul home the weather sheet, hoist the sail, and brace up as required.

Should the wind be quartering, the lower and topsail yards should be braced well into the wind, before the sail is sheeted home.


TO TAKE IN A COURSE.

MAN well the weather clue-garnet, ease off the tack and bow-line, and run it up; then man the lee clue-garnet, bunt-lines, leech-lines, and weather brace; and, being all ready, ease away the sheet, haul up the clue-garnet, bunt-lines, and leech-lines, and round in the weather brace, till the yard is pointed to the wind. Then haul tight the trusses, braces, lifts, and rolling tackle, and let the hands furl the sail.


TO TAKE IN THE FORESAIL IN THE TIME OF VEERING.

WHEN the ship begins to veer, the yard being kept braced sharp up, let go the tack and bowline, and haul up the weather clue-garnet. When the ship is nearly before the wind, the bunt and leech lines, and the other clue-garnet, may be hauled up; and, if the situation admits of it, and occasion requires, the ship may be steered with the wind on the quarter, till the sail is secured.

 

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TO TAKE IN A TOPSAIL.

THERE are many opinions upon the best mode of performing this. Some approve of clueing up to windward first, and others to leeward. If the weather side is to be clued up first, the weather brace must be rounded well in, and the yard got close down upon the lifts, otherwise the lee rigging will be in danger of being carried away by the great pressure of the lee yard-arm. If the weather brace can be rounded well in, and the yard be got close down, it will be best to clue up to windward first, for thus the sail may be taken in without a shake; but, if the weather brace cannot be hauled in to ease the yard off the lee rigging, recourse must be had to clueing up to leeward first. In this case, it will be best, if hands can be spared, to man both the clue-lines, bunt-lines, and weather brace at the same time; thus, when the lee sheet is eased off, the weather brace may be hauled in with ease, and the yard laid to the wind; and, when the lee clue-line is half up, ease off the weather sheet, and run up the weather clue-line; then haul tight the lee brace, bowse tight the rolling tackle, and furl the sail.


TO TAKE IN A JIB.

MAN well the down-haul, let go the haliards, ease off the sheet, and haul down briskly; and, when the sail is close down, ease away the out-haul, and haul the sail in to the bowsprit cap; then let it be stowed away in the fore staysail netting.


TO HAUL IN A LOWER STUDDING SAIL.

TO haul in a lower-studding sail, blowing fresh, lead one of the sheets clear aft, and man it well; then lower away briskly the outer haliards, to spill the sail; ease off the tack, run in upon the sheet, and lower away the inner haliards as required.


TO HAUL DOWN A TOPMAST STUDDING SAIL.

MAN well the deck sheet and downhaul, ease off the yard sheet, and haul the yard close out to the tack block; then ease away the tack; and haul down both upon the deck sheet and downhaul.


TO BRAIL UP AND HAUL DOWN A MAIN TOPMAST STAYSAIL.

MAN well the lee brail and downhaul, having a few hands to gather in the slack of the weather brail; then let go the haliards, ease off the sheet, and haul down and brail up as briskly as possible. When the sail is down, let go the tack, and stop the sail over to the lee fore rigging.

 

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TO BRAIL UP A MIZEN.

MAN well the lee brails, and in particular the throat brails, which should have a whip purchase; ease off the mizen sheet, and brail up briskly, taking in at the same time the slack of the weather brail. After the sail is hauled up, stop its foot by passing the gasket round to leeward, which will spill it.


TO TAKE IN A TOPGALLANT SAIL.

THE lee sheet must be started first; for, if the weather sheet is first eased off, the yard will fly fore and aft.


TO UNBEND A COURSE.

FIRST furl the sail, then cast off the rope bands, and make them fast round the sail, clear of the gaskets. When the rope bands are all off, ease off the lee earing, and lower down the sail; and, when the people upon deck have got hold of the lee part of the sail, ease away the weather earing.


TO UNBEND A TOPSAIL.

FIRST cast off the points of the reefs, keeping fast the earings; then furl the sail, and cast off the rope bands, which make fast round the sail, clear of the gaskets. After this cast off the lee earings, and haul the lee side of the sail into the top; then haul in the weather side. Now unbend the reef tackle pendents, bunt-lines, and bow-lines; bight the sail snugly up together; and send it down by the clue-lines to windward or leeward, as most convenient.


ON SCUDDING OR BEARING AWAY IN A STORM.

WHEN the waves run high, and sudden necessity requires to bear away, it should be considered that the lower sails forward, which the ship may be veered under when she comes before the wind, may be becalmed by the height of the waves breaking violently against the stern; and that therefore a close-reefed main topsail should be set to catch the wind, because it is a loftier sail, and may always be kept drawing full above the waves. This increases the ship's headway so much, that the waves will not strike her abaft with so great a velocity as when her headway is less.

Hence it follows, that, when going to scud before high waves, the close-reefed main topsail should be the last square sail taken in, in a laboursome ship.

 

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OF A SHIP OVERSET ON HER SIDE.

A COMMON, but not always a certain, method to recover ships from this dangerous situation, is to cut away the masts: however, as this expensive method may fail, stopwaters only, on the lee quarter at sea, may cause the ship to veer; or, where there is ground, an anchor or anchors dropped from the lee bow, may bring the wind a-head, and take the sails a-back, so as to cast the ship on the other tack, and bring her upright.


ON CHASING


A VESSEL that chases another ought to have the advantage of sailing. We shall therefore suppose this to be the case; because, were the ship chased as good a sailer as the chaser, she never could come up with her, if they manoeuvered equally and at the same time. It is then useless to chase a ship over which you have not the superiority in sailing, unless it be found that she does not know how to take the benefit of her equality.

To know if your ship sails quicker than your adversary, you must get on the same tack, under the same sails, and keep the same course with the vessel you wish to chase, and set her exactly with a compass. If you sail best, the chase will soon be drawn a point more aft; but, if she has the advantage, you will in a short time bring her a point farther forward: if you sail equally, she will remain on the point you set her at first.


TO CHASE A SHIP WHICH IS TO WINDWARD, AND TO JOIN HER IN THE SHORTEST METHOD.

WHEN the chaser is to leeward of the vessel he means to pursue, he ought to run on the same tack as the enemy, till he brings her to bear exactly perpendicular to his course, if he has not however already passed that point: then tack and continue the second board till he brings the chase again perpendicular to the direction on which he is standing by the wind, and he must then heave about again; always continuing the same manoeuvre, by tacking every time he brings the chase perpendicular to his course on either board. In this manner, the chaser will, by the superiority only of his sailing, join the other by the shortest method.

DEMONSTRATION.

WHEN the ship A (fig. 20.) chases the ship B, which is three leagues to windward, A having one fourth of advantage in sailing, the chaser is not to tack till he reaches the point C; because then the

 

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ship B will be right on his beam at the point D. He then runs on the tack C E, till he brings the chase again perpendicular to his course at the point F. The ship A is to continue working thus every time she brings the vessel B right a-breast of her, whether the chase continues on the same tack or not; and thus the chaser will join the other at H, so that she will be able neither to change her course nor fly from him.

You continue on the same tack as the enemy, when first seen, in order to lose no time; because you will always bring the ship you are in chase of right on your beam, when you have a superiority of sailing, whatever may be the tack she is on, provided you are careful not to pass that point; but, if perchance you should, you must get on the other tack with all possible dispatch.

The chaser heaves about as soon as the vessel he is in pursuit of is on his beam; because she is, at this time, at the shortest possible distance, if he chases on the same tack and steers the same course with the vessel chased. If the chaser runs on a different tack from the vessel chased, he is still to tack when the latter is on his beam, because the distance is the least possible between them on the different boards they hold.

This mode is preferable to all others, it not only being the shortest, but because you force the chase to fly from you close upon a wind, pressing her more and more from the leeward, by never passing the point at which the distance between the two vessels, in plying to windward, is the shortest possible.


OBSERVATIONS FOR THE SHIP TO WINDWARD, WHICH IS CHASED.

THE weather ship, which flies, will always be joined by the chaser, since it is granted that she does not sail so well as the pursuing vessel. It is therefore her advantage constantly to keep one course without losing time to heave about, as tacking cannot be so favourable to her as to her adversary, whose sailing is superior.

If the chaser should mistakingly stand on a long way, and tack in the wake of the chase, the best thing she can do is to heave in stays, and pass to windward of him on the other tack, unless you suppose your vessel would have a large superiority. If the chaser persists in tacking in the wake of the other ship, the chase will be very much prolonged.


TO CHASE A SHIP WHICH IS TO LEEWARD.

WHEN to windward of a vessel you wish to chase, keep the ship away, to cut her off; and, steering continually on that course, you come at last together at the point where the courses run by the two vessels intersecting each other. This will be exactly executed by the chasing ship, if, in the course she has chosen, she constantly keeps chase on the same degree of the compass, as at the beginning of the pursuit. This principle applies equally to all the courses which the retreating ship steers; for overtaking can only be obtained by keeping on a strait line, which is the shortest possible that can be drawn between any two points.

If you take another course than that which keeps you in the same point of bearing you were in with respect to the vessel pursued, at the beginning of the chase, you would fail, by being either too

 

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far a-head or too far a-stern; that is to say, if the chaser keeps his wind too close, he will be too much a-head, and consequently prolong the chase; and, if he keeps too much away, he will be too far a-stern. These are the only two considerations to be made for the performance of this manoeuvre; considerations, which are easily observed, and corrected with an azimuth compass; for when you see that at the end of a certain time you bring the chase more aft than her first point of bearing, it is evident you keep your wind too much; if, on the contrary, you draw her forward, it is a proof that you keep too much away. These errors are easily corrected, by steering, for the first case, so as to see that the chase is always kept exactly on the same degree of the compass; and, for the second, you keep your wind a little more, till you see that you rest on the same point of bearing with respect to one another. Then, it is evident, you chase by the shortest and most certain method, since you reach the chase, in running on a strait line.


OBSERVATIONS FOR THE SHIP TO LEEWARD, WHICH IS CHASED.

SHE ought to run on the course that will carry her most immediately from the chaser. Some vessels have more advantage in going large than others; some with the wind right aft; and others, again, are to be found which go best close hauled. So that attention should be paid to the known qualities of a ship, in order to take the most advantageous and convenient directions capable to effect a retreat. It is, however, nearly certain, that, if the chase does not sail at least at an equal rate with the chaser, whatever manoeuvre she may practise, she will at length be overtaken by a skilful chaser adhering to principles.


OF BOARDING.

BOARDING is the art of approaching the ship of an enemy so near, that you can easily, and in spite of him, throw on board the graplings, which are fixed on the lower yard-arms, at the forecastle, gangways, &c. for the purpose of being thrown into the enemy's ship, as soon as along-side, in order to confine the vessels together, and give the people an opportunity of getting on board, to carry the adverse ship sword in hand.


TO BOARD TO WINDWARD, OR TO AVOID BEING BOARDED.

IF it be desired to board a ship which keeps her wind under an easy sail; or that does not shorten sail, but over which the boarding vessel has the advantage of sailing; she must get on the

 

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weather quarter of the ship she means to board, within half a pistol shot. She should then begin the action, and continue it with vivacity, to cover her manoeuvre by the smoke of the cannon and musquetry of both ships; then, under the cover of this cloud, let her make more sail if she has not way enough, in order to augment the velocity of the ship and the rapidity of her movements, that she may more readily lay on board her enemy, on the weather side, either exactly a-breast or a little abaft. This is very easily executed, by edging down suddenly upon her; so, however, as not to be raked by the enemy's fire. The ship boarded by this manoeuvre can hardly suspects the design but at the moment when, or very little before, the grapnels will be on board of her. In this situation the boarded vessel has but one doubtful expedient to try, and which even will be of no service if the boarder observes her well. For, the moment she braces sharp a-back her head sails, to cause the ship's falling off (§37), and squares those aft (§ 36.) to give her sternway, the boarder has only to perform briskly the same manoeuvre, and they will then be both as near for boarding as before, provided the boarding ship feels quickly the impulse of her sails and helm, which ought to be put a-weather (§ 50.) and kept so till the ship's headway ceases, when it is to be put a-lee (§ 58), to assist her in falling off, in manoeuvering as is box-hauling, in order to board the enemy to leeward; for, the boarder ought to be on the quarter of the other, since at the moment the two ships were right before the wind, she who was directly to windward, and wished to board, had only to continue her movement of rotation, and render her velocity equal to that of her adversary, by shortening sail in order not to pass her. If therefore, the circular motion is kept up by the boarder, which at first caused him to fall off, and now brings him to the wind on the other tack, he will join the enemy to leeward; for, it is evident that, if this motion of turning be more rapid than that of the ship which wishes to avoid boarding, the boarder will close her before she can range to the wind on the other tack, since the boarder comes round with greater celerity. However, if the ship which fears boarding was pressed thus closely, she could make no other attempt than to throw once more all her sails to the mast, by bracing them only perpendicular to the keel to give her sternway (§ 36), and putting the helm a-weather, to keep her to the wind, as soon as her headway ceases (§ 58); observing that, she being to windward, this manoeuvre may cause her to drive on the boarder, as he is then watching for her under her lee. As there is no other resource, necessity obliges her to this expedient; because, if the ship which is attacked could go a-stern with sufficient velocity, she might let the boarder pass a-head, veer under his stern, and rake him, if he is not as quick as the other to foresee this manoeuvre, and as nimble in manoeuvering in the same manner as the enemy's ship: because, the great velocity with which he comes to the wind and goes a-head (his sails being still full), puts him in this bad situation, which may prevent his persisting in the inclination of boarding. It is however very clear that the boarder will attain his purpose, if he takes care to throw all his sails a-back at the same time as the ship to windward; because, the attacked ship dropping to leeward, and having sternway first, approaches a little the boarder, who has still preserved his position on the quarter, and longer kept his luff, by having gone a-stern somewhat later than the weather ship. It must be farther observed, that when the two ships are right before the wind, if the vessel which fears boarding moves quicker to the wind than the one which attacks, she will avoid it, as the retreating ship will be close to the wind before the other, and able to get a-head of her by making all sail to keep her wind, or to heave in stays and get upon the other tack. But, it must be considered that this last movement is disadvantageous; as, by so doing, it will present the stern to a ship,
 

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which no doubt will take advantage of that situation, and rake her; which might be more destructive than a well-opposed attack by boarding.

There is, however, no doubt that if the ship inclined to board sails better than the other, it will always be in her power to execute that design, if she is manoeuvered as the ship which flies.


TO BOARD TO LEEWARD, WHEN CLOSE TO THE WIND, OR TO AVOID BEING BOARDED.

IN order to execute this manoeuvre, the boarder is to come within pistol shot, close in the wake, or, at most, to the weather quarter of the ship he means to attack; taking care to continue steering, so as not to be raked by any of the guns which belong to the quarter he stands on. Then, to come up with his adversary, he must edge away a little, and range round aft, so close upon the enemy's lee quarter, that his cat-head may almost touch her quarter gallery. Now, when you have shot sufficiently a-head, your ship being parallel to your adversary's, so as to bring your forecastle abreast of your enemy's mainmast, the mizen and mizen staysail sheets are to be hauled well aft, the helm put hard a-lee, and the head sheets let fly; then, your ship, coming rapidly to the wind (§ 44, 50, & 31), shivers her sails, and closes the opposing vessel side to side. This manoeuvre is infallible when you have the advantage of sailing, provided very great attention is paid to it. But great attention is necessary; because, if at this moment the weather ship, which wishes to avoid the boarding, either sets her courses, or lays all those flat a-back which she had set, she may perchance break the grapnels if you have neglected to trim your sails in the same manner as hers: for, by making more sail, if the wind be a little fresh, she will shoot a-head through the water, and drag the boarder with such force as to break the chains or hawsers by, which the two ships are confined together. By laying all flat to the mast, the boarded vessel is still more likely to succeed, since the sails of one ship will be full, while those of the other are a-back.

This mode of boarding may, as shewn before, be anticipated and avoided, if the boarder does not pay the strictest attention to his own as well as to his adversary's manoeuvres: but it may be still more readily avoided; if the last mentioned vessel braces her head sails sharp a-back, setting only, if necessary, the fore sail (§ 37), at the same instant laying to the mast or shivering (according to the necessity for more or less sternway) all those which are abaft, (§ 36.) and putting the helm hard a-lee (§ 58). All this is to be executed when the boarder is still about a ship's length (more or less) a-stern of the other vessel. The quickness of this evolution, and the rapid veering of the weather ship, may bring the boarding vessel, which is a little to leeward or a-stern of the other, into the most dangerous situation, if she does not manoeuvre in the same manner and with equal celerity; as the boarder's sails, being full, keep up his velocity, and may, before he can veer, engage his bowsprit in the main shrouds of the enemy, who pays short round on her head.

This terrible and dangerous situation is infinitely to be dreaded; and it is of the highest importance to pay the strictest attention to your own manoeuvres, and to those of your opponent, which you are to endeavour to foresee and avoid as much as possible.

It is easy to conceive, that if you wish to board a ship, and to engage the enemy's bowsprit in your main shrouds, you need only get a little to windward of her, and about one or two ships lengths a-head, more or less, as (from the knowledge you have of the celerity of your ship's movements)

 

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may be judged sufficient; then brace sharp a-back the head sails, shiver the after ones, or lay them flat to the mast, with the helm a-lee. This manoeuvre, well executed, and covered by a brisk fire, will commonly succeed; but care must be taken not to come round too soon, but to range very close to your adversary; because, if you should not be a-head enough of him, you might fail in boarding, by paying too short round, and then you would infallibly get your bowsprit foul of his fore shrouds, which would be highly disadvantageous.

If you should find yourself too far a-head, the design will be frustrated, by your passing under the bowsprit of the enemy, who will however be thereby exposed to be raked at his head, if he does not manoeuvre in the same manner and with equal swiftness as the boarding vessel, which has the great advantage of priority.

It is absolutely necessary to range very close to the ship whose bowsprit you wish to engage in your rigging; because, if you attempted to execute this at only a ship's length large and to windward of your opponent, he has only, the instant he perceives your design, to put the helm hard a-lee and heave in stays, if he does not choose to act in the same manner as you do. If this last method is properly executed, the two ships can only range very near each other and exchange their broadsides, and the lee ship will immediately gain the wind of her adversary. Therefore, to execute this manoeuvre well, the vessels must be nearly yard-arm and yard-arm.

If the boarder be at a certain distance aft on the weather quarter, the ship wishing to avoid boarding must heave in stays, as soon as the other vessel is in the act of veering, in order to close her to leeward. By this manoeuvre they will find themselves head to head, so that they may fire reciprocally their broadsides, in passing on opposite directions, and the lee ship; will get to windward.


TO BOARD WITH THE WIND LARGE.

IF two ships engage with the wind large, the boarding vessel should keep as close as possible on the lee quarter of the ship she means to attack thus, that she may execute this design, as has been shewn before, by coming rapidly to the wind, and being careful not to pass a-head of her opponent.

The weather ship, to avoid being boarded, must act on her part as was directed in the preceding article, according to circumstances.

A ship may also be boarded on the weather side, by conforming to what has been said of boarding to windward.

When two vessels are engaged, with the wind right aft, the ship desirous of boarding ought to drop a-stern of the enemy, in order to run up close along-side of him, if the boarder has the advantage of sailing; for, as she then advances towards her adversary, her adversary can only endeavour to range rapidly to the wind on the other tack, as soon as the bowsprit of the boarder is a-breast of her stem, and thus gain the wind, in order to be in a situation to extricate herself more easily by a good manoeuvre.

The boarding vessel should be permitted to come abreast of the stern of her adversary, before she hauls her wind; because, if she were to do this sooner, the ship a-stern, at a small distance, would board her perfectly well, even if they sail equally swift, since the boarder would be to windward, would run large longer than the other, would range more slowly to the wind, and continue to stem

 

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a-head of the flying ship. What makes this more evident is, that the boarder coming from windward preserves longer his velocity, trimming his sails only as the ship comes to the wind, and cuts the course of his adversary with a line less curved than that described by the retreating ship.

If, by coming too soon or too fast to the wind, the boarder chose to abandon his design, he might do so by veering a few points on the other tack, and shortening sail; so that the retreating ship will shew her stern, and the boarder can then rake her by passing under her stern.

When you attack a ship closely to leeward, you may keep away a little, when you are a-breast of her, seeming to yield under her fire. If this should induce the opposing ship to veer, in order to keep you more under her guns, you have only to heave rapidly to the wind, by putting the helm a-lee, trimming all sharp abaft, and suppressing the effect of the head sails; all of which is to be done in the same instant you perceive the enemy bears down upon you. The quickness of this manoeuvre, and the priority of the movement you gain thus on your enemy, will soon close the two ships; and if proper attention be paid, and the distance well measured, it may happen that the enemy's bow sprit will be entangled in your fore or main rigging; which would be a most advantageous thing in your attempt to board. But much confidence must not be placed in this, as you do not frequently meet with persons so easily duped: it may even happen that you will no longer be able to attempt the boarding, if the weather ship, instead of bearing away, plied to windward more and more; for this feint manoeuvre may take you too far off to leeward of your adversary. If you should happen to be a ship's length to leeward, and about the same distance a-head of the vessel with which you are engaged, you may, under cover of a heavy fire, heave in stays. By this manoeuvre you come right athwart the enemy's hawse, rake him fore and aft, and board him, his bowsprit being right over your gangway: nor can he possibly avoid your broadside; for, if he heave all a-back and make a-stern board, which is his only resource, he may avoid being boarded, but will always be in a very bad situation.


BOARDING AT AN ANCHOR.

IF it be intended to board a ship which is at an anchor, riding head to wind, it must be executed under sail; for if you cannot approach the enemy but by towing yourself a-head, you will never be able to board her against her will; since it will always be in her power to annoy the boats which are laying out the tow lines. It ought not therefore to be attempted, unless you are underway. To perform this with success, you must be sufficiently to windward to approach her by a little falling-off, without exposing your stern to her fire, which she could play on you with great advantage in this situation. Supposing therefore the boarder to be thus to windward, so as to be able to approach his opponent at anchor, the assailant ought to stop his headway, by taking a-back his mizen topsail and fore staysail, and, when about a ship's length a head of the vessel he means to board, let go an anchor; then work in such a manner that, as soon as the mizen topsail is taken a-back, the mizen close aft, the topsails clued up, and the fore topmast staysail hauled down, he may come head to wind, and veer away cable till, by falling off, he comes board and board with his opponent, who is still riding at her moorings, and who at that instant ought also to be raked by the boarder.

 

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The boarding ship has no other way of manoeuvering but this; because, as soon as the anchor is gone, the ship acquires sternway, and when the cable is checked she comes head to wind, in which she is greatly assisted by the mizen and mizen topsail, which impel her stern to leeward (§ 40, & 44.) till the wind is right in the direction of the keel; and, as the cable is veered away till exactly alongside the ship at anchor, her own anchor being right a-head of the vessel she means to board, it follows that, as soon as the boarding ship comes head to wind, she is in a proper situation to throw her grapnels, and send her crew on board of the other, if they are the strongest.

The ship at anchor should never wait for the enemy in that situation, which is always disadvantageous, and there is always much greater probability of getting clear when underway. But, if, for some unforeseen cause, you are obliged to continue at anchor, you are to take advantage of the moment when the ship which attacks lets go her anchor, to cut the cable by which you ride. By this manoeuvre you fall athwart, rake your adversary, avoid being boarded, and bring up with your lee anchor. Besides, if time will admit before the attack, you should not neglect to cast two springs out, one on each side of the cable by which the vessel rides, if you have not had time before to lay out two anchors, in order not to be surprized, in case the ship which attacks has it in her power to pass on either side of you : and, when you perceive for which side she is determined, you heave on the spring which is on the same side she has let go her anchor if she be a-head, and on the opposite if she be a-stern, veering out at the same time the other spring and cable, till you bring the assailant right a-breast of you. Then, you may rake him at pleasure; as he has no way of getting out of this dangerous situation. His only course would be to prevent this danger, by having a spring also; and, under cover of a brisk fire, veer upon that spring and cable to lay his enemy handsomely on board. But if he has neglected this precaution, he must cut his cable, and drop on board of the ship to leeward; who, on the other hand, has no way to avoid being boarded, but by cutting, to get underway, or to run on shore.

It is always easy to board a ship at anchor, when the wind will allow you to approach her under sail; and the best way to proceed, is to run her along-side, or to bring-to to windward of the ship you wish to attack, keeping her exactly to leeward of you; then drift on board of her, by trimming your sails in such a manner, as to keep as near as possible, your broadside opposite to that of the adverse ship. Annoying her with your guns till you can close her, and your constant cannonading may prevent her fire being so well served as it might otherwise be.

When you are underway, and purpose to board a vessel moored, let go an anchor at the time of boarding: for, if the ship attacked should at this moment cut her cables to drive on shore, this would prevent your running a-ground together.

Naval flourish.


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