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CHAPTER XIV.

GROUND-TACKLE.

ANCHORS-CHAINS-THE CAPSTAN.

Anchors- Although the general form of the anchor has undergone but slight modification since the earliest ages, yet there are, even at this late day, as many opinions as authorities in regard to the best proportions and best shape of the various parts. There seems to be, however, a general concurrence in making the shank shorter and the several parts heavier than was common fifty years ago.

Anchors are of two kinds-Solid, or ordinary, and Portable.

The Solid or ordinary anchors are those which have the shank and arms wrought into one body, or mass, at the crown of the anchor, Fig. 414, Plate 86.

The Portable anchors are those which admit of being separated, and taken to pieces. Of this kind there are many varieties.

Figs. 414 and 415 show the wooden-stocked and iron-stocked anchor as commonly supplied to the service, the former being at present reserved for permanent moorings, iron-stocked anchors being furnished exclusively on board ship.

In Fig. 414:

The shank is all that part extending in a straight line from a to b.

The square is that part of the shank which extends from c to d, to which the stock is attached.

The arm is the part which extends from the throat (or crutch) to the extreme end, from e to f, including the palm, the point and the blade.

The palm or fluke is the part of the arm, of a shield-like form, from g to h, and constitutes the holding surface of the anchor.

The point (pee or bill) is the part of the arm included between the termination of the palm and the extreme end, from f to h.

The blade is the part of the arm at the back of the palm from i to k.

The crown is the external arch upon which the anchor


Plate 86, Fig 414. Anchor parts.

Plate 87, Fig 415-417. Anchor parts and setting.
 

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falls when let go in a vertical position, and may be said to extend from k to k'.

The ring (or jews-harp), o, is the appendage by which the cable is attached to the anchor, by means of a shackle on the end of the cable, called the anchor-shackle. The last link of the chain, which is secured into this shackle by a pin, is of peculiar form, and is called the club-link.

The stock, p, is the transverse beam which cants the anchor when the arms fall in a horizontal instead of a vertical position.

The throat of the arms is the curved part at e, where the arms are joined to the shank.

All anchors and chains used in the navy are made at the foundry in the navy-yard at Washington.

Iron Stocks. An iron stock is generally a round bar of iron with a collar near the centre. It is put through a hole in the square of the shank, the collar resting against one side, and being kept there by a forelock which passes through the stock on the other side of the square. There is a washer between the forelock and the square.

A Wooden Stock has generally a square section tapering both ways towards the centre; it is encircled with iron hoops, and a square hole is cut in the centre to fit it on the square of the shank. An improved plan is to make it of two pieces, by cutting it lengthwise, and to forge projections from the square to be enclosed between the two parts of the stock and furnish large bearings; the two halves after being put on are hooped together.

Wooden stocks are made of oak, in two pieces left sufficiently apart in the middle to give greater binding power to the hoops, and to admit of their being driven up when the wood shrinks, a precaution which should be adopted after long exposure to a hot sun.

The following is taken from the Book of Allowances of 1881:

1. All anchors and kedges are to have iron stocks. The weight of an iron stock is, as nearly as possible, one-fourth of the anchor to which it belongs.

2. Bower and sheet anchors are to be alike in weight. The weight of an anchor or kedge, as marked on it, being inclusive of the bending-shackle and stock.

3. Stream-anchors, in all cases, when allowed, are to be about one-fourth the weight of the bower,

4. Kedges, when four are allowed, are to be, respectively, about one-seventh, one-eighth, one-tenth, and one-fourteenth the weight of the bower; when three are allowed, one-sixth, one-eighth, and one-tenth; when two are allowed, one-sixth and one-tenth; and when one is allowed, one-eighth.

5. To determine the weight of a bower or sheet anchor for a vessel, multiply her displacement in tons by the number

 

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assigned to her approximate displacement in the following table, in the column headed, "Multipliers," and the product will express the number of pounds, inclusive of stock. This rule will give the intended weights, but, as anchors are not to the pound, they will be furnished as nearly in accordance with it as practicable, giving preference, especially in vessels from the sixth to ninth classes inclusive, to anchors having greater weights than the rule calls for.

6. Each boat of every vessel is allowed one anchor; the weight in pounds to be obtained by multiplying the square of the extreme breadth by 1.2.

ANCHORS AND KEDGES.

Size of Vessel Multipliers Bower Sheet Stream Kedges
Over 3,700 tons displacement 1 3/4 2 2 1 4
Over 2,400 tons displacement 2 2 2 1 3
Over 1,900 tons displacement 2 1/4 2 2 1 3
Over 1,500 tons displacement 2 1/2 2 2 1 3
Over 900 tons displacement 2 3/4 2 1 1 3
900 tons and under displacement 3 2 1 1 2
First-class monitors 1 1/4 2 1 - 2
Second-class monitors 1 1/2 2 - - 2

Patent or other anchors shall be of relative holding power, and will be supplied by special order.

Proof of Anchors. Anchors are tested by the hydraulic press, the proof strains being as follows:

Anchor.
Cwt
Strain.
Tons
  Anchor.
Cwt
Strain.
Tons.
100 67   40 35
90 63   30 28
80 58   20 20
70 53   10 12
60 48   5 7
50 42   1 3

Portable Anchors. The two arms of a portable anchor, called flukes, are in most of them attached to the shank by means of a pin through the centre of the flukes, and through jaws forged on the end of the shank. The flukes may either be kept firm by forging lugs on them to embrace a shoulder on the shank, or they may move around the pin. In this case the extent of the motion may be

 

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limited by a second pin through the shoulder, playing in a long hole in the flukes, or simply by the bills coming in contact with the shank. When the flukes are movable they have to be so shaped that when the upper arm is drawn as near the shank as possible, the other fulfils the proper conditions for holding. To force the arms to assume this position, it is necessary to provide each of them with a horn projecting outward just above the palm. This forms a secondary bill, which holds quick, and brings the arm in a position to hold also. The two arms may be forged separately, with a tenon at the end of each, by means of which they are fastened to the shank, on which mortises are cut to receive the tenons. Porter's anchor, as improved by Trotman, and known now by the latter name, is of this description; see Fig. 416.

Martin's Anchors, Fig. 417. A form of patent anchor supplied to some of the monitors, and specially adapted for vessels which require a clear deck forward for right ahead fire. Stock and flukes are in the same horizontal plane when the anchor is laid flat, both flukes taking the ground when the anchor is let go.

The Mushroom Anchor, is made without a stock, by substituting for the arm a cap, or reversed cup, called parachute, making the anchor represent a mushroom. Fig. 420, Plate 88.

One great advantage possessed by this anchor is, that it does not foul the chain, and for this reason it is used almost exclusively for our lightships.

A MUSHROOM consists of a heavy iron cup (the mushroom anchor without the shank), having on its convex surface a shackle. These are used for the anchoring of buoys.

Qualities of an Anchor. The following is a table of the relative values of the properties considered essential in a good anchor:

Properties Values.
Strength 30
Holding 20
Quick holding 10
Canting 10
Facility of stowing 10
Exemption from fouling 5
Facility of sweeping 5
Fishing 5
Facility of transport in boats, quick tripping 5
100

Anchors are brought off to the ship in lighters. Having them under the bows, overhaul down the cat and fish, hook on, cat and fish the anchor, passing the ring-stopper and

 

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shank-painter, and bend the buoy-rope if used. It is recommended to bend a stout hawser to the ring of the anchor, in case of accident. It is also recommended to hook and pull up on the cat and fish together, for fear of injury to the lighter.

The method of getting the waist anchor into its berth has been given.

Jury Anchors. Having lost the heavy anchors, a stream or kedge anchor and a gun may be combined, the one giving weight and the other holding power, so as to answer very well for a temporary anchor; a spare anchor-stock, fish, or any suitable spar being lashed across to serve as a stock, Fig. 418, Plate 88. At the trunnions would be the best place for securing the stock, but it has been placed clear, in the figure, to show the manner of securing the kedge and strap to which the chain shackles. A heavy anchor with a broken shank may be treated in the same way.* This plan was suggested by Admiral Porter.

Guns are a resource, when without anchors. Haul a cable from the hawse-hole along the side, by a warp from aft, keeping it up with slip-ropes from the ports, and lash it to a certain number of guns round their chase; pass the end of the breechings round the cable, and secure them on the top of the gun; heave all overboard together. In weighing them, hoist them with the cat, as they reach the hawse-hole, and take them in through the bow-port.

Mitchell's Screw Anchor, Fig. 419. These are very powerful screws made use of for mooring purposes, which, having a broad flange nearly four feet in diameter, present a resistance, when entered into the ground, equal to that of ten square feet. This is not only much greater than that of an anchor, but is less liable to be fouled by other ground tackle.

The chain is connected with a revolving collar. The screwing down is effected by a key, which is placed piece by piece as the screw is lowered; the collar admitting of the turning, without fouling the cable. When the screw has been sunk to the desired depth, the key is removed.

The foundation for the lighthouse on Mapling Sands was formed on pilings shod with these screws.

A Sea Anchor. This anchor may frequently be of the greatest possible use, and may be made in the following manner: Take three spare spars (topgallant studding-sail booms will be sufficiently large), with these form a triangle; cut these spars to the required length, after cross-lashing them well at each angle; then make fast your spans, one to each angle, so that they will bear an equal strain when in the water; but should your spars be weak, you should always increase the number of spans accordingly;

* Jury anchors should be lowered to the bottom by slip-ropes.


Plate 88, Fig 418-423. Anchoring details.
 

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fill up the centre of the triangle with strong canvas, having eyelet-holes round its sides, about three inches apart, through which eyelet-holes attach the canvas securely to the spars; at the back of the canvas pass many turns of inch or inch and a half rope, net fashion. A net would be preferable to rope so expended. To the base of the triangle attach a weight, or small anchor, supported in the centre of the base by a span running from each of the lower angles. To the first-mentioned span make fast the stream cable. When everything is quite ready, hoist or put it overboard from the place you think it will answer best. There is every reason to believe that with this anchor under the trough of the sea, and seventy or eighty fathoms of stream cable out, a ship's drift would not be very great.

If a ship should approach the shore with this sea anchor down, it would enable her to bring to with her proper anchors much easier than if the sea anchor had not been down. She might let go her proper anchor and veer from the sea anchor, until she had sufficient cable out, which would give her a much better chance of holding.

Another plan is to have two flat bars of iron, each in length half the breadth of the vessel's midship beam, riveted together in the middle by an iron saucer-headed bolt, clinched at its point, that they may be swung parallel to each other, for easy stowage. At each end of the bars is a hole for a rope or swifter to pass through, which must be hove tight to extend the bars at right angles. To this swifter is marled a double or fourfold No. 1 canvas cloth, of the same shape, and put on the side of the frame nearest the ship when used. At equal distances in the bars are holes to which is attached the bridle or crow's-foot for bending the cable or hawser. Also have a ring at one of the angles for a buoy-rope, which should be from ten to twelve fathoms long. The buoy prevents the anchor from sinking to the bottom, and facilitates getting it on board again.

Another sea anchor is that suggested by Captain P. Thompson, Examiner in Navigation for the Board of Trade, England.

The cargo derrick of a merchant ship (or any suitable spar of a vessel of war) and chain, together with the storm stay-sail, offer the ready materials for constructing a sea anchor in a steamer, as is shown in Fig. D.

D, the cargo derrick; S, the sail bent to it; B, the bridle; and C, the cleat to keep that end of the bridle touching it in its place. The other end is kept fixed by the iron band on that end of the spar.

Through the shackle of a large kedge-anchor the bight of the derrick chain is hitched, and the two ends taken up alongside of the after-leech and foot-rope and seized to them

 

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at intervals of two feet, the ends of the chain are then secured to the opposite ends of the spar.

Use of spar, sail and anchor as a sea anchor.

On the other side the drag is snaked from chain to chain with two-inch rope.

A chain is passed from the anchor stock to that part of the bridle where the tow-rope is secured, the whole thing is then complete.

Blockading vessels on an open and exposed coast have used sea anchors with great advantage during bad weather.

CABLES.

Cables for the navy are made at the Washington Navy-Yard. An iron rod of the requisite length and diameter is shaped into a link and a stud put in, another piece of iron of the same dimensions is put through the link just formed, and shaped as before; thus fifteen fathoms are made, when a shackle is formed for connecting it to a second length, and so on for one hundred and twenty fathoms, or the required length, when we have the anchor-shackle and club-link.

The stud is said to add one-fourth to the strength of the link. The end links have no studs, in order to facilitate the operation of shackling, but the wire of these links is made the same diameter as the cable next in size.

It is customary now to connect the cable with the shackle and club link by means of an ordinary shackle and one triplet* of chain. Fig. 441, Plate 95. This is done to avoid handling the heavier shackle at the anchor, leaving the latter attached in bending and unbending.

* A TRIPLET. Usually, three links cut from a chain, for testing.

 

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When a length of chain is finished it is put into a hydraulic testing machine and proved.

RULE TO DETERMINE THE SIZE OF CHAIN-CABLE CORRESPONDING TO AN ANCHOR OF A GIVEN WEIGHT (INCLUSIVE OF STOCK).

Cut off the two right-hand figures of the number of pounds of the anchor's weight, and multiply the square root of the remaining quantity by 4; the result will be the diameter of the chain in sixteenths of inches. Thus:

Weight of anchor in pounds 5,000
Cut off two right-hand ciphers, leaves 50
Square root of 50 7.071
7.071 x 4 = 28.284 and 28/16 = 1 12/16, the diameter of chain needed.

The size of a chain messenger, if used, is two-thirds that of the chain cable to which it is to be applied.

Swivels, Marks, &c. All chain cables are made with swivels at 7 1/2, 37 1/2, 82 1/2, and 127 1/2 fathoms, with shackles at every 15 fathoms from the anchor. Were it not for the swivels and studs the chain would get full of kinks.

Shackles are marked with raised numbers, from 1 to 9 inclusive, on the pin end opposite the head.

Old cables will be found marked with turns of wire around the stud of a link next to the shackle.

Shackles are put on so that the rounded part will be forward.

LENGTH OF CHAIN-CABLES ALLOWED.

Weight of bower-anchor, in pounds,
including stock.
Length of chains in fathoms.
Bower. Sheet. Stream.
Over 7,500 135 135 105
Over 5,000 120 120 105
Over 3,000 120 120 90
Over 2,000 120 120 90
Over 1,600 105 105 75
Over 1,200 90 90 75
Over 800 90 90 60
Under 800 60 60 60

Shackle-Pins are made of iron, white-leaded before putting in. If they become rusted through neglect it is almost impossible to unshackle. Hence, at least once in each quarter, the chains should be overhauled, the pins backed out, carefully white-leaded and replaced.

 

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Wooden pins are the best, but they shrink and fall out or decay, unless regularly overhauled.

Steel-tinned pins would be found serviceable. The length of the steel pin should be such that the extremities do not come through the shackle by the diameter of the point, and they should be fitted with dovetail chambers, to receive leaden pellets in the ends.

Getting Chains on Board. When lying in the stream the chains are brought off in scows or lighters, where they are ranged regularly in alternate layers fore-and-aft and athwartships, and the bitter end being passed through one of the vacant hawse-holes they are got on board and into the lockers by means of deck-tackles and chain-hooks. When working with the crew, men are stationed to stow the chains and are called tierers. The cable is paid down a few links at a time, while the tierers with chain-hooks and a hook-rope rove through a tail-block at some convenient place above them, in the after part of the locker, range the chain in regular fleets, using the hook-rope to form the after bights.

Prior to the stowage of the chains, however, it becomes necessary to secure the end below, as a preventive from loss, in the event of being unable to check its outward passage in veering; and perhaps the best method for accomplishing this object is the following; Through a ringbolt in the keelson, Fig. 421, Plate 88, the end of the chain is rove up to an iron roller, attached to a beam of the lower deck, immediately above-the last link of the chain being curved, in order to fit over a short perpendicular arm on the surface of the roller, which is kept from turning by a check-lever, c, having a small tackle attached. In the event, then, of having to slip, it only becomes necessary to haul on the jigger, which permits a revolution of the roller, and disengages the link from the arm.

Or the bitter end may secure to a bolt overhead, as in Fig. 422.

Another very good plan is to have the end secured with a slip-stopper, Fig. 428 b, Plate 90, the tongue of which may be lashed down. But however the end may be secured, it should not be at the bottom of the locker, but out clear where it can be got at when required. This will enable a second cable to be shackled to the bitter end of the riding cable without rousing the entire length out of the locker.

Should the ship be alongside the wharf, chain-shutes, leading from the wharf through a port abreast the chain pipes are used. The chute is a strongly-made wooden trough, sufficiently wide and long for the purpose.

To Bend a Bower Cable. Reeve a ring-rope through a sheave in the cat-head, through the hawse hole, and bend it to the chain with a rolling-hitch a short distance from the end, to which it must be stopped. Rouse


Plate 89, Fig 424-425. Anchor on capstan, and chain to cable.
 

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the chain out (using the fore-bowline as a hawse-rope if convenient), and up to the cat-head, where the armorer shackles it where it belongs. If the cat-head is far from the bows, a slip-rope will be required to hang the cable half-way.

To Bend a Sheet-Cable, Fig. 423, Plate 88, the anchor being stowed in the waist. Stock the anchor and lash a snatch-block to the upper arm. Reeve off a ring-rope through the snatch block, taking one end in through the sheet hawse-hole, and bend it to the chain, leaving end enough for shackling.

Place two water-whips on the fore-yard, on the same side as the chain. After the chain is roused out a certain distance by the ring-rope, clap one whip on the chain, and when the first whip tends about up and down, clap on the second whip. If necessary, fleet the first whip forward again on the chain as more is paid out. The two whips support the chain while it is being hauled aft.

Slip-ropes having been previously pointed over the side, their outboard ends are picked up and passed inboard after the chain has been shackled, to light up the chain fair for seizing to the side-bolts. If the slip ropes are passed for a full due before the chain has been roused aft and relied upon to sustain the chain, they will make the work much heavier.

When the chain is shackled, clap on a back tackle, in wake of the back-lashing bolt, which is a short distance below the ring of the anchor and in line with the side-bolts, though heavier. Rouse the bight into place, pass the back-lashing* and tauten the chain along the side by clapping on a deck-tackle inboard. Pass the seizings to the side-bolts, lighting up the chain with the slip-ropes, then unreeve the slip-ropes, unhook the yard-whips and finally the back-tackle.

The sheet-chain should always be bent after the second bower has been let go, if not previously done. Having bent it and secured it to the side, as described, it is not unusual to stopper it inboard, unshackle, leaving the end forward, and paying the balance of the chain below into the locker, until required.

The length of chain left bent to the anchor is called a ganger.

A Ganger. is any comparatively short length of chain, such as the one above described, or the length of cat-chain used in catting the anchors of ram-bowed vessels, as mentioned further on.

To Bitt a Chain Cable,** Fig. 424, Plate 89.

* In preparing to let go a waist anchor do not forget to cut the back-lashing. Also called an elbow lashing.

** The expression of bitting a starboard (or port) cable, whether with or against the sun, has always been a favorite subject for discussion in the steerage. But regarding the forward part of the chain as fixed, the slack is hove over the bitt-head, say the port side, against the sun, as will be seen by coiling down a rope in that way. On the starboard side, bitt with the sun.

 

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Immediately over the bitt-head is placed an eye-bolt, to which is hooked a single block, having a hook-rope rove through it. Sufficient slack chain having being roused up, hook on to a bight and pull it up abaft and over the bitthead; form a cuckold's neck in it, so that the part leading from aft shall rest on top of the cavil and outside the bitthead, the running part being inside and leading down under the cavil and so forward; shove the bight thus formed over the bitt-head, slack down the hook rope and it will fall in its place. Now rouse the chain taut along the deck and pay the slack down into the locker.

To Weather-Bitt a Cable is to take an additional turn with it around the cavil or bitt-head.

To Unbitt, as when getting under-way, screw down the "Mix" stopper, or put on any adequate stopper forward of the bitts, take off the deck-stoppers, bend on a hook-rope, rouse up enough slack from aft, and unbitt.

To Range a Chain Cable, Fig. 424. Bend on a hook-rope or a chain whip, according to the size of the chain, rouse up the requisite quantity, and range by placing it in parallel lines called fleets, fore and aft the deck between the bitts and the chain pipes, observing to let the part leading from the bitts, the running part, be outside of all, that from the chain pipe being inside; for were it reversed, the chain running out would find the last fleet forming a curve from the bitts, out towards the ship's side, and in again to the chain pipes, and as the strain came on it, it would sweep with immense force amidships, injuring anything that might be in its way, at any rate giving a violent surge.

Chains are rarely ranged, at present, for any considerable length. If too much chain is ranged it is likely to pay down over and foul the anchor.

When the anchor is let go suddenly, while headway is still on, to avoid danger, for example, or when anchoring in a strong tide, or fresh breeze, the chain will soon acquire very great velocity, and if permitted to run too much at a time it will be found almost impossible to check; therefore but few fathoms should be veered at a time, checking it with the compressor before getting too much headway.

HAWSERS.

Not counting stream cables, the largest hawsers found on board our ships are 10 inches in circumference, and from that they decrease in size to 5-inch tow-lines.

 

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For convenience in bending to each other, in towing, &c., the Elliott-eye can be advantageously applied to the ends of large cables, having two or three links or a shackle attached.

The Elliott-Eye, Fig. 425, Plate 89, is made as follows: Put a whipping on the bending end of the cable a couple of fathoms from the end, and unlay it; splice two strands together with a long splice, making the eye thereby formed equal in length to the diameter of the thimble and the breadth of the seizing. Then, with the remaining strand, make an eye splice to come fair with the bight of the two strands; get the cable on a stretch and fid out the eyes thus formed; put a piece of rope between the two to fill up the hollow and hitch them over. On removing the fid, thrust in an oval-cut thimble large enough to receive the pin of a chain shackle, having it well tarred. Seize the thimble in with a round seizing of one inch and a half. Tail stuff on to the ends of the eye-splice, and worm it four or five fathoms down the cable, clapping on stops every four feet or so, to the end of the worming.

If the thimble is galvanized it need not be tarred. In no case should the thimble be parcelled, as the parcelling holds water and rots the eye.

WIRE CABLES.

Wire cables are being introduced into many English and German vessels, and the British Lloyd's have sanctioned the use of one flexible steel wire cable for steam vessels.

The principal advantage claimed for the use of wire cable over chain cable is uniformity of strength. Chain cables frequently have defective welds, but a wire cable is composed of many threads, and these completely break joint" with each other, and thus neutralize any defect in the wires.

There is also a great saving in weight. A chain cable with two inches thickness in each link weighs about 235 lbs. per fathom; while steel wire capable of superior strength weighs only about 40 lbs. per fathom, thus saving nearly 200 lbs. per fathom used, or many tons in a full length of cable. It is true that the weight of the chain cable greatly assists the anchor in holding the vessel, but the comparatively light wire cable may be attached to a suitable anchor of increased dimensions, and the greater facility of handling the wire must be of importance, especially as regards the time necessary to weigh anchor.

There is no noise in working the wire cable, and it may be stowed upon a reel on deck, thus avoiding the stowage in chain-lockers, forward, of a weight of chain which tends to strain the vessel at that unsupported part.
16

 

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Wire cable has been in use on H. B. M. ships Valorous and Eclipse, and also on board some of the Channel steamers for some time.

The appliances for working it on board one of these vessels are as follows: The wire is fitted on the port side, and is 150 fathoms long, 5 inches in circumference, and weighs 28 1/2 cwt., with a breaking strain of 65 tons. An ordinary chain cable is fitted on the starboard side, and the lower part of the capstan is reserved for working this cable, while the upper part, and a sister capstan, placed just forward of it, works the wire, which is passed around them in grooves in the form of a figure 8; this avoids surging, as the rope leads on to the lowest ring on the main capstan, and to prevent chafe the grooves are set some distance apart. The wire cable stows on a reel conveniently placed abaft the capstans, on the same deck. Automatic nippers secure the cable by friction while the ship is anchored, one being placed where the port riding-bitt would stand, and the other in the eyes of the ship.

When the anchor is let go, the cable runs straight from the reel to the nippers and through the hawse-holes.

Successful experiments have lately been made by the Bureau of Equipment in substituting mild steel for iron, in the manufacture of chain cables.

STOPPERS.

Deck Stoppers, Fig. 427, Plate 90, are made of plain-laid rope, are one fathom in length, when fitted, and are in size one-half that of the cable on which they are applied. In one end is spliced a hook and thimble, or thimble alone, which is hooked or shackled to the stopper ring-bolts in the deck; in the other end is formed a stopper knot, with a laniard one-third the size of the stopper, attached with a running eye around the stopper close to the knot. The laniard is passed from inboard outboard, the stopper lying inboard of the chain, leaving a fathom of the end to worm forward on the cable; the end is then secured by passing the tails around the links.

Deck stoppers are sometimes fitted of chain, with a devil's claw, large enough to receive one of the links of the cable, over which it is placed, and retained by a small iron pin, running through both parts of the claw. In the other extremity a slip-hook and ring are attached, by which it is secured to the stopper-bolts of the deck, Fig. 428. The length is about four feet and a half, and the size depends upon the class of vessel for which it is required.

For wire-rope deck stopper see Fig. 50, Plate 12.

Ring Stoppers are very useful and neat. The bights are passed over the cable abaft the ring-bolt, both


Plate 90, Fig 426-429. Chain stoppers.
 

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ends are rove through the ring, and dogged around the cable forward of the bolts; the ends may be tapered, coach-whipped, and laid up in a square sennit. Fig., 429, Plate 90, shows a ring-stopper of plain-laid rope.

The ring-stopper above described for securing cables must not be confounded with the ring-stopper used to secure the ring of the anchor at the cathead.

Bitt Stopper. Fitted similar to the ring stopper, ends coach-whipped, &c., the bight going over the bitt instead of through a ring-bolt in the deck.

Check Stoppers are small strands of old rope which secure the cable to the ring-bolts in the deck, and, parting as the strain comes on them, check the cable in running out.

A Compressor having been carried away, to check a Cable while running out. This must be done by using ring-stoppers, Fig. 429. The two ends of the stopper are passed on different sides of the cable, forward through the ring-bolt, then dogged round the cable working forward, the two ends being knotted together when sufficient turns are passed; the bights are kept overhauled and triced up to the beams, the part abaft the ring-bolt by one stop and those before it by another; by letting go the foremost stop, the parts of the stopper catch the cable, and as they tauten break the after stop. "Check" stoppers alone would not be sufficient.

In the same way, you can veer through the laniard of a deck-stopper.

The Slip-Stopper, Fig. 428 (a and b), Plate 90. This is fitted with a crane-hook and shackle, and is found very convenient when working cables, as in clearing hawse, surging, &c.

Mix's Stopper consists of an iron casting like a hawse-pipe, set in a strong oak frame-work on the after-part of the manger. A thick and strong slab of iron, scored out on the under part to admit a vertical link of the chain, moves up and down in a groove, in the after-part of the frame-work, by means of a screw placed vertically over it. This stopper is exceedingly convenient, but the ship is never allowed to ride by it. The controller replaces it in modern ships.

Fighting Stoppers. Though not belonging to this portion of the work, we may mention here fighting-stoppers. These are kept at hand, ready for use at any time, particularly when going into action. They consist of a pair of dead-eyes or bull's-eyes, rope-strapped, with tails, and a laniard rove, Fig. 431, Plate 92.

Each end of the laniard is fitted with a bight, so that a jigger may be hooked into either end, the other end becoming a standing part.

Stoppers with which to hold on, while hauling taut

 

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a brace, sheet, or other rope, are fitted with a hook and thimble at one end, or they are otherwise secured to eye, or ring bolts near the rope for which they are required. In using them a half-hitch is formed around the rope, which after the rope is hauled taut through it, is jambed, and the tail wormed along in the lay of the rope; this will hold it while being belayed. Fig. 74, Plate 13.

Iron Compressors are used generally under the chain pipes. They check the chain with certainty, and are easy to handle.

Iron compressors are of various kinds, The oldest and best-known pattern is that of the curved iron arm, one end of which works on a pivot-bolt, so as to permit the curve to sweep the lower orifice of the chain-pipe. The other extremity has an eye formed in it, to which is hooked a small tackle. When veering, if the order is given to haul to the compressor, the tackle is hauled upon by the men stationed there, and the chain is compressed by the iron arm against the side of the chain-pipe.

Plate 91, Fig. 430, shows the elevation of the compressor, in which

a is the chain-pipe.

b, chock let down through the deck (c) to the beams d d.

g, bent lever pivoting on bolt f, which, by the use of a tackle, is made to nip the chain against the pipe and beam. The cable has been found to force down the compressor and the bolt (f), which has caused the introduction of the strap (e).

m, carlings let down between the beams to form a bed for the iron pipe (a).

The plan represents (Fig. 430 b), the underside of the deck and beams; k, head of bolt (f of elevation), on which the compressor revolves.

h, a fan or balancing arm worked in the compressor to assist the strap (e) in keeping the compressor in place.

i, an iron plate on the under side of the beam to form a hard surface for the fan to work upon.

A Controller (Fig. 437) is a cast-iron block, having a swallow in its upper side in the shape of a link of the chain cable. Controllers are bolted to the deck, forward of the bitts, and also in large ships forward of the chain locker pipe. The cable, while lying in the controller, tends of itself to drop into the hollow slot, and while there is held by one of its links, which lies flat in the hollow, but at the bottom of the hollow is a jog or short lever arm, which can be raised by a longer lever, and so lift the cable out of the slot when it runs out, until the lever is let go and the jog dropped.


Plate 91, Fig 430. Stopper and controller.
 

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THE CAPSTAN.

The mechanical power employed in ships to heave in the cable, and thereby raise the anchor, is a modification of the wheel and axle; it is technically denominated a capstan, one portion of which, called the barrel, around which the rope is wound, answering to the axle of a mechanical machine; the other part, the head with the bars, being analogous to the wheel. To set this machine in motion, a moving power (the crew or steam) is applied to the wheel, and the rope being by this means wrapped around the barrel of the capstan, the weight or cable is raised. The cable itself comes to the capstan in all modern forms of that power. Formerly, however, cables were connected to the capstan by means of a rope or chain, styled a messenger, which did pass around the capstan and was made to unite itself firmly to the cable by means of nippers.

The messenger, which may still be seen in use on old-fashioned capstans, is commonly a rope or chain formed into a long loop, and, when of rope, long enough to allow of three or four turns around the barrel of the capstan, and then for each part to reach to a vertical roller in the manger, where the ends are united to form the loop required. This loop, moving around the roller and capstan, when the latter is set in motion, draws the cable inboard and aft when united to it by the nippers. When a chain messenger is used its links work over studs placed around the barrel of the capstan. A rope messenger goes around the barrel itself and increases the length required by three or four turns around the barrel, which have to be taken to prevent slipping.

A frigate is usually fitted with a double capstan, the upper barrel being on the spar deck, the lower on the main deck, on which the hawse-holes are also placed. Connecting "drop pauls," or pins, connect the upper with the lower capstan.

The holes in the head of the capstan are termed pigeonholes. They receive the capstan bars which work the capstan. To secure these bars, holes have been bored through the head of the capstan and through the bars and pins placed in them. At present the capstan bars are usually kept in place only by a rope wound around their outer ends, joining them together and called a swiftering line.

The drum-head is the circular top of the capstan, in which are the pigeon-holes.

Pauls are stops which are fitted so as to drop from the sides of the capstan against a paul-rim or racket, to prevent the recoil of the capstan.

The ribs or sides of the capstan are termed whelps.

 

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Fig. 435, Plate 93, represents the American capstan, the chain being taken directly without the use of the messenger.

Fig. 436, Plate 93, shows Brown's patent capstan.

b, elevation of the lower capstan with fittings at the lower part of it formed of iron, the ribs or wild cats, g g, in it, acting like teeth or sprockets to clasp the cable, similar to the sprocket-wheel with studs, as shown, Fig. 435 b, Plate 93, of the common capstan.

e, elevation of a friction roller, round which the cable is wound, as shown on the plan, three or four being used as marked.

d, of the plan, shows the controller for stopping the cable. See also Fig. 437.

h, the cable leading to the hawse-hole. The method of bringing the cable to the capstan may be traced on the plan; the links shown in dotted lines being those in contact with the ribs (gg) of the elevation.

The Windlass used in small vessels is a capstan with the barrel worked horizontally, the power being applied by levers, which are shipped or worked in holes similar to those in the capstan-head.

In bringing a hawser to a capstan, take three or four round turns around the barrel, the inboard part being always the upper turn.

To get the Anchors off the bows. Bend the chains first, hook the stock-tackle to a strap around the upper arm of the stock and to a bolt on the opposite side of the forecastle, and haul it taut.

Hook the bill-tackle to a strap around the inner arm of the anchor and to a bolt across the deck, setting it taut also.

The stock and bill-tackles are stout luffs.

Single the shank painter, and secure it at the mark where it is to be when the anchor is ready for letting go. Come up the shank, stock, and ring lashings, or ring rope, pry the anchor off the bill-board with the anchor bar, easing away the stock and bill-tackles as necessary.

The ring-stopper, which holds the ring of the anchor to the cathead, is not touched.

A fore-and-aft tackle on the pee of the anchor keeps it from scending forward while getting it off the bows.

To let go an Anchor. The anchor being off the bows, with chain bitted (bitt pin in) and clear for running, is held in place by the ring stopper and shank painter. Fig. 439, Plate 94.

The former, which is of chain, passes through the ring of the anchor, and the last link is placed over a hinged tumbler on the cathead, maintained in an upright position by means of a hook-lever extending across the cathead, Fig. 439a. The shank painter secures in a similar manner


Plate 92, Fig 431-434. Anchors, anchor bouy, fighting stopper.

Plate 93, Fig 435-437. Caspstans.

Plate 94, Fig 438-439. Derrick setup and catted anchor.
 

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at the bill port. To each of these a trigger may be attached, as in Fig. 432, Plate 92, fitted with a small bar leading to the arms of a swivel, worked by a lever shipped in the mortice c. Hauling on the lever disengages both stoppers at the same instant. Or the levers holding the hinged tumblers, Fig. 439a, are knocked out of position by men stationed for the purpose, at the order, "Let go the starboard (or port) anchor!"

In either case remove first the safety-pin, b, Fig. 439.

The order for letting go is always preceded by the caution, "stand clear of the starboard (or port) chain!" and sometimes by the order to "stream the buoy!"

See hands stationed at the compressor, which is hove back.

Before letting go anchors, it is frequently necessary to run in the guns directly underneath them on the gun deck.

To bring a chain to the Capstan. Rouse up enough slack from the locker to unbitt, having the chain well secured forward of the bitts.

When unbitted, haul the bight of the chain around the rollers placed so as to give the chain a fair lead from the hawse pipe to the capstan; thence about half way around the same in the score of the ribs, or wildcat, and back around similar rollers to the chain pipe.

To heave up an Anchor. The capstan being rigged, capstan bars shipped and swiftered in, the cable is stoppered before all, then unbitted and "brought to" the capstan.

Man the bars! Heave taut! Take off the stoppers and HEAVE AROUND! As the cable comes above the water, if muddy, it is cleaned with a hose led from the head pump. Sand the deck if necessary, in case the chain is very muddy, to prevent the men from slipping.

By the capstan are stationed the gunner's gang, with chain hooks, to light the slack chain around the rollers and toward the chain pipe; some hands are also provided with pinch bars to knock the links out from the ribs or wildcat of the capstan if they jam, as is sometimes the case.

The cable as it comes in is paid below, or ranged ready for running.

When a vessel has two anchors down, in heaving in on one cable, it becomes necessary to "veer to" on the other. To do this, if the veering cable is the weather one and in a stiff breeze, veer around the bitts, taking off the forward stoppers and slacking the laniards of the after ones, or taking off all stoppers and tending the controller and compressors.

But if the veering cable be the lee one, it may be previously unbitted, and veered from the locker.

When all the slack cable is hove in and the chain leads

 

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right up and down from the hawse-hole to the anchor, the officer of the forecastle reports, Up and down, sir! When not quite up and down, if circumstances seem to require it, he may report, Short stay, sir!

A cable is said to tend in a certain direction: thus the cable "tends broad off the starboard bow;" and when this occurs so as to make a short nip of the chain, and cause a heavy heave, it should be reported, as a change of the wheel, or in the disposition of the sail, or a turn back with the engine (as when on a windward tide the ship has overrun her chain), may bring it to tend right ahead and ease the strain on the capstan.

When the anchor is clear of the ground, report Anchor is aweigh! and when the stock is visible, Anchor in sight! Clear (or foul) anchor!

And when it is up high enough for catting-The anchor is up, sir! Or direct the boatswain to pipe, Belay! The order from the quarter-deck will then be, Hook the cat! Fig. 440, Plate 95.

The cat having been previously overhauled down, the block is hooked to the ring of the anchor by a hand on the stock aided by the cat-back. When hooked, set well taut on the cat-fall, and caution them on the gun-deck to be ready for surging the chain; then report, All hooked with the cat! As soon as this is made known, the order is given, Haul taut! WALK AWAY WITH THE CAT! The chain is surged, and the anchor walked up to the cat-head; at the proper time the boatswain pipes belay, when the order is given to Hook the fish! As soon as the cat is up the ring-stopper is passed. When the fish is reported, Haul taut! WALK AWAY WITH THE FISH! and when the fish is belayed, pass the shank painter.

Surging the Chain. When, as very frequently occurs on heaving in, the chain comes in muddy, it must be ranged on deck instead of paying it below in the lockers; thus fifteen, twenty, or more fathoms of chain may accumulate on the deck. Now when the order is (Oven to surge, the controller is hove up and the anchor swings to the cat. Should the cat part at this time, or other similar accident happen, the anchor goes down, carrying with it the entire range of chain; and if on board a steamer she may, by that time, be going ahead under a full head of steam. Therefore, in place of relying entirely on any form of controller, clap a stopper on the chain, allowing a fathom or so of slack for catting. For this purpose an iron nipper securing the cable to a ring-bolt, or a slip-stopper, is very convenient. This precaution insures you against accident, and very little practice serves to enable one to stopper at the proper link to give slack chain enough to allow the anchor to go to the cat-head.

Cat-Falls. Begin with the standing part and reeve the end down through the forward sheave of the cat-head,


Plate 95, Fig 440-441. Catting an anchor.
 

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through the forward sheave of the cat-block, placed so that the bill of the hook will point inboard, and so continue till rove full, when timber-hitch the end around the cat-head. In large ships it is found convenient to place the block in the bridle-port for reeving the fall, after which round it up and trice back the hook, if not wanted immediately.

Cat-Backs are temporary, and for the purpose of facilitating the hooking of the cat. A small rope is rove through a block tailed on to one of the fore-tack bumpkin stays, or an eye-bolt conveniently placed over the bows, and bent to a small eye-bolt or span on the forward cheek of the cat-block, the fall leading inboard. Another one may be bent to the back of the hook. With the assistance of these, the cat is hooked.

A Fish-Back is for the same purpose, and is bent to an eye on the back of the hook.

Anchor Trip-hook. Fig. 429b represents a section of the trip-hook in use on board the Fish Commission steamer Albatross, and is essentially the same as that generally used in the merchant marine. A, represents a link which is made fast to the middle of the shank of the anchor, the weight of which acts in the direction of the arrow. From the figure, it will be seen that the weight presses the hook, B, against the cam, C, which, in turn, is held in place by the lever, D, the lever resting against the bolt, E.

The arrangement is attached to the lower block of the anchor tackle by the pin, F, which allows it to swing freely.

The tripping-line, G, is made fast on the forecastle, with sufficient slack to allow the anchor to be lowered to the desired point for letting go.

To detach the anchor, slack away the tackle until the tripping-line, G, acts on the lever, D, releasing the hook, B, and link, A.

The same style of trip-hook is also used in the place of the cat-hook, where an anchor is catted and fished in the ordinary way, so that the anchor may be let go from the cat without waiting to pass the ring-stopper.

Fish Davit. The present plan in the navy is to have a boom which attaches to the forward part of the foremast by a goose-neck. The boom is rigged as in Fig. 438, Plate 94.

A is the topping-lift, hooked to a band around the lower mast, near the futtock-band.

B, the fish tackle.

C C, guys.

See also Fig. 440, Plate 95.

The hauling part of the fish-fall may either lead through a sheave in the boom, or a block on the boom, thence to a block hooked to the mast-band, and on deck.

By this purchase (the fish) the flukes of the anchor are

 

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raised until up to the bill-board, when the shank-painter is passed. This is made of chain; when passed, the chain encloses the shank; the end, rove through a ring in the side or waterways, is belayed to an iron cleat at the side. The shank-painter being secured, the purchase is unrigged, the fish-davit taken inboard, and the anchor now hangs by the ring-stopper and shank-painter, and is ready for letting go.

If the shank-painter is eased off so that the anchor hangs by the ring-stopper, it is then said to be cock-billed.

Iron fish-davits similar in form to boat-davits, and stepped near the bill-board, are taking the place of the wooden fish-boom.

Catting and Fishing a Sheet Anchor Stowed Forward. Modern vessels have frequently two cat-heads, one abaft the other on each bow, the after one for the sheet anchor. In tatting the sheet, hook the forward cat; surge, heave the stock clear of the water, and hook on the after cat. If the fish-davit is not a movable one, the fishing will have to be done with a tackle from the fore-yard.

Catting Anchors on Board Armored Vessels. In ships built with ram-bows it is difficult to heave the anchor up high enough to hook the cat. That difficulty is met in the British service by the use of a cat and ground chain, of which the following is a description:

A length of small chain is shackled to the ring of the anchor and stopped along the first length of the cable; this is called the ground chain. A corresponding chain reeves through a block at the cat-head, styled the cat chain. Before weighing, the lower end of the cat chain is taken through the hawse-pipe, and when the end of the ground chain is hove in, the cat and ground chains are connected, the cat purchase (which hooks into the upper end of the cat chain) is manned and hauled taut; the bight of the small chain being eased out of the hawse-pipe, "WALK AWAY WITH THE CAT!"

British turret ships are supplied with Martin's anchors, which lie flat on the deck when stowed, stock and flukes being then in the same horizontal plane.

To afford a right ahead, fire from the turret and avoid unnecessary anchor gear, these anchors have at their balancing point on the shank a shackle to which the ground chain is attached.

A single iron davit with the cat chain rove and connected (when the anchor is hove up) to the ground chain places the anchor horizontally in its position on the bow.

The davit works on a hinge at its base, and stows flat on deck, a temporary derrick being rigged forward of the foremast to raise the davit when required.

 

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To Secure a Bower for Sea. Having passed the ring-stopper and shank-painter, proceed to ring up the anchor by swinging the fish-boom to plumb the cat-head, hooking the fish between the stock and ring and pulling up on the fish tackle. Take through the slack of the ring-stopper, which is rove through a ring like the shank-painter, and secure it around its cleat for a full due. Hook the stock and bill tackles as in getting the anchor off the bow, haul on the stock tackle to bring the lower end of the stock clear of the side; then go to the bill-tackle and rouse the anchor up on the bill-board, and so to each tackle alternately till the stock is up and down and the inner arm lying on the bill-board, when the slack of the shank-painter is taken through and the lashings passed. It is better to haul alternately on the stock and bill tackles as described, as this prevents the palm of the anchor coming in with a surge, which would occur if the stock were hove up and down at the first pull.

Should there be no fish-boom to ring up the anchor, reeve a stout rope (not the cat-fall) through the sheaves of the cat-head and the ring of the anchor, secure one end to the cat-head, and clap a tackle on the other end.

If a long passage is contemplated, the chain is unbent and stowed below when the ship is off soundings, and the hawse-bucklers are closed and secured. Besides the ring-stopper, a good lashing is passed through the ring and over the cat-head, also one around the stock and through a ring in the side.

Foul Anchor. The question of clearing a foul anchor is one which requires good judgment, and one in which the circumstances may vary greatly. As good a general rule as any is to hook the cat (if necessary with a strap) to whichever end of the anchor is first sighted. It will often happen that there is but one foul turn of the chain, under the stock. In that case, if the cat is hooked in the ring, with a turn taken in the opposite direction to that of the chain around the stock, the strain on the cat after surging will throw the chain clear.

The anchor comes up with the cable foul of the stock, and ring uppermost, and in such a manner that it cannot be cleared as above stated. Cat as usual; in surging the chain leave plenty of slack chain outside for working. Now clear the chain with slue-ropes on the anchor stock and slip-ropes on the chain. It may be necessary to unshackle in clearing; if so, hang the cable before unshackling, clear the turns and shackle again.

If the cat cannot be hooked in the ring, then hook it to a stout strap around the shank, just under the stock, cat and proceed as before, passing the ring-stopper.

Anchor comes up crown first. Cat the crown by hooking the cat to a strap around the crown, and pass the ring-stopper

 

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over the crown, unhooking the cat. Now clear, if necessary by unshackling the chain, having plenty of slip-ropes to take its weight. Hook the cat in the ring and the fish in the arm, take the strain on the cat, ease away the ring-stopper, and haul away on cat and fish.

It might be advisable, with the anchor coming up crown first, to hook the fish first to a strap on the crown, hauling on it till the ring could be reached to hook the cat, then. easing (and unhooking) the fish, catting the anchor, clearing the turns and fishing it. The whole depends upon the circumstances, as above stated; and the latter operation in particular, presupposes that there is not too much drift to the fish, and that the fish gear is reliable, it being smaller than the cat.

For anchor work, "clear hawse breeches" are made, of painted canvas, wooden soled at the feet, and slung with spans long enough to clear the man's head.

Marking the cable so as to know exactly how much to surge for catting saves noise and delay, but greater allowance must be made when "foul anchor" is reported.

Buoys and Buoy-Ropes. Buoys attached by their buoy-ropes to the crown, point out at all times the situation of the anchor. The can buoy is in the form of a cone, it floats base uppermost, and the rope is attached to the apex. The nun buoy is largest at the centre, tapering at the ends. The latter is in general use. Fig. 434, Plate 92.

The size of buoy-ropes is one-third of the cable. The length varies, for it is shortened or lengthened according to the depth of the water in which you will drop the anchor.

It is bent to the crown of the anchor, by taking a half-hitch around one arm, and putting the running eye in its end over the other arm; or a clove-hitch is formed over the crown, and the end stopped along the shank, or to its own part. Or,

Attach a large thimble to the crown of the anchor, by a stout strap of the size of the buoy-rope (one-third the cable). Through this thimble is rove the buoy-rope, both parts leading up to the buoy. The advantage of this is, that the buoy-rope may be smaller, and when necessary, a stout rope of the required size, may be, by it, rove through this thimble in the crown of the anchor, thereby affording a greater purchase than that of a single rope, for weighing.

The only objection to this plan is, that the two parts of the small buoy-rope will become hawser-laid, and will not unreeve. But this may be, in a great measure, remedied by having one part plain-laid and the other back-handed rope.

 

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Sometimes a buoy will not watch, from its having filled with water, or from the buoy-rope being too short, particularly in a tide-way. By this is meant, that it does not float on the surface of the water. In the former case it will be necessary to bleed it, that is, to let the water out. In the latter, to lengthen the buoy-rope.

Buoys are generally kept, one in each of the fore channels for common use. Spare ones are kept in the hold.

It was a very good rule, that an anchor should never be let go without a buoy attached. But since the screw propeller has been introduced, they have been less used, through fear of fouling the screw, though the end of a chain is always buoyed in slipping.

To Pick up Moorings from which the vessel has previously slipped. Stand in and reduce sail to topsails, or slow down if under steam, lower a boat, coil away a hawser in her and let her pick up the buoy-rope of the chain, attaching the hawser to it. Tack off shore if necessary till the boat has picked up the buoy, then stand in and round to, to windward of the buoy, signal the boat to pull alongside. Take the hawser-end in through the hawse-pipe, and run it in. As the chain comes in, make sure of enough to allow for bitting, clap on stoppers forward of the bitts; bitt, and stopper abaft; then shackle as soon as possible.

To Make Fast to a Mooring Buoy. In some harbors moorings are planted for vessels to ride by, in order that they may occupy in swinging as little space as possible.

On approaching the buoy, a boat may be sent out with the hawser to make fast and return, or she may leave the ship with the end of the hawser, just after clewing up. Warp the ship up by the hawser to the buoy, unshackle the bower-chain from its anchor and shackle to the buoy, veer a few fathoms and put a bull rope on the buoy from the end of the bowsprit to keep it clear of the stem.

The boat which carries the warp should contain a maul, mooring-shackle, spare earing, and a tail-block. The earing is used to secure the shackle to guard against losing it overboard while shackling. The tail-block, secured to the ring of the buoy, is for a hauling line to get the chain in position for shackling.

When picking up moorings, have an anchor ready for letting go, in case of accident.

Lying at Single Anchor, to Veer Cable, Blowing Hard. Veer away, by short drifts at a time, through the compressors and laniards of the deck-stoppers. If it is blowing a gale, with a heavy sea, it would be necessary to veer with a deck-tackle. A ship in this case, would double bitt before veering, if

 

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required, and send down her spars, and let go other anchors as necessary.

Why we Veer Cable in Heavy Weather. It is a prevalent but fallacious notion, that, even when used in deep water and with a severe strain, the curvature or deflection of chain is considerable, and that near the anchor it rests upon the ground undisturbed by either the pitching motion of the ship, or the tension which she causes. At a testing strain of six hundred and thirty pounds per eighth-inch of circumference, the utmost deflection was found to be only ten feet upon a length of one hundred fathoms, in ten fathoms water, with the hawse-hole a fathom above the surface; the diameter of the chain being one and one-half inches, and the strain forty and one-half tons.

In a common gale, which would produce this strain, not one link of the one hundred fathoms of chain will quietly rest upon the ground; on the contrary, it will be found by the experiments on a depth of ten fathoms, that 127.98 fathoms of chain are required to form a semi-catenary* when suspended in air, and 137.03 fathoms when in water. If the strain be less, the curvature will be greater, and no danger need be apprehended; but in a severe gale, the force of which may be supposed equal to, or nearly equal to, a breaking strain, a long scope is the only way to prevent a fatal result; and any man in charge of a ship at anchor, with the necessary quantity of chain cable on board, and space astern to allow him to make use of it, but who neglects to do so, must be considered the author of his own misfortune, whether it amount to the loss of his anchor or the loss of his ship.

To Increase the Value of a Long Scope. To increase the deflection of the cable and bring the strain on the anchor, more in a horizontal direction, a heavy kedge may be shackled or lashed to the bight of the riding cable just before veering for bad weather. This is similar to "backing" an anchor.

Letting Go Additional Anchors. In preparing to ride out a gale at anchor, if the holding-ground is even moderately good, a ship will hold on longer and certainly ride easier with all her chain on two anchors, than by letting go all four anchors with comparatively short scopes. Circumstances may compel a ship to depend for safety upon the number of anchors down, as in the case of a crowded harbor with insufficient room to veer; but with more than two anchors down, unless systematically laid out in fine weather, there is little probability of the strain being equally divided. Vessels anchored in this way

* A catenary is the curve formed by a flexible chain of uniform density and. thickness when allowed to bang freely between two points.

 

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have snapped their cables one after another from the effect of the sudden jerks upon a short scope such as a hundred fathoms would be in a gale of great severity.

Having plenty of room astern, and with four cables each 120 fathoms long, veer to 60 fathoms on the anchor down, say the starboard bower, let go the port bower. Lengthen each bower chain by the sheet chain on its side, and veer two cables on the starboard and one and a half on the port bower. There remains on board one-half the port sheet-cable available for adding 30 fathoms to each anchor down.

To use three anchors, the distribution of chain would be: starboard bower (the anchor down), with 90 fathoms of starboard sheet, the port bower lengthened by the remaining 30 fathoms of the starboard sheet chain, and a whole cable on the port sheet. Having veered to 60 fathoms on the starboard bower let go the port bower, veer 30 fathoms, and let go the port sheet. Veering to the full scope, the starboard bower would have one and three-quarter cables, port bower, one and a quarter, and port sheet, one cable. The arrangement assumes, 1st, that a scope of less than 100 fathoms is of comparatively little value; 2d, that 60 fathoms would probably be veered in any case before letting go a second anchor; 3d, that the anchors should have as nearly equal a scope as the second condition admits.

For a modern steamer with well-proportioned ground-tackle, good holding ground and plenty of room astern, the plan of using two anchors with the longest possible scope is considered the best.

Backing an Anchor. When the holding ground is bad an anchor may be "backed" by another.

In backing an anchor during a gale after it is down, the backing hawser or chain is taken round the riding cable and secured loosely in order that it may slide down and along it when the backing anchor is let go. A large shackle might be used for this purpose on the riding cable, and the backing chain shackled to it.

To Back an Anchor when Preparing for a Gale. Heave in or veer away on the anchor down, say starboard bower, till you bring the fourth shackle some few fathoms abaft the bitts; stopper, unshackle, and unbitt; pass the end out and shackle it to the ring of the port bower, which has been eased down to the hawse-hole; off stopper, and ride by port bower cable, with its anchor at the bows until the gale comes on, and then veer it down to the ground. Should the gale pass off, you can hang the starboard bower cable outside by the clear-hawse pendant, and replace both in their original position.

If on veering to sixty fathoms on the port bower, you found the gale still increasing, shackle the remaining sixty fathoms of the starboard bower to it; let go starboard sheet

 

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anchor, and veer away on both. Finally, if compelled by the violence of the storm to make the utmost of your resources, divide the remaining sheet chain between the port bower and starboard sheet. There will then be sixty fathoms between the starboard bower and the backing anchor; two hundred and forty fathoms on the port bower, and one hundred and eighty on the starboard sheet.

Anchors have been backed by vessels on a lee shore, with some of the guns. Stout hawsers were passed through the hawse holes (or bow ports) on each side, underneath the cables, the ends brought in to the after-most guns used, clinched there at the cascables and lashed near the muzzles; the bight of each hawser passed in the port and on top of the gun next forward, under the cascable, and lashed at the cascable and muzzle, and so on forward, leaving sufficient slack between each gun, so that they can be thrown overboard one at a time, commencing aft. When they are all overboard bend on other hawsers and veer away, without attempting to ride by them as the ship drags. The anchors having dragged to the place where the guns were thrown overboard, may bring up the ship by the flukes of the anchors catching the bights of the hawsers. The lowering hawsers are buoyed.

To Weigh Guns thrown overboard in this manner, having hove in on the cables until the berth of the guns is reached, pass the buoyed end of the hawser through the warping chock in the bridle port, and heave up the first gun with a suitable purchase on the hawser. Land the gun in the launch hauled up under the bows, using the cat-fall if necessary. Drop the launch to the gangway, sling the gun and hoist it in with the yard-tackle and garnet, continuing the operation until the guns are all in. Or get in the guns as described page 233.

Steaming up to Anchors. When riding out a gale at anchor, steamers relieve their ground-tackle by turning the engines. But care must be taken not to overrun the cables, as in that case, when the ship goes astern to a fresh squall, the violent strain on the chains would probably part them or start the anchors.

With Four Anchors Down, to Weigh. If the scant room in a harbor or its crowded condition has compelled us to ride out a gale with four anchors and short scopes, the anchors were probably let go in the following order: First, one bower (say starboard), then after veering 45 fathoms the port bower, veer 15 fathoms and let go the starboard sheet, veer 15 fathoms more and finally let go the port sheet. If there is room enough, two sections from the port sheet added to the starboard bower would give you a final scope of 150 fathoms on the starboard bower, 105 on the port, 90 on the starboard sheet, and 75 on the port sheet.

 

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To weigh, assuming the cables to be clear, bring the port sheet to the capstan, clap a deck tackle on the starboard sheet, and while heaving in get as much slack as possible of the two bower chains. Weigh the port sheet first, then bring the starboard sheet cable to the capstan and weigh the starboard sheet.

Having weighed both sheets, which should be done first, transport them to where they stow. Then weigh the port bower, taking in. the slack of the starboard bower chain.

A vessel would perhaps be more than one day in picking up her anchors as described, particularly if the sheet anchors stow in the waist or if she has swung and fouled her hawse. In such cases much time will be required to clear the cables and weigh the anchors. In case you are unable to clear the cables, the anchors must be weighed by the launch, and a hawser bent to that end of the chain, which will then be slipped by the launch, and hove in from the ship. No particular rules can be given for such cases.

When a ship has let go two or more anchors, in a gale, she should weigh her anchors as soon as the gale moderates; much trouble will be saved by it.

A Collier's Purchase. In heavy heaving, a strap may be put on the cable at the water's edge, hook the cat in it and assist in that manner. This is known as a collier's purchase. The fish may be clapped on to the cat-fall and taken to the capstan.

To Assist in Heavy Heaving. Put a large block on the cable, near the hawse-hole, reeve a hawser through it, belay one end to the mainmast or bitts, and clap a deck-tackle on the other end; or take it to the after-capstan.

Some vessels (brigs and small sloops) use the deck-tackle entirely in weighing their anchors.

In using a deck-tackle, particularly in a large ship, much time is saved by having a whip from forward to assist in overhauling it.

To Anchor by the Stern. This may be necessary for a steamer in a narrow harbor, where the vessel is too long to turn, or in a stream where there is no room for swinging to the tide. The British at the battle of the Nile anchored in this way to avoid raking broadsides in rounding to; the French also anchored by the stern at Sebastopol.

As ships are not always provided with appliances for anchoring in this way, it would be well to use the stream anchor and chain, or a hawser, in performing the evolution, if it will stand the strain expected.

Get up the stream-chain, rouse it out through the after-port, haul it forward outside of all till abreast of the hatch where the anchor is stowed, then hoist out the anchor,

 

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shackle the chain, and let go with a strap and squilgee, or ease the anchor down to the bottom with the bight of a hawser.

Or, transport the stream-anchor to the cat-head or stern, as may be most convenient, shackle the chain there and let go.

To use a heavier anchor, rouse up the sheet-chain from below, pass it through the after-port, haul the end forward by a ring-rope to the sheet-anchor and shackle. Range the intended scope of chain on deck. In the absence of afterbitts, ring-bolts, &c., have plenty of stoppers and lashings passed; a stout hawser from the forward bitts, with a couple of turns taken round the mainmast, will relieve the compressor of some of the strain when the end of the scope is reached; the cable itself might be taken around the mizzen-mast. Stop the engine, or clew up and furl in good time, and check the cable as much as possible in running out.

In all cases of anchoring by the stern, or with springs from aft, use slip-ropes to avoid injury to the rudder or screw.

To Anchor with a Spring. Rouse up the stream-chain (or a hawser), haul it aft, as in anchoring by the stern, and thence through the after-port forward, secure the spring to the bower, keeping the bower-chain bent; then let go the bower. Now, by setting taut the stream-chain and veering on the cable, the ship's broadside is sprung around. Ships may be sprung broadside to the wind, in warm climates, for the purpose of better ventilation; or in engagements at anchor, to bring the guns to bear on various points.

Using a spring from the bower anchor or cable, for the purpose of getting a ship's broadside to bear steadily on any object, can never be equal to the steadiness acquired by using a second anchor, with a stream-cable or hawser. A spring is at all times little to be relied on, compared with a stern anchor, and after it becomes dark, a spring will much decrease the certainty of gun practice. If a ship has a good scope of cable with one anchor ahead and the other astern, rather tautly moored, and her broadside bearing well on the object, there will be little fear of her sheering about much. But should it be requisite to fire at night by previous bearings, then, to make the practice more certain, it would be well to have two kedges, with two good, strong hawsers laid out on the off side, one on the bow and the other on the quarter; the hawser from aft being attached to the anchor on the bow, and the one from forward to the anchor on the quarter; these two hawsers crossing each other at a good angle, with as much scope as possible, well_ bowsed taut, will insure the direction of the guns.

 

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THE "SARATOGA" AT THE BATTLE ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN.

As the success of the "Saratoga," in this action, was mainly due to the superior seamanship of her officers, as evinced by the manner of working her kedges and hawsers, a brief description of that part of the action may be instructive, since we are told that the "Confiance" (English), with but one spring on her cable, got just so far round as to hang while exposed to a raking, while the "Saratoga" was "entirely successful, springing her broadside successively on every vessel wearing the British flag."

The American vessels had each its stream-anchor hung over the stern, the cable bent ready for use; and besides the usual springs, the "Saratoga" had a kedge planted broad off each bow, the hawser of each leading in through the quarter ports, the bights hanging in the water. In the midst of the fight, on firing the only gun (a carronade) remaining mounted in the starboard battery of the "Saratoga," the navel bolt broke and the gun flew down the main hatch. The attempt was then made to wind the ship. Fig. 433, Plate 92.

To this end the stream-anchor astern was let go, and clapping on the starboard quarter line, the ship was roused over to the kedge on that side; line had been bent to the bight of the stream-cable, and she now lay with her stern to the raking broadside of the "Linnet" (position 2, Fig. 433, Plate 92), being for a brief space in a critical position, but dipping the port quarter line under the bows, it was passed aft to the starboard quarter, the ship's stern sprung to the westward, and the port battery brought to bear on the enemy.

Having anchored with a spring to the stern, to heave up. If the ship is still riding by the stern cable, heave in the bower, veer away the stern cable, set the spanker, and wind the ship. Hang the stern cable outside (or stopper it); pass a stout hawser out of the sheet hawse-hole; pass the end aft, outside of everything, and bend it to the stern cable at the nearest shackle. Unshackle, and let the cable go; man the hawser, and walk the cable in through the hawse-hole. When taut in, clap a deck-tackle on it, take the bower cable to the capstan and heave round. Walk away with the deck-tackle as the bower chain comes in. When the anchor is up, unshackle or unbend the spring and haul it inboard out of the way.

To Slip a Chain. In preparing to slip, put a buoy-rope on the chain, stout enough to weigh it, lead the buoy-rope out through the hawse-pipe and to the fore-chains,

 

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where it is made fast to a smaller line, equal to the depth of water, and bent on to the buoy. The buoy sustaining only the weight of the small line, can then watch properly.

Stopper the cable forward of the bitts, or heave down the forward compressor; have the shackle well abaft the bitts. Unshackle, stream the buoy, and slip by cutting the stopper or heaving up the compressor.

In slipping, give a turn or two of the propeller astern before starting ahead, to ensure clearing the buoy-rope.


Plate 96, Fig 442-443. Capstan mechanism.

Plate 97, Fig 444-445. Capstan mechanism.
 

CHAPTER XV.

STEAM CAPSTAN-STEAM WINDLASS.

In modern vessels, steam power is made available for handling the capstans or other appliances used for weighing anchor, to the great saving of labor.

H. J. Johnson's patent capstan, Plates 96 and 97, is the one now fitted on board the U.S.S. Lancaster and other vessels, and may be described as follows:

Fig. 442 is a side view of the entire machine. Fig. 443 is a top view of the machine as it appears after the removal of the capstan, wild-cat, and deck on which they are placed. Fig. 444 is a vertical section, on line x x of Fig. 445, of that part of the machine below the deck on which the capstan is placed; and Fig. 445 is a top view of the bed-piece for supporting the cylinders, the lower end of the capstan-spindle, and the independent gear-shaft.

In said drawings, A represents the bed-piece of the machine. It is a bell-shaped hollow casting, formed with a bottom flange, A', provided with a series of holes to receive bolts to secure it to a ship's deck. There is formed upon two sides of said bell-shaped casting, A, large lugs, A2, made with the vertical outer face of each set at an angle of ninety degrees to the other; and to these lugs the steam cylinders B are bolted, and thus remain suspended. From the side of the bed-piece, A, there is also projecting, one above the other, two large brackets, A3, to support the two bearings, a3, of the vertical crank-shaft, C, of the engine. Its crank portion, C', being close to and between the two brackets A3, is thus properly sustained. The lower end of the crank-shaft, C, rests in an adjustable step, a', secured to an extension of the bottom flange, A', of the bed-piece. The upper end of the crank-shaft, C, is retained in bearings in a bracket, D, secured to the top of the upper one of the brackets, A3. This bracket, D, also carries the bearings for the lower end of an independent shaft, E, placed directly above and in line with the axis of the crank-shaft, C. The upper end of the shaft, E, is retained in bearings supported by a bracket, F, that is bolted to the under side of the deck-beam, G.

The capstan-spindle, H, to which is secured the capstan, H', and the wild-cat, H2, is retained vertically by bearings,

 

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I, in the top of the bed-piece, A, and has its lower end supported in a bearing-step, I', attached to transverse ribs in the interior of and forming part of the bottom of the bell-shaped bed-piece, A. Upon the capstan-spindle, H, there is placed directly above the top of the bed-piece, A, the large gear-wheel, K, having the lower end of its hub resting upon the bearing, I. This gear, K, has a long hub or sleeve, K', attached thereto, or preferably cast therewith, and the upper end of this hub carries a pinion, K2, to mesh with a large gear-wheel, L, secured to the independent shaft, E.

The gear, K, pinion, K2, and connecting hub, K', are mounted loosely upon the capstan-spindle, H. and are, free to turn thereon at a different speed from the latter.

Upon the hub of the large gear-wheel, L, there is mounted, or preferably cast therewith, a pinion, L', keyed or otherwise secured to the shaft, E.

The rim-wheel, M, is connected with its hub, M', by means of slightly-tapering keys, N, inserted in perforations, m, made correspondingly in the inner periphery of the rim-wheel and the outer periphery of its central portion or hub. When the keys, N, are removed, the central portion, M', is disconnected from its cogged rim, and will revolve with the capstan-spindle, H, when the latter is rotated by turning the capstan and its wild-cat by hand, while the engine and its train of gears remain stationary.

The crank-shaft, C, carries on its lower portion the eccentrics, c, operating the slide-valves of the engines. It carries also, near its top, the pinion, P, that transmits the rotating motion of the crank-shaft to the transmitting gear, K, running loosely around the capstan-spindle, as above stated, and motion is transmitted from the pinion, K2, on the hub of the gear, K, successively to the gear-wheel, L, pinion, L', and rim-wheel, M, and through the hub, M', of the latter to the capstan-spindle when the keys, N, are in position, the power of the engine being multiplied according to the relative size of the gear-wheels and the pinions gearing with them.

The engines are made, as shown in the drawings, to be operated with slide-valves, and have a reversing-valve attached, and other appliances commonly used in steam-engines.

From the description, it is evident that the general action of the steam capstan is similar to that of an ordinary hand capstan. But one chain can be hove in at a time. In case of there being no steam up, the removal of the keys, N, place the capstan at once in condition to be revolved by the usual capstan-bars shipped in the pigeon-holes, V, V.

Steam Windlass. Instead of a steam capstan, some vessels are fitted with Sickel's Power and Hand Windlass.

The following description and accompanying drawings


Plate 98, Fig 447-453. Capstan gear.

Plate 99, Fig 454. Hand crank on capstan.
 

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show the steam windlass as now fitted on board the U.S.S. "Trenton," Plates 98 and 99

Figure 446 represents a top view of the windlass. Fig. 447 represents a vertical section through the main gearwheel and the wild-cats or ribbed pulleys. Fig. 448 represents a rear elevation of the windlass and its connection with the steam-cylinders. Fig. 449 represents a side elevation of the same, partly in section, to show parts in the interior of the frame. Fig. 450 represents, in perspective, one of the keys used to connect the main driving-gear with either of the wild-cats. Fig. 451 represents a portion of an anchor chain, with a shackle uniting two sections of chain. Fig. 452 represents, in front view, the main steam and automatic pressure-regulating valves and spring-valve, and the indicator of tension upon the anchor chain. Fig. 453 represents a bottom view, partly in section, of one of the cylinders, steam chest, and connections used to operate the windlass by steam-power.

Similar letters of reference, where they occur, denote like parts in all the figures.

The pressure of steam is limited by an automatic pressure-regulating valve, so that if the anchor chain fouls while the engine is running rapidly, it will stop before breaking it or any other part. The shackle and shackle-links at the ends of each length of chain are fitted to the wild-cats, so that they will engage with the stops or ribs, in the same manner as the other links, without mounting the ribs and slipping. Spring-keys are used to connect the wild-cats with the windlass. These keys are placed into square recesses cut out of both the wild-cats and windlass. These recesses extend through the windlass, so as to admit a bar to back out or remove the keys.

The worm-wheel pinion connecting the engines with the windlass is placed on a vibrating rotary shaft, so as to be drawn out of gear to disconnect the engines from the windlass.

The standards for sustaining the hand-power brake are made of wrought-iron plates at such distance apart as to inclose the worm-wheel pinion, and form a column between decks to resist strains of tension as well as of compression.

A spring-valve is used in connection with an automatic pressure-regulating valve, so as to insure perfect safety, even if the latter should stick while open and be inoperative.

The position of the anchors is indicated by a separate counter connected to each wild-cat, so as to register as well in paying out as in taking in the anchor chain.

The eccentrics are set on the engine-shaft, so as to operate the slide-valve of each steam-chest, and keep the exhaust-port open until the piston has reached the ends of the cylinder to avoid the use of water-cocks, and so that

 

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they can be started and operated from the different decks by any inexperienced person without requiring, the operator to go to the engine to let out condensed water, the admission of steam being delayed until the engine has passed the centre.

In the drawings, A represents the frame that supports the shaft b of the windlass B, and the shaft c passing through the axis of the guiding-pulleys C. The frame A is securely bolted to the deck by diagonal bolts a and other bolts. Upon the central portion of the shaft b the windlass B is mounted. It has a concave gear-wheel with slightly bevel teeth formed upon its periphery, to engage, when desired, with a worm-wheel, E, mounted upon a shaft, e, that is connected by means of cranks e1 and connecting-rods e2 with the piston-rods e3 and pistons of the steam-cylinders F. The shaft b carries also two wild-cat pulleys, D, loose upon said shaft and free to revolve, except when connected with the windlass B by keys d, introduced into openings d', formed partly into the flange of the windlass and partly in the rim of each wild-cat. The openings d' extend through to the opposite side. The opening there may be made partly circular, and too small to receive one of the keys d, but large enough to receive a crow-bar or hand-spike, f, with which the keys d can be pushed out of the opening d' from the opposite side from which they have been introduced, and either of the wild-cat pulleys rendered free to revolve independent of the windlass, upon each side of which the opening d' may be made alternately rectangular and semicircular. The keys d are provided with springs, so that they cannot drop accidentally out of the openings d', but must be forcibly pulled or pushed out. Each wild-cat pulley is formed with a groove, D1, to receive a brake-band, D2, that is connected with a brake-lever, D3, placed on the side of the frame to save room, and remains connected with said band D2.

The worm-wheel E and its shaft e are made in one piece and inclined, so as to adapt the mechanism to steam or hand power. For this purpose the shaft e is formed of two lengths, connected by a universal joint, e4. The shaft was formerly supported at its upper end by a key, e5, passing through said shaft, and resting upon washers carried in a cup-bearing, g, as shown in Fig. 449. This bearing g rested upon plates i, attached to, and projecting from, the inside of the wrought-iron standards G, and was moved back and forth by means of the hand-crank H, operating a screw, h, engaging with a nut, g', carried by the bearing g. In future the bearing for the upper end of the shaft e is to be fitted as shown in Fig. 454. Steel balls replace the friction plates. The bearing itself is now supported by angle irons, Z (see enlarged view, Fig. 454), upon either side, bent to a radius from the universal joint, thus permitting the screw working

 

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in the swivel-nut to draw the worm E out of gear. Then the worm-wheel E can be placed in gear with the windlass, and be operated by steam-power, by means of the crank H bringing the worm-wheel E in gear with the windlass B. The windlass is provided with ratchet-gears B', with which retaining pauls engage, in the usual manner. When the worm-wheel E is thrown out of gear with the windlass through the medium of the handle H, the windlass can be operated by hand by means of the double oscillating brake or lever I (united to ordinary hand-brakes), working upon connecting-rods K, and the latter operating upon levers K', one end of which clamps the rim of the windlass B. The upper end of each of the connecting-rods K is pivoted to blocks k, that completely embrace the end lever I; and said blocks k can be shifted without any effort, as they are provided with friction-rollers, k', and can be clamped upon the lever I in any desired position, to vary the leverage according to the weight that is to be lifted.

When operating the windlass by steam, the pressure marked upon the steam-gauge or indicator L will correspond with the strain in tons borne by the anchor-chain, according to the area of the steam-pistons and their relative motion compared with the motion of the chain. Thus the size of the steam-cylinder can be varied so that for each increase of one pound of pressure, as shown upon the gauge, the increase of the strain upon the cable may be one ton, two tons, &c., as may be desired.

The automatic regulating-valve m is made with a piston loaded to the desired pressure, and connected, to a balance-valve that will, in its upward movement, close, and prevent the further admission of steam to the cylinders F, when the desired pressure is reached. To further insure a safe limit to the strain on the cable, the steam-pipe between the automatic regulating-valve m and the cylinder F is provided with a valve, m', loaded to blow off in case the automatic regulating-valve sticks open.

The position of the anchors is indicated by a separate counter connected to each wild-cat, either in paying out or heaving in the cable. Each counter is composed of a star-wheel, n, with preferably ten V-shaped teeth and indentations, with one of which a pin, p, carried by each wild-cat or its hub, engages at each revolution, and a spring, n1, retains the star-wheel immovable, except when advanced or retracted by the pin p. This star-wheel n and a corresponding wheel, n2, upon which ten consecutive numbers are placed, are mounted together upon a short shaft, carrying a worm-wheel, n3, through which the number of revolutions made by the star-wheel are transmitted to an indicator, q, placed upon the frame A, said frame carrying also the star-wheel n and its retaining spring, n1.

Anchor-chains are made in lengths of fifteen fathoms,

 

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that are united by shackles. These shackles, as now made and connected to the end links of each section of chain, give an increased length between the outer ends of the adjoining links. When so made they are liable to mount the stops and cause the chain to slip, when it only passes over the top of the wild-cat, and does not embrace a large proportion of its circumference. The shackle r is made short, as shown in Fig. 451, to have the distance between the outer ends of the end links s s united by the shackle, substantially of the same length as any three consecutive links of the chain, so that they will engage the wild-cat in the same manner as other portions of the chain.

The slide-valve t of the steam-chest of each cylinder F is operated by an eccentric so set on the engine-shaft that in moving the valve t the exhaust-port is kept open at the end F' of the cylinder until the piston has reached its extreme position at that end; and the same operation is repeated at the other end. To facilitate the said operation, the slide-valve t may be made with an exhaust-port larger than it is commonly made for effective steam-engines, so as to keep the exhaust-port open until each engine has passed its centre respectively, and allow any water that may be in the cylinder to escape; and even if a small portion of the steam is wasted, this disadvantage is well overbalanced by the convenience of having the engine started and operated from the deck above by any unskilled hand without danger of accidents.

When it is desired to operate the windlass by steam-power, the worm-wheel E is pushed into gear with the windlass by turning the crank H. Steam is then admitted to the cylinders F from the boiler through the pipe u and cock u1 by means of the hand-wheel u2, or from the deck above with a vertical rod, u3, extending upward from the hand-wheel u2. After steam has been admitted, its pressure is regulated by the valve in, that is loaded to blow off before there is any danger to the cables from too great tension. If steam is not to be used, the worm-wheel is disconnected from the windlass by inclining the shaft e forward with the screw h, revolved by the crank H, and the apparatus is in condition to be operated by the oscillating lever I, attached to the connecting-rods K, and the latter with the clamping-levers K', that embrace the rim of the windlass B.

It is often desired, when preparing to let go an anchor, to have a few fathoms of chain lying next to the hawse-hole. For this purpose the chain may be passed over either wild-cat by revolving the latter with the hand-spike f, resting upon the horns f' as a fulcrum, its extremity passing against the outer ribs of the wild-cat pulley D.

The above description of steam windlass has been recently improved by the addition of a reversing-valve, Fig. 455, Plate 100, which will permit the machine to be


Plate 100, Fig 455. Reverse valve for steam capstans.
 

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revolved in either direction, due attention being given to the position of the pauls.

In using this windlass, the engine can be started or operated by one person from either deck, without danger of accidents. By extending the main shaft beyond the frame, a small gypsey can be attached, so the power of the windlass may be used for any purpose, as handling the ship at dock.

This machine has been thoroughly tested, and possesses the advantages of compactness in occupying the smallest possible space, and a design giving great strength with little weight of machine.

It can be readily and efficiently operated by any seaman. The engines can be instantly started without previous preparation.

It is fully protected from undue or dangerous strains by means of its self-acting regulating-valve.

The chain being fitted with the shackles, as shown in Fig. 451, will pass freely over the wild-cats in either direction.

 

CHAPTER XVI.

MOORING-CLEARING HAWSE.

IN speaking of a vessel as moored, we may refer to the use of fixed moorings in a harbor or alongside of a wharf; or the ship may be "moored" head and stern. But the expression, as generally understood, means (when her own ground-tackle is used) that the ship has two anchors down in opposite directions from the vessel, one cable having been made rather taut before the second anchor was let go, and there being an equal scope on each chain.

If a ship lets go her single anchor (say in 5 fathoms), in the very centre of a harbor, which we will call about 200 fathoms wide, and "steep to," all around, and then veers 100 fathoms of cable, she would occupy every part of the harbor, as the wind or current happened to move her.

If it be desired to keep her stationary in the centre, shortening the cable in to 5 fathoms would not effect it, for the first puff of wind would cause her to start her anchor.

But let us ascertain from what quarter the prevailing heaviest wind blows; weigh, haul over, and let go an anchor in that direction, 60 fathoms from the centre; then, with a warp, haul the ship over in the very opposite direction, veering the cable 120 fathoms from the last position, and then let go the second anchor. Now heave in 60 fathoms of the first cable, veering 60 fathoms on the last, and we shall have the ship moored in a stationary position in the centre of the harbor; and many other ships (suppose room on each side) may share the harbor by similar means, as shown by the full-lined ships in Fig. 456, Plate 101.

Whether we moor with a whole, or merely half a cable each way, or lay the anchors out in any direction (so long as they are in opposite ones, and one cable is moderately taut before we let go the second anchor), is of no consequence as far as concerns the principle we are considering.

Now with regard to the direction. Say that the prevailing gales are northerly, and one comes on from that quarter so heavy that we should veer cable. If the other ships have attended properly to this contingency, all may veer simultaneously without fouling each other, and the riding cable of each ship will tend straight to their weather anchors; in other words, they will all have open berths and open hawse, as shown by the dotted line ships in Fig. 456.


Plate 101, Fig 456-459.  Mooring ships showing lay of anchor. Chain hook.
 

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It is clear that with a long scope of cable, we have all the additional weight of chain in our favor, that the ship's bows are less dragged downward than at a short stay, and the pull on the anchor being horizontal, the palm bites all the harder. When we wish to make the best use of our power, we must get as close to the resistance as possible. We do not want to move the anchor; and some officers prefer veering even as much as two cables on end to letting go other anchors.

Now suppose that one or both of the other ships had moored without regard to the position of our anchors and the direction of the prevailing gales. As long as the weather was fine, and we did not want to move, it would be of no great consequence, as shown by the full-lined ships in Fig. 457.

But we want to move. B has overlaid our south anchor, and we cannot pick it up. A has overlaid our north anchor, and we cannot pick it up.

Or it comes on to blow hard from the northward, and we want to veer; but B is in our way, and we must hold on until it pleases him to veer, and he, either from neglect or ignorance in thus mooring his ship, sees no distress.

A has swung close to our port bow, as in the dotted line ship, Fig. 457, his starboard cable is sawing at our weather one; both A and B, moreover, are riding on spans, and our ship and A are much embarrassed.

At length we will suppose that B veers cable, and then that we and A veer; our new positions would be as in Fig. 458, and if a sudden lull or shift of wind occurred, the distress would be general. For we, as well as B, would have to wait for A, and B for us, before enough cable could be shortened in to keep the ships clear of each other.

Hence it is, that, when a flag officer desires to have his ships as close together as possible, he orders them to moor; and to prevent collisions while veering or picking up their anchors, he points out the direction of the anchors. To preserve, likewise, an imposing and well-dressed line, he specifies the quantity of cable that is to be veered by each, and also enforces the use of buoys, that each ship may be enabled to ascertain the position of another's anchors.

These are some, but not all, of the reasons for mooring. For instance, in a river too narrow for a ship to swing in at single anchor without grounding, or too shoal to do so without striking on the upper pee of her anchor, and perhaps settling on it as the tide fell, it would be necessary to make her a fixture. But this also would require consideration. By laying the anchors out in a line with the stream, they would be in the best position for holding, in the event of freshets or gales coming on, in concert with the tide; but, excepting the small distance she could sheer by the action of the helm, her exposure to collisions from an

 

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enemy's fire-ships or rafts dropping down with the tide, or from vessels navigating the river, would be great; whereas, by having the anchors athwart the stream, either cable could be veered, and the ship quickly moved to one side or other.

If the water is shoaler than the ship can reach, one anchor may be carried out in a boat, and a greater scope given in consequence.

When it is optional, moor in northern latitudes with reference to the chances being strongly in favor of gales beginning at southwest, and ending at northwest.

For the same reason, in northern latitudes lie at single anchor with the port bower; if you have to let go the starboard anchor, you will then have open hawse.

If safety is the only consideration, and there is plenty of room to swing, a ship is obviously better off when riding at single anchor than when moored. For upon the appearance of a gale, you can veer at pleasure and be certain of having your second anchor in line with the wind when let go, with a long scope on each chain. A vessel which has been moored never has both cables in line with the wind, except when the ship is just between them, and therefore only riding by one, or after veering, when she lays with a very long scope on one chain, and a correspondingly short scope on the other.

When moored and veering in a gale, the anchors being in the direction of the wind, the lee cable must be shortened in to prevent dragging it over its anchor; for there is some risk of tripping the lee anchor as the weather cable is veered.

A ship should never be girt by her moorings. At such a place as Panama, for example, where the rise and fall of the tide are very great, suppose a ship were to be moored and both chains hove taut at low water. The great strain brought on her by the rising tide, provided the anchors held, may be imagined; and if, in addition to this, she should swing around several times and foul her hawse, the effect on her copper and fastenings would soon tell.

PREPARATIONS FOR MOORING, STATIONS. ETC.

All hands having been called to "moor ship," the first lieutenant takes the deck, and the other officers repair to their stations as in "bringing ship to anchor." The officer of the forecastle will see hands by the anchor to be let go, and will give directions to those on the main deck as to veering, &c.*

* In many ships it is customary for the navigator to take charge on the forecastle, the senior watch officer superintending the ground-tackle on the gun-deck.

 

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The navigator will see the second anchor ready for letting go, and the chain clear. Let us suppose that the starboard anchor was first let go, the port one must then be ready. He will see all clear for veering on the starboard cable, and men at their stations as in "coming to." When the starboard cable is veered as far as necessary, he will "bring to" on it, and unbitt the port one, for convenience in veering, unless in very deep water. The boatswain attends on the forecastle, and pipes as directed by the lieutenant in charge of the forecastle. The carpenter, with his crew, will ship and swifter in the capstan bars, put on gratings, knock up stanchions, &c., and report to the lieutenant in charge of main deck when ready.

The principal stations of the crew are, to man both capstans, to veer cable, on deck at the wheel, the lead, signals, by the anchor, two men in each top, a man at each mast to attend gear. Tierers below, compressor-men on berth-deck.

HAVING ANCHORED WITH THAT VIEW-TO MOOR SHIP.

The first anchor having been let go in the proper position, and with reference to the state of the hawse to prevailing winds, the first lieutenant will inform the navigator as to the scope he wishes on each chain. The navigator will veer away to double this range (supposing an equal scope on each), keeping the last shackle abaft the bitts, for otherwise, supposing the chain well laid out, it would be mooring too taut. The mizzen topsail may be set, if necessary, and the ship sheered with it, and the helm, to the position of the second anchor. The chain must be laid well out before the second anchor is let go; when that is done (the second anchor let go), the first lieutenant directs the boatswain to call "furl sail," and having furled them, will direct him to call "moor ship." The navigator will "bring to," and the first lieutenant then commands, "HEAVE ROUND!" the stoppers are taken off (if any have been put on), when the cable is hove taut, and the chain is unbitted as it comes in, and payed below, if clean. Let us suppose that the port anchor was first let go, and that we veered ninety fathoms on it. The navigator is guided in veering the starboard cable by the amount hove in on the port; observing never to check her. Finally, veer the forty-five-fathom shackle half way between the hawse-hole and bitts, and heave in the forty-five-fathom shackle on the port chain, to the same place. They will then be convenient for clearing hawse.

If the swivel is to be put on immediately, the shackles had better be kept just outside of the hawse-holes, unless the swivel is so small that it can be passed through the

 

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hawse-pipe, in which case keep the shackle of the riding cable (the port one in this case) inside the hawse-hole. In regard to the position of the shackles, it may be well to bear in mind, if in any doubt, that it is much better to keep them too far inside than the other way, as cable can be veered by two or three hands; but to heave it in, requires a deck tackle and all hands.

When intending to put the swivel on, the weather cable may be veered a fathom or so more than otherwise before the lee anchor is let go, as putting it on slacks the chain.

If a ship is moored too taut she may trip her anchors in case of a foul hawse, and the cables chafe the cut-water. If moored too slack, the swivel will not turn. The navigator should look at the state of the hawse every morning, in order to assure himself that the swivel is in good order.

Some time ago, a man-of-war lying at Valparaiso, in some fifteen or twenty fathoms water, and moored with the swivel on, was unable to clear the hawse and get her anchors. The swivel had not turned and no attention had been paid to it. The ship was finally forced to slip her chains and leave the anchors behind, to be weighed by an anchor-hoy.

When the ship is moored with the proper scope, the navigator will put on the stoppers, and report to the first lieutenant, who then directs the boatswain to "pipe down."

The vessel is now moored with a scope of forty-five fathoms on each cable, and will swing to the wind or tide, forming a sweep within her moorings. No vessel should be moored with cables so slack, or with so little scope out, as to swing over her buoys or beyond her own moorings.

The foregoing example shows the proper course to pursue, when the spot to place the second anchor is directly to leeward of the first; but should that not be the case, she must be, by the use of hawsers taken out to the shore. or to another vessel; or by the use of a kedge, roused over to the proper spot, veering on the first cable while doing so. Then place the second anchor and proceed as just directed.

Should steam be up, of course that would be used.

TO MOOR IN A TIDEWAY.

You may veer to the full scope (ninety or one hundred and twenty fathoms) any time during the tide, and drop the second anchor before slack water; for with a good scope of cable, and the current still running, you may give her a considerable sheer with the helm. After the second

 

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anchor is down, bitt and stopper the cable, and wait the change of tide; when, having swung to the second anchor, you may proceed to moor as before directed.

TO MAKE A FLYING MOOR.

This manoeuvre is sometimes performed by officers, and with brilliant success, even in single-decked ships; but a satisfactory result is doubtful under such conditions.

There are two methods of making a flying moor; in either case you have first to determine in what direction the two anchors should be placed.

First Method. Have everything in readiness for anchoring and mooring, a range of one hundred and twenty fathoms of one cable, and sixty of the other, on deck; and, having made every preparation for shortening sail, approach the anchorage boldly. Clew up everything, and let go the first anchor while she has headway on sufficient to run out the whole range of one hundred and twenty fathoms. Then luff up into the wind, let go the other anchor, and proceed to heave in to an equal scope on each.

Second Method. Approach the spot where you intend to place the weather anchor, lay everything flat aback, and the moment the headway ceases, let go the first anchor, and veer to as she drops astern. Then clew up everything, and having run out the full scope of one hundred and twenty fathoms, stopper the cable and let go the other anchor. Bring to on the first and equalize the ranges. This is only proper when the places to drop the anchors are directly in the range of the wind.

In a very light air, the first anchor (in the first method) may be let go under all sail, clewing up the moment it is gone; but in a fresh breeze, and having much headway on, you should always clew up first.

As soon as the ship is moored, the bearings should be taken and entered on the log, together with the depth of water in which the anchors were let go, and the scope of cable out.

The state of the hawse may be known by fixing two pieces of silk thread to the compass-card in the direction of the anchors, and fastening their ends to some place above it. For every turn in the cables there will be a corresponding one in the threads.

TO MOOR HEAD AND STERN.

As there are rarely any fitments for securing stern cables we must take them to the mizzen mast, lash them to breeching

 

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bolts in the bulwarks, or to the cradle bolts, or the mooring shackles outside.

Sometimes the ends of the stern cable are secured on shore, the bight being on board; in this case, after veering away on the bowers, and securing the stern fasts, heave ahead until moored taut enough. When using hemp cables or hawsers in this way, put plenty of good parcelling on in the wake of all chafes, and occasionally "freshen the nips," or use mats instead of parcelling.

Should four anchors be required, ascertain the ship's berth when moored, and mark the intended position of each anchor by small temporary buoys. Make every preparation for mooring.

Suppose the ship riding by the port bower. Plant a heavy kedge in the proper direction and haul over, or by means of a steam-tug, get the ship over to the berth of the starboard quarter anchor (starboard sheet), and let it go. This lays out in a straight line the port bower. Bring to on the latter, and heave in to the proper scope, veering carefully on the starboard quarter chain. The work is now half done. The other two anchors may be planted by either of the following methods:

First. Send them out from the ship, one at a time, by means of a lighter, steam-tug, or boats (the latter method will be given hereafter), and let go in the proper positions. When both are so planted, clap deck tackles on the cables, get them suitably taut, and secure.

Second. Having the work half accomplished, as before described, put a good buoy and buoy-rope on both chains (port bower and starboard sheet), unshackle inboard, slip them both, and haul over by kedge or otherwise to the berth of the starboard bower, let it go, and haul over to the berth of the port quarter anchor, let it go, bring to on the starboard bower, and heave in to the proper scope-or, in other words, repeat with the remaining two anchors, the first half of the operation. The ship being now in her central berth, she may, by means of the buoy-ropes, pick up her port bower and starboard sheet, and heave all taut to liking.

HAVING MOORED HEAD AND STERN-TO UNMOOR SHIP.

If the stern moorings are made fast to the shore, simply cast off the ends, clap on deck-tackles, and walk them inboard.

If moored with anchors astern, to unmoor, proceed in the following manner:

Let us suppose that we are moored with the two bower anchors ahead, and the two sheet anchors astern. Pass a good hawser out of the sheet hawse-hole, on each side;

 

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take the ends aft, outside of everything, and bend them to the stern cables at the nearest shackles. Have all clear for veering the bowers; unbitt them, and set mizzen topsail (aback), if the wind is light and ahead; stopper the stern cables, unshackle them at the nearest shackle inside the stern-port or pipe, and be ready to slip. Veer away the bower chains roundly, slip the after cables, man the hawsers, and walk the stern cables in through the sheet hawse-holes. Veer away the bowers, clap deck-tackles on the sheet cables, and heave them in. When near the berth of the starboard sheet anchor, slack the port sheet cable, and heave the starboard sheet up and down, with the deck-tackle. Stopper the bower cables, bring to on the starboard sheet, and heave it up with the capstan. Cat it, and then heave up the port sheet in the same way. Cat it, and bring to on the lee bower; put the deck-tackle on the weather one; heave round and walk away. When the lee anchor is up and down, avast heaving, stopper the weather cable, and send all hands on deck to assist in transporting the sheet anchors to their places; when that is done, heave up the lee anchor, cat and fish it; heave in, or veer away, to the required scope on the weather cable, and pipe down.

If, when mooring, it was found necessary to drop one (or both) anchors in water too shoal to float the ship, send the launch out to weigh it. Bring to on the cable, and when the launch has lifted the anchor clear of the bottom, heave round slowly, and bring the launch near the bows; she will then slip the anchor, and it will be hove up.

TO KEEP THE HAWSE CLEAR OR TEND SHIP WHEN MOORED-(TWO BOWERS).

When a ship is moored the sails are generally unbent, with the exception of the jib and spanker. With these two sails, the helm, and a knowledge of the principles of tending ship, an officer can scarcely go amiss. If the stern of the ship must go to starboard to keep the hawse clear, put the helm to starboard at the last of the old tide, and to port at the beginning of the new. This will have the effect of sending the stern to starboard and making her swing as desired. Use the spanker if it can be made effective.

A little attention in this matter on the part of the officer of the deck may save a great deal of work in clearing hawse. Should it be required to swing against the wind, use the jib.

CLEARING HAWSE.

A vessel moored, and riding by either anchor, having

 

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the cables clear of each other, "rides with a clear hawse." If her head is in a line between the two anchors, so that the cables will each lead out from their respective sides, and clear of the stem, she then "rides to an open hawse."

If, by swinging, she brings the cables to bear upon each other, so as to be chafed by the motion of the vessel, she has "a foul hawse."

If, from having an open hawse, she has swung half round, or performed a half circle, she brings "a cross in the hawse," and that cable will be uppermost from which she swung. If it is the starboard cable which is uppermost, she must swing to starboard, if the port, to port, to clear the hawse.

But if she swings the wrong way, that is, continues the same way she swung before, performing another half circle, then there will be "an elbow in the hawse," the same cable being uppermost. We will suppose that in both instances she has swung to port, then the starboard cable is of course over the port one, and she must swing to starboard to bring the hawse clear. Thus, from an open hawse she has performed a full circle to produce an elbow.

The next half circle in the same direction brings "a round turn" in the hawse.

And the next half circle, "a round turn and elbow," and so on.

An attentive officer will always endeavor to make his vessel, having a cross in the hawse, swing so as to clear it, by means of the helm or otherwise. But if she swings the wrong way, he should lose no time in resorting to the operation of clearing hawse by the cables.

To Clear Hawse. Get up the clear-hawse gear. This consists of deck-tackles, hook-ropes, the clear-hawse pendant and the hawse-rope.

Deep-Tackles are heavy double purchases, with a hook in each block.

Hook Ropes are single ropes, with a hook in one end, and are used in lighting along the chain, in connection with long-handled chain-hooks. Fig. 459.

The Clear-Hawse Pendant is a heavy hemp rope, tailed with chain and having a shackle, or (better) a pelican hook in the chain end.

The Hawse-Rope is a stout hemp rope tailed with chain, with sister-hooks in the chain end.

If the turns are under water they must first be hove out clear. This is usually done by clapping a deck-tackle on the riding, cable, forward of the bitts, hauling in and stoppering the riding chain forward; light the slack around the bitts and pass the after stoppers afresh.

Pass the clear-hawse pendant out of the sheet hawse-hole on the side of the lee cable, shackle it to that cable below the turns, house it taut with a deck-tackle and belay it.


Plate 102, Fig 460-461. Fouled chains.
 

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Now pass the end of the hawse-rope out through the lee hawse-hole, take it around the riding cable in the direction opposite to the turn in the hawse, pass the end in again, Fig. 460, and hook it to the lee cable forward of the shackle. Now unshackle the lee cable, haul away on the hawse-rope and light out the lee cable, using a line from the bowsprit if necessary to assist in hauling it out.

When the hawse-rope brings in the end of the cable again, secure the cable end temporarily if need be, and repeat the operation with the hawse-rope from the beginning, if there are more turns to be taken out.

When the lee cable comes in clear, clap on a deck-tackle, walk away and shackle, unhooking the hawse-rope.

Take off finally the clear-hawse pendant, and dry and stow away the clear-hawse gear.

When the clear-hawse pendant is fitted with a pelican hook it can be readily cleared from the chain, even if it gets under water, by a laniard from the upper part of the link.

In small vessels, or with light ground-tackle, the above plan may be slightly modified, to advantage, especially when the hawse-pipes are narrow. Fig. 461.

The turns being hove above water, clap on the clear-hawse pendant as before. It is advisable also to clap a lashing on the two cables below the turns, if the moorings are slack, to keep the turns from sliding down under water again on the riding chain. Now, instead of using the hawse-rope, pay out the nearest shackle of the lee cable into a boat under the bows, unshackle there and use a hook-rope to clear the turns, having the hauling end inboard. When the turns are clear, hook the hawse-rope into the end of the lee chain to rouse it inboard through the hawse-pipe. Shackle, cast off the lashings on the chains, and take off the clear-hawse pendant.

One object is not to have so many parts (two of hawse-rope and one of chain) in the hawse-hole at once. Moreover, when the use of the boat and hook-rope is practicable, the hook-rope can be more readily shifted and the operation performed quicker.

When veering out the end of the lee cable have a good turn with the hawse-rope, so that in case the clear-hawse pendant parts, the hawse-rope may hold the weight of the chain.

Never clear by the riding cable, nor at any other time than at slack water if it can be avoided.

A screw steamship, with steam up, can turn round with her screw and helm, and clear hawse in a short time. But the steam would not be up unless she was about to sail; and in that case she should clear hawse, unmoor, and heave in to a short scope while raising steam.

The hawse is sometimes cleared, when there is no wind and a smooth surface, by towing the stern of the ship round

 

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in the required direction. A long ship should never attempt it, and it is not a very seamanlike way of clearing hawse at any time.

In weighing, if there is a cross in the hawse, the undermost cable should be hove in first; the upper anchor, if hove up first, would foul the under cable.

If it is necessary to pick up the upper one first, dip it before weighing.

In unmooring, heave up the lee anchor first to avoid the chance of fouling other ships or your own anchor.

TO PUT THE MOORING SWIVEL ON. Fig. 462.

By putting the mooring swivel on, the hawse is more easily kept clear.

The best time to put it on is at slack water, or as near it as possible. To do so, shackle the clear-hawse pendant to the lee cable, as in clearing hawse, and haul it taut. Send a boat under the bows with the swivel. Make fast a bowline from the bowsprit end, rouse out chain and pay the shackle into the boat; the men in the boat unshackle the chain and shackle it to the swivel.

Now put the clear-hawse pendant on the riding cable, haul it well taut, unshackle the riding cable, veer it into the boat, and shackle it there to the swivel as we did the lee one.

If there is any doubt about the clear-hawse pendant being strong enough, we must use a large hawser, or the stream chain, to secure the riding cable, or postpone putting the swivel on the riding cable until the ship has swung.

When the swivel is on, it must be hove up clear of the water.

It is usually hove up close to one hawse-hole, and the other chain is then overhauled clear of the bows, or unshackled altogether. After the swivel is on, the two chains from inboard constitute what is called the bridle.

Finally, take off the clear-hawse pendant.

The swivel should be put on with the cup upward that it may be more effectually lubricated.

If the swivel is so small that we can pass it through the hawse-hole, it can be put on with much less trouble. We have only to stopper the riding cable inboard, unshackle, put the swivel on and veer it outboard. Then send a boat under the bows and put it on the lee cable as just described.

Many seamen object to the use of mooring swivels under any circumstances. They should certainly not be used when bad weather is liable to make veering necessary.


Plate 103, Fig 462-465. Swivel and various means of moving an anchor with a boat.
 

CHAPTER XVII.

CARRYING OUT ANCHORS BY BOATS.

To Carry out a Kedge or Stream Anchor by a Boat. Hoist the kedge out by the yard and stay, and lower it into the water astern of the boat. The coxswain hangs it there by a piece of three-inch stuff. One end of this is secured to the ring-bolt in the stern, the other end, passed around the shank just under the stock, is belayed for slipping. Settle down the yard tackle and unhook. Bend the hawser and coil it away in the boat. When the kedge is to be let go, heave the remainder of the hawser overboard and slip the stopper.

A small kedge may be made much more effective by lashing pig ballast or other convenient weight to it.

Circumstances will determine whether it is better to take the entire hawser in the boat, drop the kedge and bring the end back, or to pay and go from the ship, as assumed above.

To Carry out a Kedge or Stream Anchor in a Boat. Fig. 463. Hoist it out by the ring; when the crown is below the gunwale, hang it with a rope from the bottom bolt around the arms, and as it is lowered, bear the stock over the opposite gunwale, and bend the cable on under the stock after you have rolled the anchor aft. In this way you can steer and pull the after oars. To let go, unship the rudder, get enough chain out of the boat to reach the bottom, and roll the anchor overboard over the stern.

With a short anchor, place the midship thwart across the stern, lay two capstan bars fore and aft, and land the anchor on this platform fore and aft, with the flukes over the stern, stock on the capstan bars.

Steer in this case with an oar. To let go, raise the inboard ends of the capstan bars simultaneously.

Neither of these methods of carrying an anchor in a boat should be attempted, except by experienced hands.

If both ends of the shank, in the first case, do not roll over the stern simultaneously, or if the capstan bars, in the second case, are not lifted together, there is likely to be trouble.

For transportation only, the method is a good one, with light anchors.

 

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CARRYING OUT A HEAVY ANCHOR WITH ONE BOAT.

First Method. (The quickest way.) Sling empty casks or beef barrels in pairs, marrying their slings and snaking them to prevent them from being shaken off. Bung the casks well and lower them overboard.

Out launch, lower it so that the stern will be supported by the casks, lash these securely to the boat, two on each quarter.

Haul the launch forward with a boat rope from the jib-boom end, steady her if necessary by a whip from the fore-yard braced forward.

Cockbill the anchor and lower it with the stock hanging horizontally across the stern of the launch. Take a stout strap around the shank, reeve one bight through the other, and jam the turn close up under the stock, take the other bight through the stern ring-bolts, and toggle it. In letting go, out toggle, or cut the strap.

With a large launch prepared as above, a good sized_ anchor and cable can be carried out. Fig. 464, Plate 103.

Second Method. Anchor too heavy to hang from launch's stern. In this case, the flukes must be hove up under the bottom of the boat, the stock being perpendicular. Fig. 466.

Out launch, increase her buoyancy aft as before. Rig the fish-davit. Seize two large thimbles into two straps, which are clapped around the arms of the anchor just inside the flukes, a piece of a stout towline is rove through the thimbles, the tow-line being stopped to the shank to keep it middled. Put a long pair of slings around the shank near the stock, and lash them to its upper end to keep the stock perpendicular. Round the shank also, and stopped to the stock is the end of a stout rope, to be used in securing the ring. Hook the fish to the inner arm from aft forward, hook the cat to the stock slings and ease the anchor down, keeping the shank horizontal and the stock perpendicular until it is about four feet under water; bring the launch's stern against the stock; haul her side in close to the fish; secure the stock end of the anchor to the stern by the end of rope provided for the purpose, passing the turns through the stern ring-bolts; bring the ends of the towline stuff in on each side through the rowlocks, and secure them through the foremost ring-bolts; ease up and unhook cat and fish; stop a length of chain round the boat outside, and then range as much more chain in the bottom as is intended to be carried out, stopping it in several places, and making the end well fast that it may not fetch away in veering. Fig. 466.

To let go, cut or slip the stock and fluke fastenings together.


Plate 104, Fig 467-468. Laying out an anchor from a boat.
 

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In either of the above methods the casks are of course dispensed with if unnecessary (Fig. 465); but with the relative sizes of launches and ground-tackle supplied to our ships of war, it is most likely that the additional buoyancy will be needed.

A boat will tow more easily by the first method than with the anchor entirely under her bottom.

Third Method. (Stock horizontal, flukes perpendicular.) This plan was first suggested by a Mr. Cows, of England. The object is to bring the weight of the anchor on that part of the boat most capable of bearing it, and to use a purchase in the boat equal to heaving up any weight she can sustain.

This is done in suspending the anchor by a rope passing through a hole in the bottom of the launch, a tube placed over the hole preventing the water from filling the boat.

Launches are fitted with such a hole, covered by a brass screw-tap, outside of which screws a copper funnel. When preparing for use, screw on the funnel, or trunk as it is sometimes called, unscrew the tap; as soon as the latter is off, the water rises in the trunk till level with the water outside.

Immediately over the trunk, Fig. 468, is placed a windlass, the pins in its ends working in bearings on the gunwale.

Haul the launch forward, cock-bill the anchor; secure to its forward arm the end of the windlass-rope.

To get the other end of the windlass rope through the trunk, drop a lead and line through first, hook the lead-line from outside with a boat-hook, and haul through, marrying the lead-line to the end of the windlass-rope.

Lower the anchor by the cat, with the stock athwart the stern of the launch, man the windlass, and heave the flukes under the boat, keeping the boat clear of the shank. When the anchor is lowered have the usual stopper rove through the ring and taken over the stern roller of the launch. When the stock is close up under the boat secure the stopper through the after ring-bolts, with turns around its own part and around the after-thwart.

Fig. 467 represents a first-rate's launch, with a bower anchor suspended under the bottom, and a hemp cable coiled away in the boat; c is the buoy-rope; d the rope by which the anchor is hove up; e the line of flotation when the vessel is light; f the line flotation with bower anchor hung in the ordinary way to the stern; g the line of flotation with anchor hung as represented, a cable and twenty men in the boat.

When a ship is on shore forward, unless Cows' method is used it may be impossible to carry out a large bower with one boat, owing to the shallow water.

 

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TO HAUL OUT A BOAT ENGAGED IN CARRYING A BOWER.

If the steam launch is not available for towing, send out first the stream anchor hung at the stern of the launch, the casks being omitted if the weight is not too great for the boat. Take the stream out in the direction in which the bower is to be planted, and beyond the intended position of the bower. Have a stopper long enough to lower the anchor to the bottom, and a top-block, large enough to take a hawser, hooked in the ring. Lower the anchor to the bottom, the hawser being rove through the top-block, and bring both ends back to the ship, being careful to keep them clear.

Secure one end of the hawser in the bows of the boat which is to be hauled out, and pass the other end in the hawse-hole.

A kedge planted well ahead of the position which the bower is to take, with a single warp led back to the launch and hauled upon there, may be used instead of a double line, as above described.

Weigh the warping anchor or kedge, when the operation of hauling out is completed.

TO CARRY OUT AN ANCHOR BY TWO BOATS.

This may become necessary owing either to the shallowness of the water, or to the lightness of the boats available for transporting the anchor.

First Method. To sling an anchor between two launches in shallow water. (Fig. 469.)-Hook the cat and fish; the cat to the ring and the fish to a strap round the crown. Put a short strap round the crown, one bight being rove through the other, and a thimble seized in for hanging the anchor by. Haul taut the cat and fish, let go the anchor stoppers, and lower the anchor down nearly to the water's edge. The boats haul up, each having a good stopper for hanging the anchor. The headmost boat secures the stopper to the ring-bolt in the bottom of the boat, passes it over the stern roller, through the ring of the anchor, over the roller in the end of the stern davits, and secures the end to a luff tackle, which is hooked to the bow ring-bolt. Bowse the tackle well taut and secure; ease up and unhook the cat.

The second boat hauls up bow first, secures her stopper to the ring-bolt in the bottom of the boat, passes it over the bow through the thimble in the strap on the crown, in again over the bow, and secures the end to a luff hooked to the after stern ring-bolt.


Plate 105, Fig 469. Laying out an anchor in shallow water.

Plate 106, Fig 471. Anchor slung below two boats.
 

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Bowse taut the luff, secure, and ease up the fish,

To Let Go. Ease the anchor down clear of the boats with the luff tackles, then slip the ends of the stoppers together.

Unless fitted with chain slips, there is danger of one stopper slipping before the other; therefore, warn the men in both boats to be careful.

Each boat will carry out a considerable quantity of the cable in the opposite end.

Second Method. Carrying out a bower between two cutters. (Plate 106). The stream having been previously sent out and planted, with the top-block at the ring, hawser rove off, &c., prepare to send out the bower between two cutters, as follows:

Hook the cat to the ring, the fish to a strap around the inner arm of the anchor, ease off the stoppers and lower the anchor into the water, stock athwartships, flukes up and down. Haul up two cutters, one on each side of the purchases. Lash two suitable spars across the boats, one a little forward of the centre of gravity, the other further aft at a distance nearly equal to the length of the shank. The spars rest on the gunwales of both boats, building up if necessary in wake of the inner gunwales to strengthen them.

Clap on the cat and pull up till the stock takes under the keels of the boats. Secure the ring to the forward spar by a lashing long enough to lower the anchor to the bottom on the bight, taking two round turns through the ring and around the spar, and expending the ends in opposite directions around the spar.

Now clap on the fish and pull up till the upper pee is nearly level with the after spar. Secure the fluke to the after spar by a lashing similar to the ring lashing, and passed under the shank. The strap for the fish will probably be jammed between the lashing and the upper fluke (hence the reason for using a strap instead of hooking the fish itself to the inner arm), but by bending a small line to the strap it can be recovered after the anchor has been eased down. Clap rackings on the lashing and knot the ends together above each spar until ready for easing away.

Fit a span across the sterns of both boats, and to it secure the end of the hawser used in hauling out.

Lastly, ease off and unhook the cat and fish. The anchor now hangs between the two boats, which are only separated by a distance a little greater than the width of the anchor fluke.

The bower cable, shackled to the anchor, is unshackled at fifteen fathoms and the end carried in another boat, which tows out in rear of the first two.

When ready to let go, the rear boat being close up, ease

 

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away together on the ends of the lashings, and lower the anchor to the bottom.

Half the turns of the lashing on each spar being taken in one direction and half in the opposite way, the spars have no tendency to roll out of position, and any undue strain on their lashings is avoided.

Cast adrift the spars and send back one boat with the standing part of the hawser. Let her take the end of the chain in her bows with end enough to shackle, hang the bight to her stern and haul out again by the hawser from on board. When the chain begins to drag, the second boat is brought under the bows and a bight hung to her bow and stern in the same manner. On reaching the boat supporting the end of the first fifteen fathoms, the leading cutter receives that end, shackles, and both cutters slip the bights at the same time.

If the state of the sea does not admit of towing out the cutters stern first, we must forego the advantage of supporting the greatest weight of the anchor by the sterns, and haul the boats alongside the purchases, bows aft.

The above method, as described, was adopted recently in laying out anchors at the Training Station. Based upon the plan adopted by Captain Craven in the "Plymouth," it differs from the latter in the following respects: The anchor in Captain Craven's method hangs with the stock up and down, and the flukes athwartships, and under the bows of the boats; boats are further apart, and the anchor is cut adrift instead of being lowered. The cable in the "Plymouth's" evolution had the end buoyed, and was towed out in the wake of the cutters.

By the modified plan it was intended to have the anchor draw less water, and to bring more strain on the boats and less on the spars. Lowering the anchor instead of cutting it adrift, enables the end of the chain to be carried out in a boat instead of buoying it, which is believed to save tithe in the shackling, while the tow is lightened.

The lashings used in lowering the anchor were 5 1/2-inch rope, the depth of water four fathoms, weight of the anchor 5,500 pounds.

NOTES ON CARRYING OUT ANCHORS.

To carry out a heavy anchor and chain is considered a somewhat difficult as well as a dangerous operation. In 1842 a lieutenant and several men lost their lives while attempting it in a launch belonging to the U.S.S. Missouri, then aground in the Potomac River. This accident was due to the chain being stowed in the boat.

A long range of chain should never be carried in the boat with the anchor. Even when small anchors and hawsers

 

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are being carried out, heave overboard enough of the hawserand plenty to spare before letting go the anchor, to allow it to reach the bottom. If not, the anchor on being let go, will take the boat with it. A bight of chain is usually stopped around the boat ready for dropping, and if this is not enough, more must be paid out. Put check-stoppers on the chain while it is being stowed in the boat, securing them to a thwart or ring-bolt; this will decrease the danger of the cable's taking charge when paid out.

When about to let go the anchor, make sure by a cast of the lead that you have cable enough outside the boat to reach the bottom, and hang it well to the stern that no more may run out. If there be a greater quantity of chain in the boat than can be ranged in one layer, there will be damage done unless you disconnect at the first shackle and bring it to the last one, which will be the upper one of the range paid down.

Let go the anchor with the ring toward the vessel.

In veering chain, lash a capstan bar athwart the stern; lay the cable over it and veer away cautiously fathom by fathom. If the end of another cable is brought to you, join it; hang the joining shackle outside your boat, and throw the bight out, letting both parts hang from the stern over the bar-that is to say, have no cable now remaining in the boat, and when all is clear, slip the bight.

This proceeding will suggest the necessity of always taking punches, shackle-pins, and hammers in a boat, when setting out on an anchor expedition.

After letting go an anchor, if the cable remaining in the boat gets away from you, direct the men to jump overboard and hang on to the gunwale till the cable is out.

When using a buoy on a bower that is laid out, stop the buoy-rope to one pee of the anchor and stopper it short of the depth of water; this insures canting the anchor for biting.

Warping out against wind and sea, lay out the cable on your return if before it, pay as you go.

When likely to weigh a stream or heavier anchor by boat, put a block on the crown and reeve a double buoy-rope through it.

In lowering a waist anchor by the tackles to be carried out, hook the main yard-tackle on the inner arm, and the fore yard-tackle in the ring to ease it down with the stock athwartships. A bill-tackle on the inner arm will keep the anchor from canting too quickly.

Sweeping for Anchors or Cables. Having lost an anchor and chain, attempt first to catch the chain; failing in that, the anchor itself. The position of the anchor is known by the cross-bearings taken when the ship anchored, also the direction of the chain.

 

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First: To catch the chain. Send out boats to pull at right angles to its direction, each dragging a grapnel after her.

In addition to ordinary grapnels, use for this purpose two fish-hooks (hooks used in fishing the anchor), joined at the eyes and kept apart with their hooks in the same direction by a few small battens lashed across their backs. This is dragged by the eyes, the bills of the hooks are kept down with a back-rope, which should always be used in grappling, to clear rocks and other obstructions.

When the chain is grappled, send out the launch and weigh it; hang the bight and drop the creeper down again, and so work till the end is reached, carry this to the ship, heave in, and heave up the anchor.

Second: To sweep for the anchor. Weight the bight of a line for some distance each side the middle, and putting an end in each of two boats, let them pull across the position of the anchor. A small chain is the best to sweep with.

The boats must be well apart, and the line dragging on the bottom. Sweep in the direction from ring to crown.

When the anchor is caught, cross the boats and haul up over it; drop the bight of a hawser down over the line so as to catch over the upper flukes, slip an anchor shackle down over both parts to confine it, warp the ship up, take one end of the hawser to the capstan, clap a deck-tackle on the other and weigh the anchor.

A running bowline may be slipped over the upper fluke.

To Weigh a Bower by a Launch Pitted with a Trunk. Having caught the upper fluke as described above, pass the ends of the hawser through the trunk, bring to on the windlass and heave up.

The crown being up, pass the end of the after-stopper from one quarter around the bow and aft the other side, let go the bight forward, and it will catch the shank of the anchor, hook on the luffs, and heave up the stock; catch the chain in the same way and heave it up to another boat.

The boat might be warped alongside as soon as the crown is up; then sweep a strap under its bottom, crossing the parts with a round turn around the shank of the anchor. Hook the fish tackle in the ends, walk up the anchor crown first until the ring is high enough to hook the cat.

To get the anchor up, ring first, sweep the steam cable under the boat (so as to catch between the stock and flukes), form a running clinch with the end around the other part, heave in on the stream, ease off the hawser, haul the boat clear, hook the cat when the ring is high enough. Should a portion of the cable be attached to the anchor, sweep under. it, take the end through the hawse-hole and heave in.

 

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Use the buoy-rope instead of the hawser in heaving up, if it is strong enough.

A Jury Windlass, in a launch, may be rigged by having a round spar secured athwart the boat, and working it with straps and heavers, having the hawser, buoy-rope or cable, led over a roller at the stern.

TO WEIGH THE STREAM ANCHOR BY THE LAUNCH.

Ship the davit or roller in the stern, pass in the boat a. couple of good luffs, straps, spun-yarn, and stuff for stoppers. Bring the cable over the roller, and clap on a luff, single block to ring-bolt in the bows. Clap luff upon tuff if necessary to break ground. If the anchor holds hard, heave to a short stay, getting the stern well down, and belay; then let all hands go forward and try to jump the anchor out. When aweigh, clap the luffs on alternately, faking the cable in the boat.

When the anchor is up, hang it to the stern of the boat and pull on board.

TO CALCULATE FLOATING POWERS.

In using casks, tanks or spars for carrying out anchors or other heavy weights, the floating powers may be estimated by the following rules:

To Calculate the Capacity of a Cask. Multiply half the sum of the areas of the two interior circles (viz.: at the head and bung), by the interior length, for the contents in cubic inches; dividing the product by 231, the number of cubic inches in a gallon, reduces the result to that measure.

To find the Number of Casks required to give a certain Floating Power. Multiply the cubic capacity in gallons by 8.4, the weight of a gallon of water; the result gives the floating capacity in pounds. The weight of the cask need not be considered.

To Calculate the Floating Power of Spars, for the Same Purpose. Say the three topmasts; the main being sixty-four feet long (exclusive of mast-head), diam. 22 in.; fore, 57 ft., diam. 22 in.; mizzen, 45 1/2 ft., diam. 17 in. The weight that they will sustain, is the difference between their own weight and that of the water they displace.

To ascertain the weight of a spar: Multiply the square of the diameter by .7854 (the area of a circle whose diameter is one inch), to find the area; multiply the area by the length, to obtain the cubic contents; and the product by the weight of a cubic foot of the material, ascertained by experiment.

 

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Main topmast.-The greatest diameter being twenty-two inches, the proportion of diameter at first quarter is 60/61; second quarter, 20/21; third quarter, 8/9; equal to 22 in., 21.6 in., 20.9 in., and 19.5 in., respectively; consequently twenty-one inches is the mean diameter.

64 ft. = 768 in., and 212 x .7854 x 768 / 1728 (the number of cubic inches in a foot) = 154 cubic feet.

Fore topmast.-57 ft., in like manner gives 137 cubic feet; and

Mizzen topmast.-45.5 ft., with a mean diameter of 16.2 in., is equal to 65 cubic feet.

Total 356 cubic feet.

356 x 64.1 (the weight in lbs. of 1 cubic foot of salt water = 22819 lbs.
356 x 36.3 (the weight in lbs. of 1 cubic foot of Norway spars) = 12923 lbs.
Floating power of spars 9896=88 cwt.

DECREASE IN WEIGHT OF IMMERSED BODIES.

If these calculations are made with a view to carrying out an anchor, &c., it must be remembered that the weight of that anchor, in water, is less than when it is out of water, by the weight of water it displaces. The specific gravity of wrought iron is 7.788, and of salt water 1.026, therefore the specific gravity of iron in relation to salt water is 7.788/1.026 = 7.59.

The "Trenton's" bower weighs 7,000 pounds. Divided by 7.59, gives a decrease in weight when the anchor is submerged of 922 pounds.

Or the decrease of weight consequent on immersion of a body may be found by calculating its cubic contents, and then ascertaining the weight of its equivalent bulk of water.

7,000 pounds = 112,000 oz., which divided by 7788 (specific gravity of iron), gives a quotient of 14.367 nearly, being the cubic contents of the anchor in feet. A cubic foot of salt water weighs 64.2 pounds; therefore 14.367 cubic feet weigh 922 pounds; decrease of weight being same as by previous rule.


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