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INDEX
 
Absorption, 6,7
Acoustic mirror, 293
Acoustic synthesis, 319
Acoustics simulating in QFA-1 attack teacher, 311-314
  beam pattern, forming of, 311
  doppler effect, magnitude of, 312-313
  doppler nullifiers, 313
  echo frequency, 311-312
  no-doppler target, 314
  range attenuator, 312
  submarine listening equipment, 311
  submarine sonar attack, 313-314
Actuator motor, 215
Airborne noise, 59-60
Ambient noise:
  biological, 61-63
  sea, 60-61
  traffic, 61,63
Amplified noise, 59-60
  over-all levels of, 61
Amplifier circuits, JT listening equipment, 246-249
Amplifiers:
  driver, 259
  i-f, 163-165
  power, 259
  receiver, 256
  r-f, 162
  speech, 257
Analyzer, 264
  dead-reckoning (DRA`, 216-217
  mechanism, 234-235
Annual cycle, 36-37
  dependence on geographic location, 41-42
AN/UQC-1, sonar communication set, 255-259
  circuit, 256-259
    audio oscillator, 256
    carrier oscillator, 256
    driver amplifier, 259
    modulator, 257-258
    power amplifier, 259
    power supplies, 256
    receiver amplifier, 256
    speech amplifier, 257
  description of, 255-256
AN/UQN-1B sonar sounding set, 278-280
AN/UQS-T1 sonar training set, 315-322
  description of, 315-317
    optical projector, 317
    own ship simulator, 315
    sonar target simulator, 315-317
    transducer simulator, 317
  operation, principles of, 317-322
    acoustic synthesis, 319
    bearing determination, 318
  AN/UQS-T1 sonar training set-Continued
  operation, principles of-Continued
    dome baffle, 321
    echo timing, 320
    frequency-control system, 319
    horizontal-range determination, 318-319
    MCC operation, 321
    optical operation, 321-322
    propeller sounds, 320-321
    reverberation synthesis, 320
    searchlight sonar, adaptation to, 322
    ship motion, 317-318
    slant range determination, 319
    target depression-angle solution, 319
    target echo-frequency control, 319
    target motion, 318
    targets, additional, 322
    transducer signals, production of, 320
    water noise, 321
Attack plotter, 213,217-226
  operation of, 218-226
    blanking and brightening, 223
    echo channel, 223
    own ship's spot, 220-221
    predictor, 222-223
    relays A and B, 223-226
    sound sweep, 221-222
  principles of, 217-218
Attenuation, 6
Attenuation coefficient, 7
Audio amplifier and limiter, 154-155
Audio channel, 152
Audio gain control, 134
Audio oscillator, 256
Automatic volume controls (AVC), 120
Axial source level, 5
Azimuth control unit, 254

Background noise, 59-61
  sources of:
    airborne noise, 59-60
    ambient noise, 60
    amplified noise, 59-60
    circuit noise, 60
Barrage timing, 236-237
Bathythermograms, 10
Bathythermograph, 10
Beam pattern, 5
  forming of, 311
Bearing determination, 318
Bearing deviation, 107
Bearing-deviation indication, 110-111
Bearing deviation indicator, (BDI), 56,159
  standard, 111
 
325

Bearing indicator, 78
Bendix log, 214-216
Binaural effect, 56
Biological noise:
  croaker, 61,62
  miscellaneous, 61
  shrimp, 61,62
Blanking and brightening, 223
Bombs, sofar, 284
  requirements of, 284
Bottom reverberation, 28-31
British Asdic, 82

Cable-connected hydrophones, 290-291
Cavitation, 254-255
Chart drive, 228
Circuit noise, sources of:
  hum, 60
  thermal agitation of electrons, 60
  tube noise, 60
  vibration of tube elements, 60
Circuits:
  audio, 172
  BDI, 310
  DDI threshold, 169-170
  doppler-nullifier, 154-157
    audio amplifier and limiter, 154-155
    discriminator, 155-156
    own-doppler-nullifier, 156-157
    target-doppler-nullifier, 157
  filter, 289
  keying control, 177-178
  limiter, 289
  modulator and phase shift, 162-163
  phase-shifter and buffer, 165
  RCG, 171-172
  RCG and TVG, 152-153
  RLI, 310
Comparison servo system, 200-201
Computer Mk 59,192
Computer, stabilization:
  functions of, 193
Computer system, roll and pitch, 190
Computer units, 192
Conjugate detector, 167-169
Convective overturn, 35
Converter gain control, 134
Coordinate motors, 306
Critical bands, 71
Crossing the target, 107
Currents:
  drift, 41
  internal waves, 41
  permanent, 41
  surface, divergence and convergence of, 41
  tidal, 41

DDI threshold circuit, 169-170
Dead-reckoning analyzer (DRA), 213
  Dead-reckoning systems, 216-217
  components of:
    analyzer (DRA), 213,216-217
    tracer (DRT), 213,216,217
  functions of, 216
Dead-reckoning tracer (DRT), 213
Decibel:
  definition of, 3
  system, 3
Deep scale, 271
Density of sea water, 33
Depth determination, 121
  refraction error, 121
Depth-determining equipment, 141-148
  model QDA, 141-148
    computed target depression, 142-143
    horizontal range, 142-143
    keying and controlling records, 141-142
    sound beam, correction for bending, 143
    tilt-order synchro circuit, 143-144
    transceiving system, 145-146
    transducer, 146-147
    transmitter, 147
  sonar installations, 148
Depth-determining recorder, 238-239
Depth deviation indicator (DDI), 158
Depth finder:
  components of, 269-270
  requirements, 269
  units of, 269
Detection probability, 103
Diffraction, 15
Diffused reflection, 7
Directional-sensitivity circuits, 131,136-141,149
  beam pattern formation and rotation, 163
  lag-line phasing and shading, 136-139
  scanning switches, 140-141
Directional transmission, 5
Directivity, 5-6,86-90
  function, 5
  index, 91-92
  influence, 5-6
  patterns, 6, 86-90
Discriminator circuits, 155-156,289-290
  filter, 289
  limiter, 289
Diurnal cycle, 37-38
  dependence on geographical location, 42
Dome baffle, 321
Doppler effect, 99-100, 268
  application to echo ranging, 57-58
  definition of, 56-57
  magnitude of, 312-313
Doppler-nullifier circuits, 154-157
  audio amplifier limiter, 154-155
  discriminator, 155-156
  own-doppler-nullifier, 156-157
  target-doppler-nullifier, 157
Doppler-nullifier gain control, 134
Doppler nullifiers, 313
Doppler range error, 118-119
 
326

Dual single-axis stabilization system, 190-191
Dual speed positioning servo system, 202-205

Echo channel, 223
Echo, definition of, 17
Echo duration, 117-118
Echo formation, 17
Echo frequency, 311-312
Echo ranging, 57-58
  signals used in, 76-77
Echo-ranging equipment, essentials of, 76-101
  basic components, 76-77
  range indicator, 78-79
  receiver-amplifier, 77-78
  receiver sensitivity and background noise, 95-100
  sonar location, 100-101
  training device and bearing indicator, 78
  transducers, 79-95
Echo-ranging equipment, surface-ships, 123-148
  depth-determining equipment, 141-148
    model QDA, 141-148
      computed target depression, 142-143
      horizontal range, 142-143
      keying and controlling recorders, 141-142
      sound beam, correction for bending, 143
      tilt-order synchro circuit, 143-144
      transceiving system, 145-146
      transducer, 146-147
      transmitter, 147
    sonar installations, 148
  model QCB, 123-127
  model QGA, 128
  model QJB, 127-128
  scanning sonar equipment, 128-141
    model QHB-a, 128-141
      components, description of:
        receiver-transmitter unit, 134-135
        remote indicator, 135
        scanning switch assembly, 132-134
        sonar indicator control, 135
        transducer, 131-132
      directional sensitivity circuits, 136-141
        beam-pattern formation and rotation, 137
        lag-line phasing and shading, 137-139
        scanning switches, 140
      system line-up, 128-131
      transmit-receive switching, 135-136
Echo-ranging systems basic components, 76-77
  signal used in, 76-77
    signal frequency, 76-77
  transmitter, 76
Echo-reverberation ratio, 119-120
Echo-sounding equipment, 269-280
  AN/INN-1B sonar sounding set, 278-280
  echo-sounding problem, 269-270
    depth-finder components, 269-270
    depth-finder requirements, 269
      units of, 269
  NJ-9 sonar sounding equipment, 274-275
  projector and hydrophone, 275
  Echo-sounding equipment-Continued
  NJ-9 sonar sounding equipment-Continued
    receiver-amplifier, 275
    transmitter-rectifier unit, 274-275
  NK-7 sonar sounding equipment, 275-278
    recorder, 275-277
      reception of signal, 277
      transmission of signal, 277
    vibrapacks, 277-278
  NMC-2 sonar sounding equipment, 271-274
    indicator-recorder-amplifier unit, 271-274
      indicator, 271-273
      receiver-amplifier, 273
      recorder, 273
      rectifier power unit, 274
    transducer, 271
    transducer junction box, 274
    transmitter and rectifier, 271
  Echo-sounding problem, 269-270
    depth finder:
      components of, 269-270
      requirements, 269
      units of, 269
Echo-sounding recorder, 240
  ranges of:
    deep, 240
    shoal, 240
Echo timing, 320
Effective back radiation 39
Energy density, 2
Energy spectrum, 97
Envelope filter, 170-171
Evaporation, 39

Fading, 70
Fairing, use on hull to reduce self-noise, 101
Fly-back contacts, 230-231
F-m sonar, parameters of, 116-119
Forward scattering, 31
Free gyro, properties of, 186-187
Frequency consideration in listening, 71-75
  sonic listening, 71-72
  ultrasonic listening, 72-73
Frequency, definition of, 2

Geographical variations, 41-42
  annual cycle effect on, 41-42
  diurnal cycle effect, 42
Gyros, 186-188

Harbor defense, 288-293
  cable-connected hydrophone system, 290-291
    heralds, 293
      QBH, 293
    hydrophone assemblies 290-291
    radio sonobuoys 291-293
      JM-4,291-293
        description of, 291-292
        function of, 291-292
  magnetic loop stations 289-290
 
327

Harbor defense-Continued
  magnetic loop stations-Continued
    discriminator, 289-290
      filter circuit, 289
      limiter, circuit, 289
    multiturn loops, 290
  QAA demolition-team sonar, 295-298
    circuits, 295-298
    description of, 295
  submarine cables, 293-294
    types of: herald, 294
      hydrophone, 294
      magnetic loop, 204
  submarine detection by aircraft, 299-302
    AN/CRT-1A radio sonobuoy, 299-302
    magnetic airborne detector, 302
  underwater detection, 288-289
    system: heralds, 289
      magnetic loops 288-289
      radio sonobuoys, 289
      tactics of, 289
Hearing:
  theory of, 52-53
  threshold of, 54
Heralds, 293
  QBH, 293
Hoist-train mechanism, 264
Horizontal range, 309
  determination, 318-319
Human ear, 52-56
  numerical data concerning, 53-54
  theory of hearing, 52-53
Hydrophone, 73, 242, 243, 253-254
  assemblies, 290-291
  cable-connected, 290-291
  definition of, 79
I-f band width-doppler, 164-165
Images and their motion, 304-308
  mirror-drive motor, 306-307
  optical system, 305
  tactical considerations, 307
  the "ocean," 304-305
  watt-hour meter motor, 305-306
Indicator-recorder-amplifier unit, 271-274
Indicator sweep, bearing of, 266
Integrated sonar system, 122, 192-193
Integrator (or rate servo system), 205-207
Intensity of scattered sound, 17-19
Intensity of sound waves, 2-3
  decibel system, 3
Interference effects, 5
Inverse square law, 3-5
Isothermal layer, 10, 13

JM-4 radio sonobuoy, 291-293
description of, 292-293
function of, 291-292
  JP listening equipment, 241-243
  description of, 241-243
    hydrophone, 242
    receiver, 242-243
JT listening equipment, 243-249
  components, 243-245
    block diagram, 243-245
    hydrophone, 245
    training of, 245
  RLI operation, 245-249
    amplifier circuit, 246-249
    sum and difference inputs, 245-246
    ultrasonic listening, 249

Keying methods, QHB, 177-183
  cathode-ray tube blanking pulses, 181-182
  deflection-transfer keying of cathode-ray tube, 181
  external keying, 182-183
  keying control circuits, 177-178
    functions of, 177
  primary keying pulse, 178-181

Layer effect, 15
Level and cross-level receiver system, 189-190
  roll and pitch computer system, 190
Limiting ray, refraction, 12
Listening, 58-59
  frequency considerations in, 71-73
  sonic, 71-72
  ultrasonic, 72-73
Listening system:
  components of:
    bearing indicator, 58
    electronic receiver, 58
    hydrophone, 58
    speaker or headphones, 58
Lobes, 6

Magnetic airborne detector, 302
Magnetic clutch control, 228-229
Magnetic-loop stations, 289-290
Magnetostriction effect,79-SO
Magnetostriction sound sources, 80-81
Maintenance of close contact (MCC), 121, 132
Maintenance-of-true-hearing (MTB), 123
Masking, 54-55
Master speed indicator, 214
MCC operation, 321
Mirror-drive motors, 306-307
Mixing processes:
  convective overturn, 40
  effect of rotation of earth, 40-41
  mechanical mixing, 40
Mk 5 plotting system, 226-227
  parts of: Mk 5 plotter, 226
  Mk 63 control panel, 226
  Mks 55 or 75 computer, 226
Negative gradient, 10
Network, sofar, 286-287
 
328

NJ-9 sonar sounding equipment, 274-275
  projector and hydrophone, 275
  receiver-amplifier, 275
  transmitter-rectifier unit, 274-275
NK-7 sonar sounding equipment, 275-278
  recorder, 275-277
    reception of signal, 277
    transmission of signal, 277
    vibrapacks, 277-278
NMC-2 sonar sounding equipment, 271-274
  indicator-recorder-amplifier unit, 271-274
    indicator, 271-273
    receiver-amplifier, 273
    recorder, 273
    rectifier power unit, 274
  transducer, 271
  transducer junction box, 274
  transmitter and rectifier, 271
Noise: airborne, 59-60
  ambient, 60-63
  amplified, 59-60
  background, 59-61
  biological, 61-63
  sea, 60-61
  traffic, 61, 63

Ocean temperature gradients, annual cycle of, 34
OKA-1 relation to sonar systems, 207-212
OMA-1 sonar resolving equipment, 196-207
OMA cavitation indicator (CI), 254-255
OMA noise-level monitor (NLM), 254-255
Oscillators: audio, 256
  beat-frequency, 153-154
  carrier, 256
  frequency-modulated, 263
  omnicontrol, 152
Own doppler nullifier (ODY), 99, 100
  circuit, 156-157
Own ship simulator, 315

Parameters of f-in sonar, 116-119
Period, definition of, 2
Phase opposition, 2
Phase relations, 2
Piezoelectric effect, 81-83
Ping, definition of, 19
Ping length, 19
Pitometer log, 213-214
  control unit, 214
  rotary distance transmitter, 214
  sea valve and rodmeter, 214
  types of:
    mercury magnometer log, 213
    rotary balance log, 213-214
Plan-position indicators, 113-114
Plotting equipment, 213-227
  attack plotter, 217-226
    operation of, 218-226
    principles of, 217-218
  Plotting equipment-Continued
  Bendix log, 214-216
    dead-reckoning systems, 216-217
    components of:
      analyzer (DRA), 216-217
      tracer (DRT), 216, 217
    functions of, 216
  Mk 5 plotting system, 226-227
  pitometer log, 213-214
Plotting System Mk 5, 226-227
  parts of:
    Mk 5 plotter, 226
    Mk 63 control panel, 226
    Mks 55 or 75 computer, 226
Positive gradient, 10
Power spectrum, 97
Precession, 187
Predictor, 222-223
Predictor-bearing dial, 218
Primary keying pulse, 178-181
Propeller sounds, 320-321
  cavitation, 64
  singing, 64
Psychological characteristics of sound, 55-56

QAA demolition-team sonar, 295-298
  circuit, 295-298
  description of, 295
QBH herald, 293
  block diagram of, 295
QDA depth-determining equipment, 141-148
  description, general, 141
  parts of, 141-148
QFA-6 attack teacher, 303-314
  acoustics, simulating, 311-314
    beam pattern, forming the, 311
    doppler effect, magnitude of, 312-313
    doppler nullifier, 313
    echo frequency, 311-312
    no-doppler target, 314
    range attenuator, 312
    reverberation, 312
    submarine listening equipment, 311
    submarine sonar stack, 313-314
  components of, 303, 304
  description of, 303-304
  images and their motion, 304-308
    mirror-drive motors, 306-307
    optical system, 305
    tactical considerations, 307-308
    the "ocean", 304-305
    watt-hour meter motor, 305-306
  RLI and BDI, simulating, 310-311
  sonar sound beam, simulating the, 308-310
    active area, 308-309
    slant range, 309
    sound-beam training control, 309-310
QGA searchlight sonar system, 128
  block diagram of, 128
QOB sonar equipment, 123-127
  components of, 123
 
329

QGB sonar equipment-Continued
  cycle of operation, 125
  transmitter power amplifier, 173-175
QHB transmitter, 175-176
QHB-a scanning sonar equipment, 128-141
  components, description of:
    receiver-transmitter unit, 134-135
    remote indicator, 135
    scanning-switch assembly, 132-134
    sonar indicator control, 135
  directional sensitivity circuits, 136-141
  operational controls:
    audio gain control, 134
    converter gain control, 134
    doppler-nullifier gain control, 134
    target-doppler nullification on-off switch, 134
  system line-up, 128-131
  transmit-receive switching, 135-136
QHB-1 capacitive-scanning sonar equipment, 263
QHB-1 receiving system, 149-151
QJB searchlight sonar equipment, 127-128
QLA f-m scanning sonar equipment, 263-268
  description of, 263-264
  doppler effect, 268
  major units:
    analyzer, 264
    driver, 263-264
    frequency-modulated oscillator, 263
    hoist-train mechanism, 264
    indicator, 264
    receiver, 264
    sound head, 264
  principles of operation, 264-268
    bearing of indicator sweep, 266
    maximum scanning rate, 266-268
    range measurement, 266
    range scale, 266

Radiation:
  effective back, 39
  function, facts about, 86
  incoming, 38-39
Radio sonobuoys:
  AN/CRT-1A, 299-302
  JM-4,291-293
    description of, 292-293
    function of, 291-292
Range and bearing indication, 117
Range indicator, 78-79
Range-rate plot, 235
Rate servo system (or integrator), 205-207
Rayleigh's law of scattering, 16
Ray diagrams, typical, 11-15
  isothermal layer and thermocline, 13
  marked downward refraction, 11-12
Ray divergence, 14-15
Ray theory, inadequacy of, 15-16
RCG circuit, 171-172
  and TVG circuit, 152,153
Receiver-amplifier, 74,77-78,256
  Receiver sensitivity and background noise, 95-100
  reception, 95-96
  response:
    curves, 96-97
    of amplifiers, 97
    of band filters to short pings, 98-99
    of transducers, 96
  sharply tuned receivers, limitations on use, 99-100
    doppler effect, 99-100
    own doppler nullifier, 100
    reverberation, 100
  spectrum level, 97-98
    energy, of a pulse, 97
    power, of noise, 97-98
Recorder:
  depth-determining, 238-239
  echo-sounding, 240
  sound range, 237-238
  tactical range, 228-237
Refraction:
  definition of, 8
  downward, 11-12
  error, 121
  of sound, 8-16
  Snell's law of, 11
Resonant receiver, 52
Reverberation, 16,100,312
  bottom, 28-31
  indices, 22
  in nonideal conditions, 22-23
  level, 22
  oscillator, 314
  surface, 25-26
  synthesis, 320
  theory of, 19-22
  volume, 26-28
  with horizontally directed beam, 24-25
Reverberation-control of gain (RCG), 120
Rigidity of plane, 187
RLI and BDI, simulating, 310-311
RLI operation, 245-249
  amplifier circuits, 246-249
  sum and difference inputs, 245-246
Rochelle salt and ADP transducers, 83
Rodmeter, 214
Roll and pitch computer system, 190
Rotary-balance log:
  parts of:
    control unit, 213,214
    indicators, 213,214
    rotary distance transmitter, 213,214
    sea valve and rodmeter, 213,214
Rotary distance transmitter:
  parts of:
    distance-transmitting unit, 214
    follow-up motor, 214
    motor-driven transtat (variac), 214
    pump, 214
    pump-drive motor, 214
 
330

Scanning sonar:
  f-m, 115-119
  pulse-type, 112-113
  rotating-type, 114-115
Scanning sonar equipment, 128-141
  model QHB-a, 128-141
    components, description of:
      receiver-transmitter unit, 134-135
      remote indicator, 135
      scanning-switch assembly, 132-134
      sonar indicator control, 135
      transducers, 131-132
    directional sensitivity circuits, 136-141
      beam-pattern formation and rotation, 137
      lag-line phasing and shading, 137-139
      scanning switches, 140-141
      system line-up, 128-131
      transmit-receive switching, 135-136
Scanning-switch assembly, 132-134
Scattered sound, intensity of, 17-19
Scattering, 6,7
  forward, 31
  Rayleigh's law of, 16
  reflection and, 16-31
Searchlight sonar, adaptation to, 322
Search operations, 102-103
  detection, probability of, 103-106
    effects of motion, 104-106
    single ping, 103
    successive pings, 104
  missions of:
    hunt, 102
    location, 102
    screen, 102
Sea valve, 214
Sea water:
  density of, 33
  stratification of ocean, 33
  thermal structure and stability, 33
  transmission of sound in, 32-51
Sector-scan indicators, 114-115
Self noises:
  Circuit, 60
  hydrophone motion, 60
  own ship, 60
Separator, 219-220
Servo electronic control amplifier, 254
Servo mechanism, 74
Servo systems, 199-207
  classes of:
    comparison, 199,200-201
    dual-speed positioning, 199,202-205
    rate or integrator, 199,205-207
    single-speed positioning, 199,201-202
  servomotors, 199-200
Sharply tuned receivers, limitations on use, 99-100
Ship motion, 317-318
Shoal-deep switch, 271
Shoal scale, 271
Signal amplifier circuit, 232-233
  Signal splitter, 310
Signals, Sofar, Mk 22 Mods 0 and 1,284-286
  description of, 285-286
Signature, definition of, 290
Single-speed positioning servo system, 201-202
Slant range, 309
Slant-range determination, 319
Snell's law of refraction, 11
Sofar:
  applications of, 287
  bombs, 284
  factors affecting use of, 281-282
  network, 286-287
  position determination, 282-284
  principles of, 281-284
  Signals Mk 22 Mods 0 and 1,284-286
Sonar communication set AN/UQC-1, 255-259
  circuit, 256-259
    audio oscillator, 256
    carrier oscillator, 256
    driver amplifier, 259
    modulator, 257-258
    power amplifier, 259
    power supplies, 256
    receiver amplifier, 256
    speech amplifier, 257
  description, 255-256
Sonar indicator control, 135
Sonar installations, 148
Sonar listening systems, 73-75
  sonic, 73-74
    headphones and speaker, 74
    hydrophone, 73
    receiver-amplifier, 74
    training unit, 74
    ultrasonic, 75
Sonar location, 100-101
Sonar receivers, 149-172
  conventional superheterodyne, 149-157
      audio channel, 152
      beat-frequency oscillator, 153-154
      doppler-nullifier circuits, 154-157
        audio amplifier and limiter, 154-155
        discriminator, 155-156
        own-doppler-nullifier, 156-157
        target-doppler-nullifier, 157
      RCG and TVG circuits, 152-153
      unicontrol oscillator, 153
      video channel, 151-152
  sum-and-difference, 157-172
    audio circuit, 172
    conjugate detector, 165-169
    DDI threshold circuit, 169
    envelope filter, 170-171
    i-f amplifiers, 163-165
    modulator and phase-shift circuit, 162-163
    phase-shifter and buffer circuits, 165
    RCG circuits, 171-172
    r-f amplifiers, 162
    up-down deflection, 157-162
 
331

Sonar resolving equipment, 196-212
  model OKA-1, 196-207
    servo systems, 199-207
    theory of sound, as applied to, 196-199
  OKA-1 relation to sonar systems, 207-212
Sonar scanning:
  f-m, 115-119
  pulse-type, 112-113
  rotating-type, 114-115
Sonar sound beam, 308-310
  active area, 308-309
  slant range, 309
  sound-beam training control, 309-310
Sonar sounding equipment:
  AN/UQN-1B, 278-280
  NJ-9, 274-275
  NK-7, 275-278
  NMC-2, 271-274
Sonar systems:
  harbor defense, 288-293
  QAA demolition-team, 295-298
  sofar, 281-287
  submarine cables, 293-294
  submarine detection by aircraft, 299-302
Sonar systems, general requirements of, 100-122
  close contacts, maintenance of, 121
  depth determination, 121
    refraction error, 121
  gain, variation of, 120
  integrated sonar system, 122
  operational planning, 102-106
    search operations, 102-106
  scanning sonar, 112-119
    f-m, 115-119
      parameters of, 116-119
    plan-position indicators, 113-114
    pulse-type, 112-113
    rotating-type, 114-115
      sector-scan indicators, 114-115
  small objects, location of, 119-120
    echo-reverberation ratio, 119-120
  target bearing, 106-111
    bearing deviation, 107
    crossing the target, 107
    maintaining contact, 106-107
    split transducers, 107-111
      bearing-deviation indication, 110-111
      standard bearing-deviation indicator, 111
Sonar system, integrated, 122,192-193
Sonar target simulator, 315-317
Sonar training equipment, 303-322
AN/UQS-T1 sonar training set, 315-322
  description of, 315-317
    optical projector, 317
    own ship simulator, 315
    sonar target simulator, 315-317
    transducer simulator, 317
  operation, principles of, 317-322
    acoustic synthesis, 319
  Sonar training equipment-Continued
  AN/UQS-T1 sonar training set-Continued
    operation-Continued
      bearing determination, 318
      dome baffle, 321
      echo timing, 320
      frequency-control system, 319
      horizontal-range determination, 318-319
      MCC operation, 321
      optical projector, 321-322
      propeller sounds, 320-321
      reverberation synthesis, 320
      searchlight sonar, adaptation to, 322
      ship motion, 317-318
      slant range determination, 319
      target depression-angle solution, 319
      target echo-frequency control, 319
      target motion, 318
      targets, additional, 322
      transducer signals, production of, 320
      water noise, 321
  QFA-6 attack teacher, 303-314
    acoustics, simulating, 311-314
      beam pattern, forming the, 311
      doppler effects, magnitude of, 312-313
      doppler nullifiers, 313
      echo frequency, 311-312
      no-doppler target, 314
      range attenuator, 312
      reverberation, 312
      submarine listening equipment, 311
      submarine sonar stack, 313-314
    components of, 303,304
    description of, 303-304
    images and their motion, 304-308
      mirror-drive motors, 306-307
      optical system, 305
      tactical considerations, 307-308
      the "ocean", 304-305
      watt-hour meter motor, 305-306
    RLI and BDI, simulating, 310-311
    sonar sound beam, simulating the, 308-310
      active area, 308-309
      slant range, 309
      sound-beam training control, 309-310
Sonar transmitters, 173-184
  keying methods, 177-183
    cathode-ray tube blanking pulses, 181-182
    deflection-transfer keying of cathode-ray tube, 181
    external keying, 182-183
    keying control circuits, 177-178
    primary keying pulses, 181
    transmitter keying pulse, 181
  QGB power amplifier, 173-175
  QHB, 175-176
  transmission circuits, 183
  unicontrol oscillator system, 183-184
Sonic listening, 71-72
 
332

Sonic listening system, 73-74
  headphones and speaker, 74
  hydrophone, 73
  receiver-amplifier, 74
  training unit, 74
Sound:
  and pressure waves, 1-2
  characteristics:
    in an ideal medium, 1-3
    psychological, 55-56
  produced by objects in sea, 61-70
  propagation of:
    in an ideal medium, 3-7
    in water containing bubbles, 47
  reception and detection by listening, 52-75
  reflection and scattering of, 16-31
  refraction of, 8-16
  scattering and absorption in wakes, 47
  scattering by reflection, 7
  theory of, as applied to OKA-1, 196-199
  transmission of in sea water, 32-51
  transmission of through wakes of surface vessels, 48
  velocity of in sea water, 8-11
  waves, intensity of, 2-3
Sound and pressure waves, 1-2
Sound-beam training control, 309-310
Sound channel, 13,281
Sound head, 264
Sound range and depth recorders, 228-240
  depth-determining recorder, 238-239
  echo-sounding recorder, 240
  sound-range recorder, 237-238
  tactical range recorder, 228-237
    analyzer mechanism, 234-235
    barrage timing, 236-237
    basic features, 228
    chart drive, 228
    fly-back contact, 230-231
    magnetic clutch control, 228-229
    purpose of, 228
    range-rate plot, 235
    signal amplifier circuit, 232-233
    speed-changing mechanism, 233
    stylus action, 231-232
Sound-range recorder, 237-238
Sound reception and detection by listening:
  doppler effect:
    application to echo ranging, 57-58
      definition of, 56-57
  ear in underwater detection:
    background noise, 59-61
    listening, 58-59
    sounds produced by objects in sea:
      biological noise, 61-63
      submarines, 63-67
      surface ships, 67-70
  frequency considerations in listening, 71-73
    sonic listening, 71-72
    ultrasonic listening, 72-73
  Sound reception and detection by listening-Continued
  human ear:
    masking, 54-55
    numerical data concerning, 53-54
    psychological characteristics of sound, 55-56
    theory of hearing, 52-53
    threshold of hearing, 54
  sonar listening systems, 73-75
    sonic:
      headphones and speaker, 74
      hydrophone, 73
      receiver-amplifier, 74
      training unit, 74
    ultrasonic, 75
  time patterns and propeller heats, 70-71
Sound sweep, 221-222
Sound waves, intensity of, 2-3
Spectrum level:
  energy, of a pulse, 97-98
  power, of noise, 97
Specular reflection 7
Speed-changing mechanism, 233
Stability, 33
Stabilization, 185-195
  computer units, 192
  dual single-axis system, 190-191
  integrated sonar system, 192-193
  level and cross-level receiver system, 189-190
    roll and pitch computer system, 190
  problem, 185-186
  stable element:
    construction, 189
    fundamentals of, 186-188
      apparent rotation, 187
      compensation, 188
      effect of friction, 187-188
      effect of latitude, 188
      free gyro, properties of, 186-187
      precession, 187
      rigidity of plane, 187
    uses of, 189
  tangent solver, 193-195
  three-axis system, 191-192
Stable element:
  construction, 189
  fundamentals of:
    apparent rotation, 187
    compensation, 188
    effect of friction, 187-188
    effect of latitude, 188
    free gyro, properties of, 186-187
    precession, 187
    rigidity of plane, 187
  systems, follow-up:
    cross-level, 189-190
    level, 189-190
    train, 189
  uses of, 189
Stimulus, 1,52
 
333

Stratification:
  laboratory experiments on, 33-35
  of ocean, 33
Stylus action, 231-232
Submarine cables, 293-294
Submarine detection by aircraft, 299-302
  AN/CRT-1A radio sonobuoy, 299-302
  magnetic airborne detector, 302
Submarine listening equipment, 241-259,311
  model JP, 241-243
    hydrophone, 242
    receiver, 242-243
  model JT, 243-249
    block diagram, 243-245
    hydrophone, 245
    OMA noise-level monitor and cavitation indicator, 254-255
    RLI operation, 245-249
      amplifier circuit, 246-249
      sum and difference inputs, 245-246
    ultrasonic listening, 249
    training of, 245
  sonar communication set AN/UQC-1, 255-259
    circuit, 256-259
      audio oscillator, 256
      carrier oscillator, 256
      driver amplifier, 259
      modulator, 257-259
      power amplifier, 259
      power supplies, 256
      receiver amplifier, 256
      speech amplifier, 257
  triangulation-listening-ranging, 250-254
    description of, 253-254
      control stack, 254
      hydrophones, 253-254
Submarine sonar equipment, 260-268
  QHB-1 capacitive scanning, 263
  QLA f-m scanning, 263-268
    description of, 263-264
    doppler effect, 268
    major units:
      analyzer, 264
      driver, 263-264
      frequency-modulated oscillator, 263
      hoist-train mechanism, 264
      indicator, 264
      receiver, 264
      sound head, 264
    principles of operation, 264-268
      bearing of indicator sweep, 266
      maximum scanning rate, 266-268
      range measurement, 266
      range scale, 266
  WCA, 260-262
  WFA-1, 262-263
Submarine sonar stack, 313-314
Submarines, sound output of, 63-67
  over-all source level, 65
  propeller sounds, 64-65
  Submarines-Continued
  sources of, 64-65
Sum and difference inputs, 245-246
Sum-and-difference receiving system, 157-172
  audio circuit, 172
  conjugate detector, 167-169
  DDI threshold circuit, 169-170
  envelope filter, 170-171
  i-f amplifiers, 163-165
    i-f bandwidth-doppler, 164-165
  modulator and phase-shift circuit, 162
  phase-shifter and buffer circuits, 165
  RCG circuit, 171-172
  r-f amplifier, 162
  up-down deflection, 157-162
Supersonic converter, 243
Surface reverberation. 25-26
Surface-ship echo-ranging equipment, 123-148
  depth-determining, 141-148
    model QDA, 141-148
      computed target depression, 142-143
      horizontal range, 142-143
      keying and controlling recorders, 141-142
      sound beam, correction for bending, 143
      tilt-order synchro circuit, 143-144
      transceiving system, 145-146
      transducer, 146-147
      transmitter, 147
    sonar installations, 148
  model QCB, 123-127
  model QGA, 128
  model QJB, 127-128
  scanning sonar. 128-141
    model QHB-a, 128-141
      components, description of:
        receiver-transmitter unit, 134-135
        remote indicator, 135
        scanning switch assembly, 132-134
        sonar indicator control, 135
        transducer, 131-132
      directional sensitivity circuits, 136-141
        beam-pattern formation and rotation, 137
        lag-line phasing and shading, 137-139
        scanning switches, 140
      system line-up, 128-131
      transmit-receive switching, 135-136
Surface ships:
  sound output of, 67-70
  spectra of, 68-69

Tactical range recorder, 228-237
  analyzer mechanism, 234-235
  barrage timing, 236-237
  basic features, 228
  chart drive, 228
  fly-back contacts, 230-231
  magnetic clutch control, 228-229
  purpose of, 228
  range-rate plot, 235
  signal amplifier circuit, 232-233
 
334

Tactical range recorder-Continued
  speed-changing mechanism, 233
  stylus action, 231
Tangent solver, 193-194
Target area, 17
Target bearing, 106-111
  bearing deviation, 107
  crossing the target, 107
  maintaining contact, 106-107
  split transducers, 107-111
Target depression angle solution, 319
Target doppler:
  nullification gain control 134
  nullifier (TDN), 99
  nullifier circuit, 157
Target echo-frequency control, 319
Target motion, 318
Temperature distribution in sea:
  analysis of processes, 38-41
    currents, 41
    heating and cooling, 35,38-39
    mixing processes, 35-36,40-41
  annual cycle, 36-37
  diurnal cycle, 37-38
  thermal structure at great depths, 36
Temperature gradients:
  changes in, 32
  conditions for, 42
    cooling, 35
    flowing, 36
    heating, 35
    mixing, 35-36
Thermal structure and stability, 33
Thermal structure at great depths, 36
Thermocline, 11,13,196
Three-axis stabilization system, 191-192
Threshold control, 159
Threshold of hearing, 54
Tilt-order synchro circuit, 143-144
Time-base selector, 226
Time patterns and propeller beats, 70-71
  perception of, 70
  single-frequency components, 70-71
    audibility, 70-71
    time patterns, 71
Time variation of gain (TVG), 120
Tracer, dead-reckoning, (DRT), 216,217
Train length, 19
Training device methods of operation:
  amplidyne system, 78
  thyratron system, 78
Training unit, 74
Transducers, 131-132,146-147,271
  definition of, 79
  directivity, 83-92
  effect of domes, 95
  efficiency and response of, 93
  heading, 107
  junction box, 274
  location, selection of, 101
  Transducers-Continued
  mechanical impedance of, 92
  response of, 96
  signals, production of, 320
  simulator, 317
  sound output, 93-94
  split, 107-111
  standard, characteristics of, 93
  ultrasonic sound sources, 79-83
Transmission anomaly, 6-7
Transmission circuits, 183
Transmission loss, 6
Transmission of sound in sea water, 38-51
Transmitter, 76
Triangulation-listening-ranging equipment, 253-254

Ultrasonic frequencies, 2
Ultrasonic listening, 72-73,75,249
Ultrasonic sound sources, 79-83
  magnetostriction:
    effect, 79-SO
    sound sources, 80-81
  piezoelectric effect, 81-83
  Rochelle salt and ADP transducers, 83
Underwater detection of sound, 58-70
  background noise, 59-61
  listening, 58-59
  sounds produced by objects in sea:
    biological noise, 61-63
    submarines, 63-67
    surface ships, 67-70
Underwater log, 213-216
  Bendix, 214-216
  pitometer, 213-214
Underwater sound:
  characteristics of in ideal medium, 1-3
  principles of, 1-31
  propagation in an ideal medium, 3-7
  reflection and scattering, 16-31
  refraction of, 8-16
Unicontrol oscillator, 153
  system of, 183-184
Unicontrol system, 149-151
Up-down deflection, 157-162

Velocity of sound in sea water, 8-11
  horizontal and vertical changes, 9-11
Vibrapacks, 277-278
Video channel, 151-152
Volume reverberation, 26-28
Volume-scattering coefficient, 22

Wakes, 42-51
Water noise, 321
Wavelength, 2
Wave motion, equation of, 2
Waves, internal, 41
Waves, sound, intensity of, 2-3
WCA sonar equipment, 260-262
WFA-1 sonar equipment, 262-263
 
335

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