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CHAPTER IX.

RIGGING SHIP.

WHEN a ship is taken in hand to be rigged, her lower masts are standing, temporarily or permanently wedged, and with girtlines on each side of the mast-heads. The bowsprit is in place, as are also the lower dead-eyes for the lower rigging. Hearts on the bowsprit and shackles on the bows may also be supposed in place before the riggers begin work.

We will rig the bowsprit first, as the staying of the fore-mast depends upon it, and would otherwise be delayed.

The Gammoning of the bowsprit in modern vessels consists of one or two iron straps as shown in Figs. 293 and 294, setting up with nuts and screws. It serves to keep the bowsprit in place, and should be set up before the ship is turned over to the riggers.

Secure the heads of two small spars together in a lashing hung from the bowsprit-end, the heels resting on the bows, where convenient, and seized to prevent slipping. Lay boards across from one boom to the other as a platform for the men to stand on.

The Bobstays are placed first, shackling to the cutwater, and with laniards from hearts in their outboard ends to similar hearts under the bowsprit. There are two, or three, bobstays fitted; if three, they are termed inner, middle, and cap bobstays.

Bowsprit-Shrouds. Shackle the bowsprit-shrouds one on each side to eye-bolts, well down on the bows. The hearts in their outboard ends set up with laniards to similar hearts on either side of the bowsprit near the cap.

Now set up the bowsprit-shrouds and bobstays. Both may be set up by using luff upon luff on each end of the laniard, as in Fig. 301, racking every turn after it has been hove taut, and finally seizing down the ends.

This is termed "setting up on a bight," and the object is to keep the hearts from slueing. Or, secure one end of the laniard and set up on the other, one turn at a time, by means of stout luffs hooked into a strap on the laniard and into another strap on the standing part of the bobstay or shroud. Fig. 302.

Laniards for wire rigging are of the same size as


Plate 47, Fig 292-294. Rigging vise and gammoning on bowsprit.

Plate 48, Fig 265-296. Bowsprit.

Plate 49. Fig 297-300. Methods of rigging a bowsprit.
 

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the rigging itself; for hemp rigging as used formerly, laniards were one-half the size of the corresponding shroud, stay, &c.

Laniards are four-stranded hemp. It is considered better to clap straps on the laniard when setting up than to turn in catspaws, either with or without toggles thrust in them, as the strap does less damage to the laniard and does not nip it out of shape. All straps should be smaller than the rope around which they are taken, to insure a good hold.

Rigging-in Bowsprit. When a vessel is fitted as a ram, the bowsprit and jib-boom must be so arranged as to be readily gotten out of the way in clearing ship for action. For this purpose the bowsprit is either fitted to rig in, or to be lifted clear of the bows.

Fig. 295 shows the general arrangement of a rigging-in bowsprit. The spar is rectangular in section, and projects horizontally; its rigging is simplified as much as possible. The bobstay and fore-topmast stays go to the cap or to a strap just inside the cap; the forestays set up inside the rail, and the bees are dispensed with. The bowsprit runs in on the forecastle, as shown in the figure, being held in position when rigged out by a fid forward of the heel bitts, temporary gammoning and a boom-iron (fitted with interior rollers) at the bows. The heel of the jib-boom secures in a clamp above the bowsprit-iron, Fig. 296.

Lifting Bowsprit. Where there is no pivot-gun on the topgallant forecastle, the bowsprit of ram-bowed vessels may be fitted to lift inboard, this plan being suggested by Admiral Porter.

Fig. 297 shows the general arrangement of such a bowsprit; Fig. 298, the process of lifting; Fig. 299, a section of the bowsprit and plunger, and Fig. 300, the hinge, &c.

The bowsprit proper is of iron, and in the general detail of its form, stiffness, &c., is similar to the iron lower masts previously described. It is hinged just outside the rail at n, and secured when in place by the screws o, o. The bowsprit cap has secured to it on each side the ends of a heavy bail, g, large enough and with a motion sufficient to pass around the bowsprit-cap from the upper to the under side of the bowsprit.

The plunger is an iron cylinder inside the bowsprit, made up of plates, secured with the usual stiffeners of angle-iron, and equal in length to the inboard end of the bowsprit. It is rigged out by means of a heel tackle, m, and sheave, Fig. 297, so as to project, inside the bowsprit, about half its length beyond the rail. It slides in and out on bearings formed by the inner surfaces of the bowsprit stiffeners.

Its purpose is to strengthen the bowsprit in wake of the hinge n.

To lift the bowsprit a stout purchase is hooked to the

 

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bail on the cap, upper block lashed to the foremast head below the lower cap.

A derrick, a, is raised on the forecastle by means of a tackle, c, from the fore stay. The heel of the derrick pivots in a shoe, which travels on a fore and aft guide track and is fitted with stout fore and aft tackles, f f. A derrick head purchase, b, has its upper block on the derrick, lower block hooked to an eye, s, on the bowsprit just abaft the hinge. The derrick-head has jaws like those on the inner end of a gaff.

Having rigged in the plunger by means of a tackle, h, hooked to its heel, slacking the heel rope, m, the clamps at the bowsprit hinge are come up, and the head of the bowsprit triced up to the position 2, Fig. 298. Here the bail is nearly fore and aft, and about to swing over the end of the bowsprit. The head of the derrick, a, by means of its jaws, assists in supporting the bowsprit until it reaches the position 3, tending the derrick-head purchase. From 3 to 4 the heel of the derrick is shifted forward by the shoe tackles from d to d'. Here the bail and pendant tackle, having shifted around to the under side of the bowsprit, take up the weight again and land the bowsprit in position 5, Fig. 298.

Lower Masts. Proceed now to rig the lower masts, and send up first the trestle-trees, as follows:

Trestle-trees. The mast-head girtlines should be stout enough to send up the trestle-trees; if not, send up heavy whips on each side, and lash their blocks at the lower mast-head, over the tenon or just below it. The men required to work aloft are sent up by the girtlines.

Place the trestle-trees on deck, forward of the mast, Fig. 307, and take out the after chock, as the forward one, by having to support the heel of the topmast, is more securely bolted and not intended to be removed. Hitch the ends of the whips to the forward ends of the trestle-trees, and stop down on the top side, along to the after ends. Bend on a guy from forward, sway aloft, and as the after ends of the trestle-trees rise above the bibbs, cut the stops and work them into their places. Send up the after chock and bolt it.

Whole Tops are sent aloft with the two girtlines used in sending up the trestle-trees, and a good-sized single or double tackle, hooked to a strap abaft the mast and directly between the girtlines, as in Fig. 308.

Place the top on the deck abaft the mast, with the forward part uppermost. Overhaul down the girtlines and tackle, pass the ends of the former underneath the rim and make them fast to their own parts, around the after-part of the top, stopping them out to each girtline-hole, as in Fig. 308. Hook the lower block of the mast-head tackle to a stout strap around the after-part (to which a guy is also attached, leading aft), and secure the standing parts of the


Plate 50, Fig 30-303. Rigging up the bowsprit guys.

Plate 51, Fig 304-306. Dolphin striker and bowsprit guys and stays.
 

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tackle and girtlines to the pigeon-hole by means of a squilgee-toggle, over which the bights are laid. Bend on a tripping-line to the toggle (which should be greased), man the tackle and girtlines and sway away, pulling up steadily on all. When the forward rim comes up to the block, jerk on the tripping-line (which disconnects the parts and permits the girtlines to go out to the side, and lead off fair); sway on the tackle until the lubbers-hole is clear of the mast-head, and lower away by means of the girtlines, sending the top aft or forward with the tackle and guy as need be. The cross-trees are either secured to the top before sending it aloft, or sent up by means of the girtlines first.

Half Tops. The half tops are placed on deck with the outer rims uppermost, on their respective sides of the deck. Pass a strap or lashing around the centre of each, steadying it in its place by a small lashing through one of the futtock holes. Overhaul down the whips used in sending up the trestle-trees, and bend each to the strap around the half top of its respective side. Sway the halves up close to the blocks, and let them hang there until the cross-trees are sent aloft and bolted in their places. Then lower the halves down and secure them; sway up the upper cross-trees and bolt and confine the whole with iron bands. Fig. 309.

Now send up and place the bolsters, which are made of soft wood and covered with three or four thicknesses of tarred parcelling, and then get over the lower pendants, which are swayed up by the girtlines. If the mast needs support while the rigging is being sent aloft, the pendant tackles may now be hooked and hauled taut, but they are dispensed with, if possible, as being very much in the way.

Lower Rigging. As the routine of rigging is nearly identical on all the masts, the method for the fore will answer for a description of the others.

In the merchant service, as soon as the lower pendants are over, the lower mast is steadied by the pendant tackles, the topmast is pointed about four or five feet above the lower mast-head, and to it are attached the girtlines for the shrouds, after the manner of a derrick. Navy-yard riggers proceed as follows:

To Send up the Shrouds. In heavy ships, two girtlines will be required to support the weight of the shroud; the block of the main girtline being toggled to the midship girtline-hole in the top; the second, or "short" girtline, being at the mast-head tenon and worked in the top. Send hands aloft with marline-spikes, tar, slush, commander,* &c.

Now proceed to get the shrouds up, and over, in the

* Commander; a large wooden maul.
8

 

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order of their succession, Fig. 310. Knot the ends of the main girtline together, and fit a toggle in one part, just above. Thrust this between the two parts of the first pair of starboard-forward shrouds, from out, in, somewhat more than the length of the mast-head below the eye-seizing, and put a stop around both parts to retain the toggle in its place. Stop the girtline along the shroud towards the eye, and at the crown, and sway aloft. When as high as the top, bend on the short mast-head girtline just below the eye-seizing, taking the end from in, out, and stop it as in the other case. Cut the lower girtline adrift, as the shroud comes up, and steady it to the hand of the man aloft, who will bear the eye over the mast-head, and cast off the upper girtline. Place it fair and beat it down with the wooden commander, being careful to carry the shroud well aft, as the angular action of the strain, in setting up, has a constant tendency to bring it forward.*

Send up the port forward pair in the same manner. We might now rouse the legs of the shrouds well down amidships, i.e. in a line parallel with the mast, to give the eyes, a good on the bolsters, and set up all four legs at the same time, with the pendant tackles, to ensure getting the eyes well down, in place. But this is seldom done, and we proceed, as a rule, to get over the other pairs of shrouds in their proper order without stopping to set up. It is well to remember that too much care cannot be taken to beat the eyes well down in their places at once, and in this connection attention may be called again to the effect of the eyes settling down at the mast-head, and the means suggested in the previous chapter for avoiding slack after shrouds.

To Send up the Fore-and-aft Stays. All the shrouds having been got over, shift the girtlines from the top up to the mast-head, and lash them to the sides and well aft. Dip them down through the lubber's hole, and bend the starboard one to the fore-stays below the crotch, stopping it to the starboard legs; bend the port girtline on in the same manner to the port legs, and sway aloft, cutting the seizings as the legs reach the top, Fig. 312. Use a third girtline overhauled down forward of the top, and bent to the stays below the crotch, to assist in raising the stays. Pass the collar-lashings (one end of each lashing is spliced into one of the eyes of its stay), and either rest the collars on the lower rigging or on a heavy cleat sometimes placed for the purpose on the after side of the mast. The stays are now seized around the thimbles of their upper hearts, if this has not been done in the rigging loft; the

* It will save trouble aloft if the eye of the shroud is bent forward before going up, and stopped to the legs, which lays it fair for going over. Cast off the stop from the legs when the eye comes through the lubber's-hole, and use the stop to assist in hauling down the eye when over. Fig. 311.


Plate 52, Fig 307-311.  Rigging the tressel trees.

Plate 53, Fig 312. Sending up the shrouds.

Plate 54, Fig 313-314.  Sending up Stays and Shrouds.
 

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lower hearts should be found in their places shackled to the fore-stay straps on the bowsprit. These straps are iron bands passing around under the bowsprit; one end of the strap has an eye for the heart, and the other an eye for the forelock which secures it. Reeve off the stay laniards.

On the Standing of Masts. Experiment proves that by raking masts forward, in a vessel of ordinary form, we increase the tendency to pitch, besides increasing the difficulty of trimming the yards on account of their confinement when by the wind. The vessel is given an increased readiness to wear, but with a corresponding indisposition for coming to, and an increased need of lee helm to keep her to the wind. In scudding, this disposition to fall off increases the danger of being brought by the lee.

When masts are stayed perpendicular to the keel, the wind acts in a horizontal direction on the sails, and the objectionable features of the preceding plan are avoided.

Finally, when masts rake aft, there is an increase in the after sail of the ship, a disposition to approach rather than recede from the wind, the tendency to pitch is obviated, and the difficulties of bracing due to forward staying are avoided.

The general custom is to stay the foremast plumb, or with a rake aft varying from 1/4 to 1 inch to the foot, the mainmast raking 1 1/4 inches to the foot, and the mizzen 1 1/2 inches to the foot.

Staying the Foremast. The foremast is stayed by means of a double purchase leading forward to the bowsprit, and two pendant tackles hooked to the forward legs of the pendants, the after pendant tackles being set up to eye-bolts well aft. Fig. 313.

With these purchases and the wedges eased up, the mast can be stayed either plumb or with a slight rake, as required. The amount of rake, if any, is determined by the constructor, and a plumb-line is made to plumb the deck at a distance from the after-part of the mast equal to the amount of the rake for the length of the plumb-line used. If the line is hung from the mast-head, seventy feet from the deck, a rake of half a inch to the foot should cause it to plumb the deck thirty-five inches from the after-part of the mast, &c. Lateral staying is effected by measurement with a small line, secured at the centre of the after-part of the mast-head and carried to the water-ways on either side in line with the after-part of the mast. Masts may also be stayed by the use of battens, as explained in Appendix D. Buckling a lower mast and getting it out of a vertical plane are by no means uncommon, and, in the absence of a practised eye, the suggestions in the Appendix will be found of value if at any time the rake of a lower mast requires altering. In

 

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such a case the preparations above described for staying must be made and the wedges knocked out.

The mast being in the right position, belay and rack the falls, put in the wedges for a full due; and put on the mast coat, which is used to keep the water from rotting the mast at the partners. It is made of heavy canvas and painted, and covers the heads of the wedges and the mast up to eighteen inches above the deck.

To set up the Lower Stays, Fig. 313. At a distance eight or ten feet up the stay clap on one block of a "stay luff" (double purchase), having canvas underneath to avoid chafe, and hook the other block into a strap on the stay laniard. Into the fall of the stay luff hook the lower block of a pendant tackle, and having got the stays taut, rack the laniards and proceed to set up the shrouds.

To set up the Shrouds. The laniards are fitted in the rigging-loft, having a laniard knot (a Mathew Walker knot showing two or three parts) cast into one end. This knot rests against the unscored hole in the upper deadeye, which is forward in the starboard shrouds and aft in the port shrouds. Reeve off the laniards through the upper and lower dead-eyes, the hauling end always coming up from the lower dead-eye.

Place canvas on the shroud about half-way up to avoid chafe, and tail the upper block of a rigging luff (gun tackle purchase) over it. Hook the lower block of the luff to a strap on the end of the laniard, and lead the fall of the luff up to the pendant tackles as in Fig. 315. The luff tails should be dogged on long so as not to nip the shroud.

Set up all the shrouds in this manner, a pair on each side at a time, racking the laniards. The rigging is left standing in this condition as long as circumstances may permit, to give it a chance of settling in its place, when, with the same purchases used before, the stays and then the shrouds are set up for a full due. The final setting up should not be given, if avoidable, during very wet or cold weather.

The rigging being set up for a full due, rack the laniards, seize on the sheer poles with a cross seizing to keep the dead-eyes from slueing (on account of the tendency to unlay in the shrouds), having a strip of tarred canvas or leather underneath to prevent chafe. Secure the ends of the laniards by hitching them around the strap of the upper dead-eye thimble above the sheer pole, as in Fig. 318, bringing the end down inside the other parts and securing it with three seizings. Remove the racking from the laniard to bring an equal strain on all parts. Finally, send down the rigging luffs.

In setting up the stays temporarily, one end of the laniard is spliced around the upper heart; take two or three turns through both hearts, set up and rack the laniard. When setting up for a full due, reeve off the remaining


Plate 55, Fig 315-317. Setting up lanyards.
 

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turns, set taut. cut the rackings and set up. Rack again with stout rackings; come up the tackles and pass riding turns of the laniard, heaving each turn taut in succession. Put several good seizings on the upper turns of the laniard, the end of the laniard being stopped in between the turns out of sight. The rackings are removed and only the seizings remain.

Fig. 317 shows a proposed form of dead-eye of metal. It is similar to the modern dead-eye of the British service.

Remarks on the tension given to rigging. It is of more value to have a moderate and equal strain on each shroud, rather than a great strain upon all the shrouds.

Much of the trouble experienced in former days with hemp lower rigging, by reason of stretching, is obviated by our present use of wire rope. But in placing the eyes of the shrouds over the mast-head, the permanent position of the eye may be lost sight of in the endeavor to complete the operation in as short a time as possible. The consequence is that the eyes of the rigging keep shifting their position on the mast-head for many months afterwards, producing slack rigging. It was suggested, after getting up the first pair of shrouds, to set up each two pairs separately at the time they are placed over, but this is seldom done. On the other hand, the beating down of the eye upon the mast-head should be carefully attended to, to insure a permanent and solid bearing.

With regard to the stays, particularly when the after-parts of the collars are not rested on supporting chocks, any settling of the eyes of the rigging causes the stay to settle also, but the slack shroud is much more likely to receive attention than the stay. The final result is a buckling of the mast at the partners, or else an attempt is made to overcome the increased rake by setting up the topmast stay, since the rake will be more apparent at the height of the topmast-head than at the lower mast-head. The consequence of hauling forward the head of the topmast, with. a comparatively slack lower stay, is to strain the head of the lower mast, owing to the leverage of the heel of the topmast and the play in the lower cap. Some officers will recollect at least one sloop-of-war in which the lower masthead was sprung in this way. The conclusion is, that no setting up even of the two after shrouds should be undertaken without an examination of the lower stay, which will probably be found to require a pull even more than the rigging.

A serious evil arises from setting up rigging too taut, which is particularly noticeable in small vessels.

Let the shrouds of a schooner be pulled up as taut as harpstrings, then the liability is that when she goes to sea she will lose her masts; for when she rolls, the shrouds, which we will further suppose to be half worn, and with

 

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little give, keep the mast-head to windward, while the tendency of the rest of the spar is to buckle to leeward, and this is particularly the case when reefed down.

To Rattle Down. Draw a line parallel to that of the vessel's sheer across the shroud-legs on both sides through the points where it is intended to seize on the lower ratlines, so that the latter may correspond with the line of the sheer-poles. If these marks are continued up to the trestle-trees at the proper distance (fourteen inches) apart, the work of rattling down can be carried on in several parts of the rigging at once, without referring constantly to the measuring stick.

Hook or shackle the futtock-shrouds* to the plates in the top and to the futtock band, and set them up, observing to have the points of the hooks inboard, so that bights of rope from aloft shall not catch over them. Girt or swifter the shrouds in by securing a piece of ratline stuff to the forward shroud, take it aft and around the next shroud and haul as taut as possible, drawing the two shrouds together. Repeat the operation with the next shroud, and so on to the after shroud, girting all in together, nippering each turn with a hitch. Place three or four swiftering lines in the rigging at equal distances apart. Lash oars or spars athwart the rigging, about four feet apart, for the men to stand on while at work.

The ratlines, Fig. 319, are usually of eighteen-thread stuff, fitted with a small spliced eye, thrust once and a half. This eye is seized on to the first shroud with marline, Figs. 320-321, or with a rope-yarn, twisted up and rubbed smooth, placing each ratline fourteen inches from the preceding one. A clove hitch is then formed outside around the next leg, put on so that the crossing of the hitch will lie with the lay of the rope, and the ratline hove taut, with a marline-spike. In this manner it is made to reach the last shroud, and then seized on as at the commencement; every fifth or sheer ratline being extended to the swifters and after shrouds, which, with these exceptions, are omitted when there is any great spread between the swifter and shroud next abaft, or between the after shroud and the one next forward of it.

The eye-seizing of the ratline must be passed so that the eye will lie in a horizontal plane, and with the strand first tucked uppermost (if the other part of the splice were uppermost it would form a pocket for water). Having spliced in the marline, pass it around the shroud through the eye of the ratline, back around the shroud, and so on as in Figs.

* At sea there is generally an ugly chafe between the lower and the futtock shrouds, to prevent which good iron scotchmen should be seized to the former. The practice has been to hook the upper ends of futtock shrouds to the straps of the lower dead-eyes of the topmast rigging, the strap having an eye in its lower end which passes through a futtock hole in the edge of the top.


Plate 56, Fig 318-321. Lanyards, and ratlines.
 

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320 and 321. In cutting a ratline, say starboard side, the stuff being thoroughfooted and stretched, take one end of the coil and carry it into the rigging at the height for the ratline. Hitch it to the after shroud, keeping end enough to reach to the forward one, clove-hitching loosely around each shroud from aft forward. If you have not end enough, render more through the loose hitches. When the forward shroud or swifter is reached, form the eye in the end of the ratline and seize it on, then work back toward the after shroud, tautening the clove-hitches. When the after-shroud is reached, you can mark the exact place for the after-eye, and cut the ratline at the proper place without waste. If in the port rigging, proceed in the same way, except that the temporary hitches are put on from forward aft, as riggers generally work from right to left when seizing on and hitching the ratline for a full due.

If the eye has been badly measured, and the ratline is just too long to be seized on, but not long enough to allow for turning in a new eye, heave turns in it with the lay of the stuff until shortened up, or if it is too short, a few turns may similarly be hove out. This is called an Irish splice.

Now come up the girts employed in swiftering in the shrouds, which tautens the rigging. After which, square any shroud ends which may have required turning in afresh, capping the ends. Send down the spars and blacken down.

In sparring down rigging the forward ends should be square with each other, the spare ends aft. In rigging of nine shrouds one man should clap on four ratlines in an hour.

The lower ratlines as far up as the ends of the shrouds, are now made of rod iron, to prevent getting out of shape when the rigging is manned previously to laying aloft.

The description of rattling down is given here as in its natural order under the head of lower rigging; but instead of rattling down at this stage of the work, riggers usually fit a few temporary ratlines for their own use in getting up and down from aloft, and postpone fitting the regular ratlines until after all the rigging, masts and yards are in place.

Topmasts. We suppose the ship to be in the stream, to show, while rigging, the methods adopted for getting the various spars on board.

Tow the topmast alongside with the head forward,* and parbuckle it on board. Then secure a large bull's-eye to the hounds on each side, in the same plane with the lower sheave hole; hitch the end of a hawser at the lower mast-

* It is recommended in all cases of getting spars on board while in the stream (where there is a tide-way), to tow them alongside in the reverse manner -a topmast, for example, with the heel forward, &c.; then by letting the foremost end be swept aft, by the current, during the operation of swaying it on board, there will be no necessity for a hauling-guy to rouse the heel forward against the tide.

 

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head, above the eyes of, the rigging, leading through the hole in the trestle-trees, and reeve the other end through one of the bull's-eyes on the topmast and the sheave-Hole; thence up through the opposite bull's-eye, and a block lashed at the mast-head, through the lubber's-hole, as in Fig. 322, Plate 57, leading it to the deck, and clapping on a pendant-tackle, or take the hawser to the capstan. With this purchase, sway the mast up and down the lowermast.* Should the topmast prove too long, the head must be swayed up outside the top rim; then open the deck-scuttle, and lower the mast, until clear of the top rim; sway it up, and point it through the trestle-trees and round-hole of lower cap. The latter is sent up "before all," with the girtlines, immediately after rigging the lowermast, by bending them on through the round-hole, and stopping them along to the after-part, Fig. 323, observing to keep the bolts uppermost, so that they do not come in contact with the top rim, &c., in the cap's passage aloft. When in the top, place it right side up over the square hole in the trestle-trees fair for pointing the topmast.

Now pass a stout strap through the fid-hole of the topmast, to which hook both the pendant-tackles; take off the bull's-eyes at the hounds and mast-head, unreeve the hawser, and prepare for shipping the CAP, which is done as follows:

To Ship the Lower Cap, Fig. 324. The topmast being pointed through the round hole of the cap, slue the cap as nearly fore and aft as the doublings of the mast will admit, with the square hole aft. Pass a secure lashing through the cap eye-bolts and over the topmast-head, and give the lashing as much drift as possible, for which purpose the head of the topmast should be several feet above the upper part of the cap. Now sway up on the pendant tackles until clear of the tenon of the lower mast, then slue the cap around, as it hangs in the lashing, until its square hole is fair with the tenon. If the lashing has not been given drift enough to permit of slueing the cap fair, the topmast itself must be slued by means of a long heaver thrust in the fid-hole and worked by guys from its ends. This ought not to be necessary. Send up the capshore (with a laniard attached, to secure it aloft) and lower away, beating down the cap into place, and tacking over a piece of sheet-lead as a protection from the weather.

To send up the Topmast Cross-Trees. Fig. 325, Plate 58. Cast off the lashings and sway the topmast-head a few feet above the cap. Lash a couple of stout burton-blocks to the tenon, send the falls down abaft for the cross-trees (placed on deck well abaft the mast). Secure the lower blocks to the after ends of the trestle-

* Supposing it to be the foremast.


Plate 57, Fig 322-324. Raising topmast and topcap.

Plate 58, Fig 325-328. Rigging crosstrees.
 

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trees on the upper side, and stop the standing parts along the forward ends, in the same manner as that resorted to in sending up the lower trestle-trees; having a guy from the mainmast-head (if the fore-topmast cross-trees), to keep them clear of the top in going aloft. Sway up on the burtons, bear off, cut the stops as necessary, and land them on the lower cap, where they should be securely lashed, having the forward part inclined upward, with the chock resting against the topmast. Cast off the burtons, remove the blocks from the tenon or-if girtlines are used to get the cross-trees aloft (as is sometimes done)-shift them at once to the after-horns, ready for the rigging; lower away on the pendant-tackles, until the cross-trees come fair over the mast-head, cutting them forward, or aft, as may be necessary.

To Rig Topmast. Now sway up on the pendant-tackles, and lodge the cross-trees on the hounds of the topmast, prying up the after-end, and beating them down in their places. Hook the top-blocks in the lower cap and reeve the top-pendants, by passing each pointed end through its respective block, and sheave in the heel of the topmast, and clinching it to the eye-bolts, then hook the top-tackles to straps on the other ends, and remove the fid-strap and pendant-tackles used in pointing the topmast. Send up and place the composition funnel (square) over the topmast, its lower edge resting on the trestle-trees and fitted with flanges to receive the bolsters, which are well protected with tarred parcelling. The gin-bar, if not sent up with the cross-trees must now be placed. It consists of a stout flat bar of iron placed across the top-mast and trestle-trees between the doublings of the mast, with links for the gin-blocks.

Send up next the burton pendants which shackle to bolts in the under side of the trestle-trees. Using girtlines from each after-horn of the cross-trees, and an eye girtline from the topmast tenon, proceed to get up the shrouds and stays in the following order, after the manner employed in getting up lower rigging, except that two pair, starboard and port shrouds, come up together.

First. Starboard and port shrouds, in pairs.
Second. Backstays.
Third. Fore-and-aft-stays and jib-stay, in one, the latter uppermost.

The ends of these shrouds and stays are allowed to hang down outside the top in their proper directions, on each side, forward, or aft as the case may be.

To Send up the Topmast Cap, Fig. 326. Shift the girtlines from the cross-trees to the topmast-head, lashing the blocks below the tenon; send down the ends for the topmast-cap, which is sent up from forward with the after-part uppermost, the ends of the girtlines hitched to

 

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the forward eye-bolts, and stopped down toward the after-part of the cap, similar to the mode of sending up lower trestle-trees. It is slipped into place on the tenon of the topmast-head by the men aloft, cutting the stops, as necessary.

The topmast cap may be shipped, with the assistance of the topgallant-mast, in a similar way to that followed in placing the lower cap, but the method given is much the easiest.

If the topmast is fidded, and topgallant-mast is not aloft, riggers frequently handle the topmast-cap as follows, particularly in stripping ship. A suitable small spar (studding-sail yard) is pointed through the round hole of the cap and the cap is securely lashed to the spar. The spar is controlled by two whips whose blocks are lashed to the masthead below the cap. The whip ends secure to the spar, one near its heel and the other a little below the cap and not in the same vertical plane as the first whip. By means of these whips the spar (and cap) can be lifted and slued as required.

Reeve the topmast-stays through the bees in the bowsprit, turn them around the thimbles of their hearts and clap luffs on them to steady the mast when fidding; reeve off also the laniards of the backstays, and tend the stays and backstays while the mast is being swayed aloft by the top-tackles and fidded. The topmast being fidded, reeve off the laniards of the topmast rigging and prepare to set up.

To Set up Topmast Rigging. Hook the lower blocks of a rigging luff to a strap on the laniard; tail the upper block to the shroud six or eight feet above the upper dead-eye, hook the top burton into the end of the luff. Having given the mast the proper stay, by means of the luffs on the topmast stays and backstays, set up the shrouds in a manner similar to that adopted in the case of lower rigging. Stays, backstays, and shrouds should all be first set up temporarily, and later for a full due, in the order named.

For light rigging a runner may be used instead of a rigging luff, in setting up, Fig. 316, the top-burton being hooked in the thimble of the runner. Avoid the use of catspaws in the laniards, unless the ends are long enough to admit of cutting off afterwards. The rigging being set up, lash on the sheer poles, secure the ends of the laniards and come up the rackings on them. Lash on the futtock staffs below the eyes of the topmast rigging and inside of the shrouds. These are of rod iron, well served and leathered in order not to chafe the topgallant rigging which passes over them in its course to the top. Seize the forward catharpin legs on each side to the forward shroud, and the after-ones abaft the mast to the after-shroud on the opposite side. The two catharpins thus cross abaft the mast

 

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and are seized together in the cross. General view of eyes of topmast rigging, Fig. 331.

When ready to rattle down, girt in, and proceed precisely as in rattling down lower rigging, but without omitting ratlines at any shroud.

Sometimes, after the lower and topmasts are rigged, a tarpaulin coat, fitting snugly, is placed over the eyes of the rigging, as a protection from weather. This answers very well, and if painted, does not detract from the neat appearance of the mast-head.

Jib-Boom. Being in the stream, bring the boom alongside with the head forward, and reeve a spare piece of rope (studding-sail halliards if at hand), through the sheave-holes in each end, a sufficient number of times, and make it fast. Overhaul down the main pendant-tackle, and hook it into a cuckold's neck formed in the bight of the span, having the boom to hang slightly heel heavy. Sway it up, bearing it clear of the ship's side - ease it inboard, and land it in the gangway; unreeve the span, and carry the boom forward, pointing it through the bowsprit-cap, and reeve the heel-rope, which is done as follows: Pass one end through a single block, hooked to an eye-bolt on one side of the bowsprit-cap; thence through the sheave in the heel, and clinch it to the other bolt, on the opposite side of the cap. Man the heel-rope, and rig the boom out, until the shoulders are just forward of the bowsprit end.* Put on the band if not already on. This band is fitted with eyes on each side and underneath for the jib-guys and martingale.

The foot-ropes are fitted with eyes in their outer ends which seize to the jib-guys close to the shackle on the band. The foot-ropes are then stopped out to the guys, that on the starboard side for a sufficient distance to keep it clear of the flying jib-boom. Turks-heads are worked on the foot-ropes at equal distances, to keep the men from slipping on account of the inclination, or steeve, of the boom. The inner ends of the foot-ropes are formed into eyes which are seized to the upper bolts in the bowsprit cap after the jib-boom has been rigged out. Thus fitted, the foot-ropes should be long enough to allow the men who go on the boom to stand with the lower parts of their breasts against it. Reeve the jibstay through the inner sheave-hole of the boom end. Sway the dolphin-striker to its place by means of a tackle from the bowsprit cap and a whip from the jib-boom end and hook it to its eye-bolt; shackle to it the lower end of the jib-martingale and the back-ropes. Fig. 333 shows jib-boom end, and Plate 51 general view of head-booms with detail of whisker and dolphin striker. Place the jib-guys

* In handling a large boom, it will be necessary to have a tackle from the fore-stay hooked to a strap on the head of the boom, to raise and guide it through the cap.

 

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over the whisker ends (see Whiskers) ship the wythe for the flying jib-boom; man the. heel-rope and rig out, placing the heel in the saddle and clamping it. Unreeve the heel-rope, set up the jib-guys, when ready, and the jib-martingale, the latter being set up by pulling on the back-ropes. Lastly, set up the jib-stay.

The jib-netting is made of ratline stuff, with 6-inch meshes, and laces to the guys and whiskers.

Whiskers are swayed on board with a tackle from the forward swifter. A whisker is got into place ready for rigging by means of a jigger from the fore-topmast stay, hooked to a strap about one-third the length of the whisker from its outer end, and another jigger from the bowsprit cap to its inner end. When far enough out the whisker is hooked to a bolt in the bees. When hooked, put on the jib guy, which is fitted with a neat eye to o over the whisker end, and then the whisker jumper. This jumper goes over the whisker with an eye, and sets up to the cutwater, or it may lead through a clump block on the cutwater to the ship's head where it is set up.

When the flying-jib-boom has been placed and rigged, the flying-jib-guys are rove through a hole in the whisker, or through a thimble strapped (with wire rope) to the whisker, outside of all, thimble on top. Jib and flying-jib guys set up to the bows, or cathead, with three scored hearts.

The whisker being rigged, slack the stay jiggers, which serve as lifts, and haul on the jib-guys to bring the whiskers athwartship. For detail of rigging on whisker, see Plate 51, Fig. 305, where standing part of forward guy is omitted to avoid confusion.

Topgallant Masts. Get the topgallant-mast on board by means of the mast rope. Hook the topgallant top-block to a bolt in the topmast cap, and reeve the mast rope first through the block, then through the thimble of a stout lizard, the tail of which is hitched in the royal sheave-hole; lastly, through the sheave in the heel, and cast an overhand knot in the end, or hitch it around the mast to its own part. When the topgallant mast is on board, and up and down forward of the lower mast, secure it there temporarily by a lashing around the head from the lower stay collar, passed clear of the mast rope; cast off the hitch in the end of the mast rope and carry the standing part aloft, hitching it to a bolt in the topmast cap, on the side opposite to where the block is hooked. Fig. 327. Set taut the mast rope, cast off the stop at the stay collar and sway the mast aloft, bending a tripping-line to a bolt in the heel to guy the mast clear on its passage up. Point the head of the royal-mast and sway it up three or four feet above the topmast cap, taking off the lizard, which is now of no further use. When the topsail yard is in its place, the gate, a broad iron


Plate 59, Fig 329-334. Standing rigging details.
 

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band across the forward part of the trestle-trees. hinged on one side, should be opened while the mast is being swayed aloft to enable it to pass up. The gate is closed as soon as the heel has cleared the topsail yard, and the swinging end secured with a pin.

Topgallant Rigging, &c. Lash a stout girt-line block to the topmast cap on each side, and send down the ends of the whips abaft all for the jack and funnel, fitted in one, Fig. 328. The rim of the funnel is rounded off to prevent chafe. A grommet fitted on the funnel acts as a bolster for the rigging. Land the funnel on the topmast cap, lash it temporarily, lower on the mast rope till the royal mast-head is about flush with the cap; cast off the girtline and place the funnel. Sway up again on the mast rope and point the royal mast-head well clear of the funnel. Then with the girtline from the cap, sway aloft and get over the stays and rigging in the following order:

First, Fore-topgallant stay.
Second, Flying-jib stay.
Third, Shrouds.
Fourth, Back stays.

The eyes of this rigging are made to fit the funnel exactly. Fig. 330.

A clump-block seized between the topgallant shrouds, below the eye, is for the topgallant lift. Pass the ends of the topgallant shrouds over the futtock staffs, and thence into the top, where they are to be set up with hearts. Do not clamp these shrouds into the horns of the cross-trees until swayed aloft, as it gives just so much more gear to overhaul. The mast can be steadied sufficiently, until fidded, by the fore and aft stay and back stays. Take the back stays to the channels, and reeve the fore and aft stay through its sheave in the jib-boom.

Royal Rigging. Send up by means of the girt-line at the topmast cap the royal band, with the rigging fitted upon it as described in the previous chapter. Place the band on the mast-head, Fig. 329, reeve the royal shrouds through the arms of the jack to the top, take the back stays to the channels and the fore and aft stay through its sheave in the flying-jib-boom, when the latter is ready for rigging out.

A small clump-block for the royal lift is seized in between the shroud and back stay, below the band.

Place the truck, with signal halliards rove and spindle and lightning conductor (copper wire) attached, man the mast rope and sway up the mast, overhauling well the royal shrouds, &c. When the mast is fidded and the flying-jib-boom is rigged out and clamped (see below), set up the stays, back stays and shrouds with jiggers, not forgetting to clamp the topgallant shrouds in the horns of the cross-trees before setting up.

 

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The Fore-Topgallant Stay reeves through the outer sheave in the jib-boom, the fore-royal through the hole in the flying-jib-boom, outside the sheave for the flying-jib stay.

The Jib and Flying-Jib Stay reeve through the inner sheaves or holes in their respective booms.

The Main Topgallant Stay reeves through a hole in the after-part of the fore-cap, setting up in the fore-top. During continued exercises in sending up and down topgallant-masts this stay is frequently led down to the deck, abaft the fore-mast.

The Main Royal Stay reeves now through the after chock of the fore-topmast cross-trees, so that if the foretopgallant-mast goes the main royal-mast is not in danger. In sending up topgallant-masts the main can be stayed without waiting for the fore. Sets up in the fore-top.

The Mizzen Topgallant Stay reeves over a small roller in the after-part of the main-cap. Sets up in the main-top.

The Mizzen Royal Stay leads through a sheave in the after chock of the main-topmast trestle-trees, and down into the main-top.

All these stays set up with hearts and laniards.

Flying-Jib-boom. Figs. 304 and 332. Sway it on board with a span, as directed for the jib-boom, and rest it on the head-rail ready for going out. Hang the heel by a slip rope from the fore-topmast stays, reeve off the heel rope through a block secured to the jib-guy, through the sheave in the heel of the boom, securing the end to the neck of the wythe. Pull out on the heel rope and point the end of the flying-jib-boom through the wythe, with the shoulders clear of the jib-boom end. Put on the head of the flying-jib-boom, the band (of iron) fitted with eyes for the flying-jib guys on each side, and one eye underneath for the flying martingale. Reeve the end of the flying martingale through a sheave in the end of the dolphin striker, and the guys through the holes (or thimbles) at the whisker-boom ends. Reeve also the flying-jib and fore-royal stays in their respective sheaves, and under the cleats on the dolphin striker. Seize the foot ropes to the shackles for the flying-jib guys, stopping them out a short distance to the guys, and seize the inner ends (when the boom is rigged out) to the jib guys. Rig out, taking off the slip rope from the fore-topmast stays, clamp the heel to the side of the cap, unreeve the heel rope. Set up the flying-jib martingale, then the fore and aft stays, lastly the royal back stays, shrouds, and flying-jib guys.

Observe that in staying all masts the stay is usually set up first and then the back-stays, if any, and lastly, the shrouds.

Topsail Yards. Having towed the yard off to the ship, say on the port side with the starboard yard-arm


Plate 60, Fig 335-336. Topsail yard raising and details.
 

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forward, lash a large single block at the topmast-head, into a strap sufficiently long to permit it to hang clear of the trestle-trees. Through this reeve a hawser down (outside of all), and bend it on to the slings of the yard, either stopping it to the forward (in this case starboard) quarter, with stout lashings, or use a lizard, and secure the ship's side from chafe by fenders and skids. Hook the port pendant tackle also to a strap on the after-quarter, and man it and the hawser (taken to the capstan), swaying the yard on board, which must be kept from canting aft against the mast by means of a purchase or guy leading from forward. Ease the lizard (or stops) as necessary, sway on the pendant tackle until clear of the ship's side, and lower away, landing the yard as you had it alongside (viz., with the starboard yard-arm forward), in the port gangway, on chocks, which should also be placed underneath the inner quarters, to keep the yard from becoming bowed in the slings through its own weight. Now cast off the hawser and tackle and prepare for rigging.

It is customary to place the fore-topsail-yard in the port gangway for rigging, and the main-topsail-yard in the starboard.

For detail of slings see Fig. 336, of yard-arm, 339.

Quarter Blocks are iron-strapped, with friction-rollers, shackled to bands on the quarters of the yard, underneath. In case of accident compelling the use of a rope strap, it should be single with lashing eyes. There should be separate bands and blocks for the clewlines, as shown in Fig. 336. If not, the quarter block is either double for the topgallant sheet and topsail clewline, or treble, if the topsail reef tackle leads under the yard.

Burton Straps. Iron bands a few feet inside of the yard-arms, with an eye in the upper part to which the top burton may be hooked.

Bolt for Bead-Earing, Fig. 372, Plate 71. A bolt on the forward side of the yard, just inside the shoulder and well up on the yard; or it may be an eye in the shoulder band.

Backer for Head-Earing, Fig. 372, Plate 71, is a broad piece of sennit nailed around the yard, inside and. clear of the topgallant sheet, and fitted with a thimble in its hanging end. The head of the topsail is hauled out by the turns of the head-earing taken through the bolt and held up on the yard by the turns taken through the backer, as will be described more fully under BENDING SAILS. For backer, see Fig. 372.

Jack Stays for bending are of rod iron, those for reefing, on the topsail yard, may be of wire rope, rove through staples abaft the bending jack-stay on the upper part of the yard, outer ends going over the yard-arm with eyes, the inner ends set up to each other in the slings by

 

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means of small eye-lashings. A rod iron jack-stay often replaces it. Fig. 372.

Foot Rope. These are of hemp, fitted with an eye going over the yard-arm. They are wormed and the splice served. The neck of the splice lies a little abaft the top of the yard, so as to be clear of the topgallant sheets. Foot-ropes are fitted rove through the stirrups, and the ends taken abaft the mast (when the yard is crossed), and secured to the opposite quarters on top, by means of an eye-lashing passed over the yard, round on the forward side, underneath, up, and back through the eye again, a sufficient number of times; after which two half hitches are taken around all parts to secure the end. This plan of fitting them is recommended, on account of the facility with which the men can get on and off the yard.

Instead of the eye the outer ends of foot-ropes may be fitted with hooks connecting to an eye-bolt on the after-side of the shoulder-band, or else as described under FLEMISH HORSES. Inner ends of foot-ropes omitted in Fig. 336 to avoid confusion.

Stirrups are fitted with an eye in the lower end (no thimble), through which the foot-rope reeves and to which it is seized. The upper ends, fitted with small eyes, are seized to the jack-stay staples.

Flemish Horses. These are spliced around a thimble on the pacific iron for that purpose, and the eye in the other end secured on top of the yard to the jack-stay, the length of the yardarm inside of the sheave hole, with a rose-seizing. These are foot-ropes for the yard-arm men when reefing, &c. It would be better, as is already done on some modern ships, to do away with the flemish horses by carrying out the foot-rope to the pacific iron, fitting the necessary extra stirrups.*

Tye Blocks are iron-strapped and connected by a bolt to a band around the slings of the yard; or, in case of two tyes, the tye-blocks shackle to bands fitted at the slings, at a distance apart equal to the diameter of the topmast. The bands are joined by a span, which is used for the purchase to hook in when sending the yard up and down. In case of an accident to the straps of tye-blocks, requiring them to be fitted with rope-straps, it is well to remember that two single straps are needed to make the block stand fair on the yard.

Parrel. A parrel fitted of wire rope is commonly used. This consists of a long and a short leg, leathered singly, marled together, and again leathered in the wake of

* The flemish horse was introduced when lifts and brace-block straps went over the yard-arm with eyes, and it enabled these to be removed or put on without coming up anything but the inboard lashing of the flemish horse. Now that all this gear is differently fitted, a separate outboard foot-rope is superfluous, and is going out of use.

 

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the mast, Fig. 336. Eyes are spliced into the ends of the two legs, and stout quarter seizings placed on both close to the eyes of the short leg. The long leg then passes around the quarter of the yard, half the diameter of the topmast from the centre, and secures to the short one by a rose-seizing on the upper after side. When the yard is crossed the remaining leg is passed on the opposite side and secured in the same manner. There are additional seizings through holes in the jaws to keep the parrel in place. In time these parrels will probably be replaced by an iron cylinder, sliding up and down the topmast, to which the topsail yard is secured by a truss similar to the one on the lower yard. This cylinder, or tub, keeps the yard well trussed to, and its lower edge is low enough to keep the yard off the cap.

Brace Blocks. Iron-strapped, with friction-rollers, and shackle to the after-bolts in the shoulder-band, block sheave standing up and down. In case of accident to the strap or bolt, use a grommet strap around the yard, single strap around the block, the two straps connected by lock thimbles.

Lifts are four-stranded, hemp, and blacked. Hook to the shoulder-band, reeve through lower sheave of a sister block seized in between the swifter and next shroud in the topmast rigging, just below the eyes, thence to the top, where they turn up through clump blocks. Set up with jiggers.

Jewel Blocks. Single, rope or iron-strapped, hook to the pacific iron with sister hooks. Not put in place until the studding sail gear is rove off.

Tyes. Flexible wire rope. The lower end has a thimble spliced in, to which hooks the fly-block. Passing through the mast-head gin-blocks, they reeve through the tye-block on the yard from out, in, thence up through the topmast trestle-trees, and made fast around the mast-head. The heel of the topgallant-mast is scored out on purpose to admit the tye.

Small ships have a single tye only, which in this case reeves through a sheave in the topmast, in stead of a gin-block. Bell's purchase (see TOPSAIL HALLIARDS) is used in connection with such tyes.

The length of the tyes should be such that the fly-blocks will be square with the lower cap when the yard is down.

See that the yard is fitted with boom irons, reefing cleats, saddles (inboard from sheave holes) for topgallant sheets, &c., and prepare for sending it aloft.*

Hook a stout double purchase from the topmast-head to the tye-band (or a strap) in the slings of the yard, Fig. 335.

* It may be noted here that the iron work, bands, &c., described in connection with the yard fittings are all in place, as a rule, before the yard is sent on board, and are enumerated only to complete the list of the fittings. In former times nearly all of the above described fittings were of rope.
9

 

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Coil the lifts on the quarters of the yard (stopping them to, the jack-stays), and reeve marrying-lines for the braces, observing to dip the starboard (or upper) one over the lower stay. Overhaul the top-burtons from aloft, and hook them to the yard-arms; as also a fore-and-aft tackle to the slings to keep the yard from chafing against the mast, as it goes up.

Man the purchase and walk away, taking through the slack of the starboard-burton, keeping control of the port (or lower) yard-arm, and placing a mat under it to prevent injury to the deck. As soon as the upper yard-arm is well up and clear of the lower stay, commence crossing by keeping to the slack of the fore-and-aft tackle, hauling on the lower burton and starboard brace. Reeve the lifts through the sister-blocks, and as the yard rises above the lower cap, square it; bring to and pass the parrel. Reeve the tyes, hook the fly-block with the halliards rove, and take the strain from the burtons and purchase, which may now be unhooked, and the latter sent down, together with the fore-and-aft tackle. Observe, lastly, to place a block of wood between the slings and lower cap, to keep the yard from bowing, in case the halliards should be slacked or let go; or, as sometimes practised in large ships, have a midship-lift fitted, of such a length as not to permit the yard to touch the cap.

N.B.-This routine supposes the yard to be lying in the port gangway, with the starboard yard-arm forward.

Lower Yards. Of the many methods suggested for getting a lower yard on board, the following may be selected as the safest and most seamanlike:

The yard is towed alongside, on the starboard side, with the port end forward. Top up the fish-boom, Fig. 337, by its topping lift T, the upper block being hooked at the futtock band. Swing the boom around to the starboard side with the usual forward and after guys. (For description of fish-davit, see GROUND TACKLE.) Should there be no sheave in the boom, as at A, lash a block at that point. Lash together two large single blocks, as at B and C. Reeve a pendant through A and B, securing the outboard end to the head of the boom, and take a turn with the other end of the pendant at the sheet bitts.

Through the block C reeve a hawser, make fast to the bight above C the lower block of a treble purchase from the topmast-head. The other end of the hawser is secured at the slings of the yard, and stopped along the port yard-arm to the pacific iron, with rope stops.

Protect the hammock rail where the yard is to be landed by blocking up in the netting above the level of the rail.

When ready, tow the after (starboard) yard-arm out from the ship, keep it end on to the vessel with a guy from forward. Walk away with the treble purchase, and as the


Plate 61, Fig 337-338. Getting yard aboard ship and truss bands.
 

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yard comes over the rail, cast off the stops in succession; the pendant easing the yard in to the mast. Use, in addition, a fore-and-aft tackle, and thwartship jiggers to assist in placing the yard across the nettings.*

Sling-bands. These are two stout iron bands going around the yard, each side of and near the centre, and connected by an iron span, to which the slings are attached by means of the slip-hook, or "pelican" hook. Plate 36.

There may be two additional bands, one en each side, for preventer slings, or for the jeer-blocks, if the latter shackle to the yard instead of lashing.

The Chain-slings are sent aloft by one of the top-burtons, and fit over the lower cap in a saddle for the purpose, or they may be fitted with two shackles that secure to the eyes of a crescent, bolted over the cap. A back-lashing abaft the mast, about one-third the doublings from the mast-head, keeps the strain on the slings in a vertical direction. Plate 36.

Truss-bands. Iron bands, outside the sling-bands, to which the arms of the truss are secured. sling-bands, also Fig. 338.

Backer and Staple for Head-earing. There is usually an eye in the shoulder-band for the head-earing. In its absence, a grommet strap of small rope is put on the yard-arm first, with a thimble seized in on top. Backer of rope plaited, fitted similar to the one on topsail yard.

Lifts, are four-stranded, hemp, blacked. In large ships they are rove as luffs, with the double block at the cap, and single block hooking to the shoulder-band. The standing part hooks to the breech of the yard-arm block, or to a bolt on the shoulder-band. In smaller vessels the lift is a gun-tackle purchase, the standing part hooking to the breech of the upper block. Lower lift blocks at the cap are of iron, the fore usually has additional sheaves (the after ones) for the lower boom topping lift.

The end of the lift on deck is turned up around a thimble, into which a double (or lighter) purchase is hooked.

Brace-blocks. Iron strapped, with friction-rollers, hook to shoulder-band, sheave up and down.

Quarter-Blocks for the topsail-sheets, are iron-strapped and shackle to the band, underneath the yard,

* For the main yard the fish-boom is taken aft and the heel secured in one of the jeer bolts forward of the mast. In the case from which this description is taken, the main-yard of the "Colorado" was the spar handled. There were no precautions necessary, except as above stated in protecting the netting. The ship was in port, at Hong Kong, the waistboats remained hoisted, and the gangway ladder shipped. The spar, 110 feet long and weighing nearly 10 tons, was landed on board inside of 20 minutes. Treble purchase 6-inch fall,; hawser 10-inch, pendant 4 1/2-inch hemp, stops on the yard and hawser 2 1/2-inch manilla. In the absence of the fish-boom, use any suitable spar as an outrigger.

 

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Plate 36. In case of accident to the strap or bolt, seize the quarter-block into a doubled grommet-strap with a round seizing, the bights being secured to the yard on top by a rose-seizing.

Clew-Garnet-Blocks, Plate 36, are iron-strapped with friction-rollers, and hook to a band around the yard, being forward and inside of the quarter-blocks. They should be fitted with a link or swivel. In case of accident requiring them to be rope-strapped, use single strap with lashing eyes, the latter seized together on top of the yard.

Quarter-Irons, Fig. 347 b, for the topmast-studding-sail-booms, are screwed to iron bands on the yard about two-thirds out, and are fitted to clamp and unclamp around the boom.

Boom Irons for the same spars are keyed to the ends of the pacific-irons, and fitted with a roller in the lower part. Fig. 334, also Fig. 347.

Burton Straps. Iron bands with eyes at top, fitted to the yard inside the sheave for topsail sheets.

Jackstays, both for bending and reefing, are of iron, the former with staples, the latter passing through eye-bolts on the yard above the bending jack-stay.

Foot Ropes. Fitted similar to those on the topsail yard; the outer end hooks to the shoulder-band, Fig. 334. The foot-ropes cross forward of the mast, each inner end secured to the opposite arm of the truss and seized to the arm on its own side. The two foot-ropes are seized together where they cross.

The necessary cleats, &c., having been attached to the yard, it is sent aloft by the jeers; should these not be available, use two pendant-tackles. In either case, hook both top-burtons to the burton-straps on the yard, and reeve and man the braces and lifts-the latter rove single until the yard is aloft. Keep the yard clear of the mast by a fore-and-aft tackle.

The jeers are two double (better treble) purchases, the upper blocks in small vessels being secured permanently to the chain slings aloft. (See JEER BLOCKS).

The lower blocks lash around the yard on either side of the slings; the upper blocks hang by long lashings or chain slings from the lower cap, over the forward part of the top rim.

Sway aloft, keeping control of the fore-and-aft tackle; when high enough key the truss, hook the slings, square the yard by the lifts and braces, unhook the jeers, bur-tons, &c.

The cross-jack yard differs somewhat in its fittings from the fore and main, as no sail is set upon it. The braces hook to a band well inside the shoulders, so that the brace (which leads forward) may clear the main topmast back-stays.


Plate 62, Fig 339-341. Running rigging details.
 

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The cross-jack yard is got on board by a purchase from the topmast head, and swayed aloft by the same purchase and the burtons.

The lower yard is sometimes taken first in order, in rigging ship, but by sending the topsail-yards up first, time may be saved.

Topgallant-Yards. The yard being alongside, sway it on board with the yard-rope, rove through the sheave-hole in the topgallant-masthead, hooking it to the slings, and stopping it down to the forward yard-arm.

The fittings are as follows, Figs. 340 and 341:

Slings. An iron band around the center of the yard, with a link for the hooks on the yard-rope.

Parrel. A grommet on each side of the slings fits around the yard and the jaws, a score being cut in the latter. Both grommets are leathered, and are seized to form eyes abaft, abreast the opening of the jaws. A third grommet strap, also leathered, is seized to one of the eyes, and, when the yard is crossed, passes around the mast, and lashes to the other eye. In port, exercising, a single lashing is substituted for the third grommet-strap. Instead of the first two grommets there might be eyes in the jaws, but these foul in sending the yard up and down, and are liable to get knocked out.

If the topgallant-yard is not provided with jaws the parrel is formed as above, or with a long and short grommet. The larger strap is long enough to go around the yard and meet the short one, being secured by a lashing of small stuff. Both straps leathered.

Quarter Blocks. These are double, iron-strapped, friction-rollers, and hook to a band on the yard.

Strap for the Lizard. A grommet strap slipped over the yard with a thimble seized in the bight, on top of the yard, the strap itself being a few feet from the slings, and called a quarter-strap. To prevent slipping this quarter-strap should be seized to the jackstay.

Backer and Cringle for Head-earing. Backer same as on top-sail yard. Instead of a head-earing staple, there is a small cringle worked into the eye of the foot-rope, clear of the royal sheet. Figs. 341, b.

Foot-Ropes, Fig. 341. Fitted with eyes to go over the yard-arms. At sea the inner ends generally cross abaft the mast (preventer parrel) and in port they cross forward of the mast. These inner ends are variously secured. They may be fitted with an eye, lashing to the yard with a flat-seizing, eye abaft and on top of the yard. Or, for convenience in shifting, these ends of the foot-ropes may be fitted, as in Fig. 340, with sister hooks to connect with the thimble of a strap on the quarters of the yard. Or, finally, if the neck of the eye-bolt for the quarter-block is long enough, the ends may hook there.

 

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Bending Jack Stay, of iron. There is no reefing jack-stay.

Lift, Fig. 341 a. Single, with a round eye, the splice of which is served. The eye goes over the yard-arm when swayed up for crossing. The lift is cut long enough to reach the top after reeving through the bull's-eye or clump-block between the topgallant shrouds. It is marled to the eye of the brace, so that both lift and brace go on and off together, the double eye being leathered.

The lift and brace may have their ends secured to eyes projecting from an iron ring which is leathered and goes over the yard-arm.

Braces. Fitted with an eye in the end, marled to the lift, or hooked into the iron ring above described. It may be single or a whip and pendant.

Snorters, Fig. 341 a, are in length a little less than half the yard, the outer end spliced into the thimble of an eye-bolt at the yard-arm; the inner end has an eye for the tripping-line, and is secured by a stop to the slings when not in use.

To Cross a Topgallant Yard, Fig. 342. The yard rope, having a lizard attached (overhauled down forward, and outside of all), is rove through a good-sized grommet passed over the upper yard-arm and hooked to the link in the sling-band, the lizard being rove through the upper quarter-strap thimble, and hitched to the one on the opposite quarter. Take the eye of the lower lift and brace in the topmast rigging, and that of the upper one to the opposite side of the topmast cap, and sway aloft. When the upper yard-arm rises within reach of the man on the topmast cap, take off the grommet, slip on the lifts and braces over the snorters, gathering up the slack of the lower one, and sway away until the slings of the yard are well above the topmast cap, take through the slack of the lower lift, then take a turn of the parrel-lashing abaft the mast, through the eye in the opposite strap, tend the lifts and braces, slack up the lizard, and "sway across," squaring the yard, and passing the parrel for a full due.

NOTE.-The outer ends of snorters are generally plaited like sennit, that they may lie flat, and permit the eye of the lift and brace to fit over snugly.

Royal Yards. The routine of rigging and crossing is precisely similar to that of the topgallant yards; the differences being that the quarter-blocks are single, there are no backers, and the foot-ropes never cross abaft the mast.

In many ships small hand grommets are worked around the jack-stays for the men to hold on by when at sea.


Plate 63, Fig 342. Raising topgallant yard.

Plate 64, Fig 343-346. Gaff and boom details.
 

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TRYSAIL-MASTS, GAFFS AND BOOMS.

These spars are usually swayed on board by means of the fore or main yard and stay tackles; purchases most frequently in use, and convenient at this stage of the equipment.

Trysail-Masts. The trysail-mast is shipped by means of a tackle hooked to a strap above the futtock-band, the head being pointed through a hole in the after-chock, and the heel (over which the hoops are passed) stepped in a socket or mortise, on the fife-rail, or on the deck. After which, the head is secured by a lashing through a B-cleat underneath the top, or with iron keys; copper having been put on in the wake of the gaff.

The spanker-mast may be fitted with an iron spindle m the heel, stepping into the heel-strap of the spanker-boom.

Gaffs. Figs. 343 and 344. The plan at present generally adopted in the service for trysail and spanker gaffs is to fit them with jaws and in connection with a trysail-mast, there being hoops on the gaff and trysail-mast for bending the sail. Gaffs may be seen in some vessels secured directly to the lower mast by means of eye-bolts within each other, like lock thimbles. Another plan is to have a scored batten secured on the after side of the mast in place of a trysail-mast, with metal slides furnished with bending loops sliding up and down in the groove of the batten. In this case the gaff attaches to a sliding chock, which also moves up and down in the score of the batten, "railway fashion," as it is termed.

The ordinary gaff first described may be fitted with a permanent span of wire rope or chain, from the shoulder band to the after part of the cap, and a similar throat pendant shackling to the upper part of the gaff between the jaws and to a bolt under the top; or, the span and throat pendant may be replaced by peak and throat halliards, sometimes rove in one, as described under running rigging. The blocks for these halliards are iron-strapped.

Vangs are fitted with a pendant that hooks into a band on the shoulder of the gaff.

The vang pendants having been hooked, the gaff is sent aloft by means of its halliards, or by a top burton hooked into a strap around the peak pendant and another tackle from under the top, shackling the pendants as soon as the gaff is aloft, and passing the jaw rope or parrel.

In view of the frequent use of trysail gaffs as derricks in raising weights through the hatches which they plumb, the gaffs and their fittings should be as substantial as possible.

A very important part of the fitting of a gaff is the saddle (a), Fig. 344, Plate 64. This consists of a block of wood, which bolts in between the jaws and is hollowed out

 

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to fit the mast. It facilitates the hoisting of the gaff, for at whatever angle it may be, the same smooth surface of the saddle is presented to the mast.

Saddles are particularly useful in small vessels where the gaff is frequently lowered and hoisted.

The spanker-gaff should always be fitted with throat and peak halliards to hoist and lower, as necessary; for otherwise it would be almost impossible to reef the sail. In brigantines and schooners it is not unfrequently the case that eye-bolts are attached to each side of the jaws, for preventer lashings in heavy weather; and a single block (grommet-strapped) is put over the gaff end for a down-haul; vangs being dispensed with as useless, on account of the sharp angle at which they act, in consequence of the height of the gaff.

Booms. That for the spanker is neatest if shipped with a goose-neck to an eye-bolt on the mizzen-mast, Fig. 345, and fitted with an iron band over the boom-end for the topping-lift and the guys, both of which connect to it with sister hooks. The sheet-blocks are best if strapped with rope-grommets, on account of the jerks and checks in jibbing, which render eye-bolts liable to snap and break at the neck. These blocks are fitted with clip-hooks if the eye is up and down. The foot-ropes hook into a band on the boom end, and seize to eyes on the sheet band. Fig. 346.

The topping-lifts (one on each side) are usually fitted with sister hooks in the end and hook to an iron band, about one-fifth of the extreme length of the boom from the outer end; while the running parts reeve through blocks at each side of the mizzen tressle-trees, and thence to the deck, where gun-tackle purchases are attached. In men-of-war of the smaller class, and in the merchant service, the topping-lift is not unfrequently single, and rove through the gaff-end, and a roller in the after-part of the mizzen-topmast tressle-trees; the end is turned up around a thimble into which a jigger is hooked.

On the main-boom of brigantines and schooners the topping-lift is usually fitted with the standing part secured at the mainmast-head by hooking in an eye-bolt of the wythe; while the lower end is spliced around a double block, in which a fall is rove, leading through a single one, and a sheave in the boom. In this class of vessels the clew of the sail shackles to a band around the boom. A heavy strap (which is cleated forward), with thimbles at each side, is put around the boom at the sheet-block for the boom-tackle pendant, which is fitted with a hook in the after-end and a thimble in the forward, and is used only in going large.

The boom is got in its place by means of the throat-halliards and topping-lift, assisted by guys and thwartship tackles, as requisite.

Studding-Sail Booms. That for the lower


Plate 65, Fig 347-352. Studding sail boom details.
 

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studding-sail is fitted with an iron goose-neck and key, which connects to a bolt in the forward part of the fore-channels, and is shipped either by means of the fore and main yard-tackles, or with tackles on the fore topmast back-stay and forward swifter of the fore-rigging. On the outer end, about two-thirds from the goose-neck, an iron band is fitted on the boom, having eye-bolts on the forward, upper, and after sides, for the topping-lift and the guy-blocks; mooring pendants with large thimbles in the lower ends for the boats, and a Jacob's ladder are hooked, when in port, to the boom. The eyes for the pendants are underneath the boom, and those for the Jacob's ladder are on the upper after side.

The topping-lift is of hemp, it hooks to the upper eyebolt in the band on the boom, reeves through a metal block hooked to an eye in the bolt which shackles the fore brace-block to the yard, thence through a block at the lower cap, usually the after sheave of the lift-block. The inboard end of the topping-lift is turned up around a thimble, into which a purchase is hooked.

The guy-blocks are iron-strapped and hook to the band.

When the boom is rigged out in port a life-line is seized to the topping-lift, about breast-high from the boom, with its inner end secured inboard in the chains, in line with the boom.

When the boom is not in use it is hauled alongside by the after-guy, and rests in cranes, shipped for the purpose in the waist, the topping-lift being unhooked and triced up out of the way.

The lower boom is so called at sea, and is known as the swinging-boom in port.

Topmast Studding-Sail Booms. Round, spruce, or yellow pine spars, unpainted excepting their projecting ends. The outer end is fitted with a permanent tack block, swivelled upon it, Fig. 347, and in line with the axis of the boom, or else there is an iron pin driven through the boom vertically, near its outer end, Fig. 348.

The inner end, or heel, has a deep score for a heel-lashing when the boom is rigged out. Outside of this score there are two holes bored in the boom, one up and down, and one fore and aft, Fig. 347. A grommet strap is worked through each hole, one having a thimble for the in-and-out jigger, and the other a thimble for the tricing-line.

The inner strap is fitted through the hole bored fore and aft, in line with the score. It is used for the boom tricing-line. Splice a heel-rope around the neck of this inner strap.

Unclamp the quarter iron, Fig. 347 b, on the yard, and prepare for sending the boom aloft.

Carry out a whip on the fore-yard, secure it well up on the fore-lift. Hook a clew-jigger from the lower cap to one of the grommets on the heel of the boom; the whip from the fore-yard is hitched to the boom far enough out to clear

 

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the quarter-iron, using the heel-lashing for a back-lashing. Have a guy from forward, sway away on whip and clew-jigger, keeping the outer end uppermost. Land the boom on the quarter-iron. Now sway up on the heel and point the boom fair through the boom-iron. The blocks for the lower studding-sail halliards and topmast studding-sail tack, when placed, go over with straps fitted to go neatly around the boom-end, and are kept from slipping in by the iron pin above referred to.

When the tack-block is a permanent one, with a swivel, the halliard-block hooks with sister-hooks to the neck of the swivel for the tack.

The above blocks are taken off in port, except the swivelling tack-block, which, when fitted, is a fixture.

Clamp the quarter-irons, hook the boom tricing-line, rig out to the square mark and take off the clew jigger and whip. Lastly, seize a hook horizontally on the yard, just inside the burton strap, with the point outboard, for the purpose of securing the boom, when setting the sail,* and shift the in-and-out jigger ready for use.

Top-gallant Studding-sail Booms, Fig. 349, are rigged nearly in the same manner, but have no halliard-block at the outer end, and the tricing-line goes directly through the inner hole in the boom (no grommet), with a Mathew Walker knot in the end. There is no quarter-iron; instead, a quarter-strap of rope may be fitted. This forms a figure eight around the yard and boom, seized where it crosses on the yard. One end is split to form two eyes. The other end has one eye (all eyes leathered), and the two ends are held together, when the boom is rigged out, by a toggle. The toggle is taken out as soon as the boom is rigged in, to be ready for tricing up. Fig. 350.

Instead of the rope quarter-strap, some ships use a rope jackstay, seized to the eye of the topsail lift, and set up to its opposite in the slings of the yard. In this case a becket is fitted in the heel of the boom, which toggles to a travelling bull's-eye on the jackstay.

The tricing-line leads from the top up through a single block seized to the forward swifter of the topmast rigging, close up to the eyes, thence down to the boom, where it is rove through a single block, and is then secured to the heel of the boom. When it is required to rig the boom out, the tricing-line is converted into an in-and-out jigger, thus:- The tricing-line is let go in the top, and the single block, through which it passes at the heel of the boom, is taken out on the yard, taking out the bight of the tricing-line with it, and hooks to a thimble on the yard.

The boom, when required for setting the sail, is secured

* The heel-lashing is passed over the hook, and back through the score in the boom, and two half-hitches taken with the end around all parts.

 

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by means of a lashing passed over a hook on the yard, like that for the topmast studding-sail boom, already mentioned.

The booms on the topsail-yard are usually sent up by the halliards, rove through a block, secured to the forward-swifter of the topmast rigging, the boom being slung in a span.

RUNNING RIGGING.

Besides enabling us to measure for and cut standing rigging, a fore-and-aft draft of the ship gives the length of all running rigging. To measure for main-topsail clew-lines, for example, supposing them to be double, take twice the distance from the clew of the main-topsail, Fig. 284, Plate 43, to the quarter-block on the topsail-yard, to which add the distance thence to the deck, plus end enough to lead out; double this to get the other clew-line and divide by six to reduce it to fathoms, and so for any other rope. One half of each upper yard should be represented as on the cap, in order to measure for lifts, &c.

When a rope leads direct and is not exposed to unnecessary friction, it is said to have a clear or a fair lead, an extremely desirable condition, and one too frequently neglected.

Rope supplied in coil has had turns hove in it in the coiling. To get these turns out, the rope must be "thorough-footed." To do this, if the rope is right-handed, lay the coil flat, with that end inside which goes around "with the sun" (to the right), now haul that end up through the coil and. coil it down, left-handed. Then dip the new upper end down through and coil again left-handed, and repeat a third time. The rope is then stretched, and the gear cut and rove off. First in importance may be mentioned:

BRACES.

Fore-Braces, Fig. 351. Hemp, left-handed, standing part of wire to extend forward of smoke-stack. Standing part hooks to eye-bolts in the bibbs or to the neck of the brace-block bolt at the bibbs, as in Fig. 351b, thence through blocks on the yard from up, down, back through other blocks on the outside of bibbs and down to sheaves in the fife-rail (usually from aft, forward).

Main-Braces. Standing part hooked into the bumpkins aft, or into an eye in the breech of the block, then through brace-blocks from down, up, back to others on the bumpkin (inside the standing parts) and through sheaves or leaders in the bulwarks.

On board large ships where there is much drift to the

 

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main-brace, it will be found very convenient to fit the standing part with a jigger, thus: Into the end of the brace splice a single block, and to the eye in the strap of the brace-block on the bumpkin, hook the double block of a jigger. Reeve the fall, the hauling part leading in through the bulwarks with the hauling part of the main-brace. After hauling the main-brace moderately taut in the usual way, a few hands on the jigger fall on the standing part will get the brace as taut as desirable.* Fig. 353.

It is usual to have a permanent timenoguy** leading from the mizzen rigging to the main-brace, the object being to keep the bight of the brace from fouling the quarter-davits while working ship.

The same has been found needful on board very long ships in the main rigging to avoid fouling the waist davits.

The timenoguy is seized to the standing part of the brace, the hauling part reeving through a thimble.

Cross-jack Braces. The standing parts hooked into the strap of a double block*** hooked to an eye-bolt on each side of the mainmast, in a line with the yard****-thence to the brace-blocks from down, up, and back to the inner sheaves of those on the mainmast.

Fore-topsail Braces. Standing parts fitted with eye-splices lashed together abaft the main topmast-head, laid along in the doublings of the collar of the main topmast-stay, and stopped down on each side to and below the crotch, to avoid chafe from the foot of the sail and brace blocks; thence forward and down through the brace-blocks to clump-blocks, seized to the main-stay, Fig. 351, at the fork. Thence through blocks at the bibbs to the main fife-rail. Lead there through sheaves, usually from forward, aft.

Main-topsail Braces. Standing part hooks to an iron traveller, which moves up and down the mizzen topmast to shift the strain lower down as it becomes greater (if the mizzen-topsail is reefed or taken in), thence to the yard and down to hanging blocks on the mizzen-mast, about half way between the top and the deck.

Mizzen-topsail Braces. The standing parts hook to the strap of a block at each side of the main cap; thence to the yard from down, up, back to the blocks, and so down through the lubber's-hole to the deck.

All the above braces are of hemp, left-handed.

Fore-top-gallant Braces are usually rove single, the standing parts going over the yard-arms with

* The same principle may he variously applied, as to a main-tack, the sheet of a schooner's lug foresail, &c.

** A timenoguy is any piece of rope placed to prevent rigging from chafing or fouling.

*** The outer sheave is for the mizzen top-bowline.

**** Otherwise, the angular action of the brace would cant the yard either up or down, and consequently slack one or the other of the mizzen-topsail leeches.


Plate 66, Fig 353. Main Brace of a First Rate.

Plate 67, Fig 354-358. Various purchases.
 

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the lifts, thence through span-blocks on the main-topmast-stay collar, and others, under the eyes of the topmast rigging-whips (the standing parts of which are secured to the deck) being attached to the ends, in large ships. The whip-blocks should be iron bound with swivel-eyes. Brace of hemp, whip manilla.

Main-top-gallant Braces. Vide preceding, and substitute mizzen for "main." Brace hemp, whip manilla.

Mizzen-top-gallant Braces. Through small blocks, underneath the main-topmast cross-trees, or seized to the main-topmast backstays. Brace single, manilla rope.

Fore-royal Braces are single (without whips), and rove like the top-gallant braces, except that they are taken to the main-top-gallant mast-head. The blocks are now generally made of metal, and hook to eyes in the funnel, or are seized to the top-gallant rigging.

Main-royal Braces. Same as fore-royal braces, except taken to mizzen-top-gallant mast-head.

Mizzen-royal Braces. Single. and through sheaves in the after-chock of the main-topmast cross-trees. All royal braces are of manilla rope.

Topmast Studding-sail-boom Braces may be either single, going over the boom-end with a running-eye and leading through a tail-block on the forward swifter of the main rigging; or double, with a pendant and whip leading to the main rigging.

Preventer Braces are fitted with a pendant and whip, the former going round the yard, hooking to its own part, and the latter led to the deck, well aft, when for bad weather. When rove for action, they are led forward.

HALLIARDS.

Topsail-Halliards. Where double tyes and gins are used, the standing part of the halliards is spliced to a single block (which is iron-strapped and fitted with a swivel), in the channels, on each side, and then rove through a double one hooked to a thimble in the end of its respective tye. A double purchase is used in heavy ships.*

* Bell's purchase, as usually fitted for the mizzen-topsail halliards. The tye used is single, of flexible wire, reeving through the sheave in the topmast. The four blocks are single (see Fig. 354); block A shackles into tye abaft the mast, blocks B and C are in the after part of the mizzen chains, one on each side of the ship; block D is at the height of the lower mast-head when the topsail-yard is on the cap, but close down to the leading block on deck when the yard is hoisted. The parts marked 1 and 2 are securely seized together at A. Power gained is as 7 to 1, friction not considered. Fig. 355 shows a similar purchase for heavier yards.

 

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Top-gallant Halliards; rove off on going to sea. The top-gallant yard ropes being rove in the jack-blocks, a "short yard rope" reeves through the sheave in the mast with sister-hooks in one end, hooking to the slings of the yard, and a thimble is then seized into the other end, for the top-gallant purchase. This is a tackle hooked into the lower trestle-trees, fall sent on deck. To unreeve the short yard rope on going into port, turn out the thimble.

The long yard rope is coiled down in the top, ready for use in sending down the yard if necessary.

Royal-Halliards are best, if fitted with a gun-tackle purchase, thus: The yard-rope, being rove in a leader on deck, is passed through a single block fitted with a strap having an eye, and toggled on abreast the top, as represented in Fig. 352, Plate 65. In the event, then, of having to send the yard down, it is only necessary to take off the, block, which will leave the yard-rope clear for running.

The strap of the block may be a temporary one and made of a selvagee and the yard-rope, Fig. 352 (a).

Throat-Halliards. If for a spanker or trysail, they usually consist of a purchase rove through double and single blocks; the former hooked to a bolt on the under side of the after lower chock, and the latter to a band and eye-bolt at the jaws of the gaff; the hauling part leading through the upper block from aft forward, to the deck. In brigantines and vessels with a boom-mainsail, both blocks are double,

Peak-Halliards. The best plan for peak-halliards is to reeve them as follows: Hook the standing part into the breech of the mast-head block (which is double), and reeve thence through the inner block of the gaff, from aft forward; then up through the port sheave of the mast-head block, out through the block at the gaff-end, from forward aft; and lastly, back to the sheave of the mast-head block.

The merit of this system will be apparent, if we consider that the hauling part, by being rove last, at the gaff-end, permits the peak to drop the instant the halliards are let go.

The standing part may be rove through the third sheave of the block (treble) at mast-head, and have a small single block spliced in the end, through which reeve a whip; this enables the peak to be pulled up taut. The latter plan is adopted by all large schooners and sloops, and is on the same principle as applying a purchase to the standing part of the main brace.

Storm-Staysail Halliards. The fore-storm staysail-stay, fitted of rope of the proper size, having in its upper end a stout iron toggle covered with leather, toggles into the crotch of the fore-stay. The lower end, after passing through the hanks of the sail, reeves through a stout bull's-eye strapped to the bowsprit, and sets up with a luff. The halliards are sometimes a luff, and sometimes a gun-tackle

 

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purchase. The lower block hooks to the head-cringle of the sail, the upper to an eye-bolt under the top, or to a strap around the collar of the fore-stay.

This gear is rove only on the probabilities of bad weather.

Jib arid Topmast-Staysail Halliards are rove through the upper sheave of iron fiddle-blocks, hooked to a bolt in each side of the topmast trestle-trees, thence through hanging blocks in the after-part of the trestle-trees, to keep them clear of the topsail tyes and lifts. The jib-halliards are double, and reeve through a block in the head of the sail, with the standing part half-hitched and lashed to the crotch of the stay collar. Halliards of manilla. The staysail-halliards are single, with sister-hooks to the head-cringle and a whip, the block of which comes just below the hanging block when the sail is taken in. Pendant hemp, whip manilla.

The lower sheaves of the fiddle-blocks serve for the topsail buntlines.

The jib-halliards should be led on the starboard side, and those for the staysail on the port-a rule which is self-evident, when we remember that the latter is set on the port topmast-stay. The method of fitting these halliards with whips, is not approved of by seamen generally, on account of the liability to tangle and get foul in hauling down the sail; and the obvious necessity of separating the parts widely from each other.

NOTE. Whenever a whip is used, as in the foregoing, it is well to use an iron-strapped swivel-block, splicing the pendant into the eye of the swivel, to avoid cable-laying.

Flying-Jib Halliards, manilla, are rove single, through a small iron fiddle-block hooked to an eye in the lower rim of the funnel (on the port side) under the eyes of the rigging, and connected to the head-cringle on the sail by means of sister-hooks. In large ships, however, they are sometimes rove double, and the standing part seized to the splice of the stay on the under side. The small iron fiddle-blocks are for flying-jib halliards, topgallant buntlines, and topgallant bunt-jigger.

All iron hanging blocks, like those above described for head halliards, as well as those for the topsail-tyes, are commonly known as "gin" blocks.

Gaff-topsail Halliards are single, and in barks and ships, are rove through a sheave in the topgallant mast-head, and attached to the yard with a fisherman's bend; or if the sail is triangular in shape, to the headcringle, with a sheet-bend. On board of schooners and hermaphrodite brigs, they are rove through a sheave in the topmast-head.

Lower Studding-Sail Halliards. The outer halliards reeve through the lower sheave of a fiddle-block, which is strapped with a long pendant, and hooks to

 

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a strap around the topmast-head above the eyes of the rigging; thence to the halliard-block at the end of the topmast studding-sail-boom, and attached to the yard with a fisherman's bend, or a studding-sail halliard-bend. The upper sheave of the fiddle-block is for the topmast studdingsail-boom topping-lift, when one is used. Or they are rove through a span lock on each side, which is secured with lashing-eyes above the topmast rigging, and forward of the shrouds, the hoisting part leading on deck through the cross-trees and the lubber's-hole. The inner halliards are usually formed out of the fore clew-jigger, hooked to the inner head-cringle of the sail and to the cap.

Topmast Studding-Sail Halliards are rove on each side through a single block hooked to the topmast cap; thence abaft the topsail-yard, through the jewel-block, and so to the deck, where they are attached to the central part of the studding-sail yard with a fisherman's or studding-sail halliard-bend.

By Plate 32, the halliard-block may hook to the link in the crescent on the topmast cap.

Topgallant Studding-Sail Halliards are rove on each side, through a single block (which is fitted with a rope-strap and tail), hitched above the eyes of the topgallant rigging; thence abaft, to the jewel-block, and so to the top, where they are bent to the studding-sail yard, in the same manner as the halliards previously mentioned, the hoisting part being sent down to the deck abaft, and clear of all.

The halliard-blocks at the mast-head are much neater when fitted with lashing-eyes.

All the studding-sail halliards are manilla.

SHEETS.

Fore and Main Sheets. The standing parts are connected to eye-bolts on the outside of the bulwarks with sister-hooks, just forward of the sheaves for the hauling parts; thence they are rove up through the blocks at the clews of the sail, and back, inboard through the bulwark sheaves. Hemp, tapered. Fig. 357.

Topsail Sheets. When double, as on board of first-rates, the standing parts are clinched around their own parts and go around the yard-arms outside of all, and thence rove from out in, through the sheet blocks to the yard sheaves, and the quarter-blocks in the slings; being led, lastly, to the bitts on deck, forward of the mast. If single, they are simply secured to the clew-cringle with hooks; but where chain is used, they are connected by small stout iron shackles.

Topsail sheets are usually hemp, Fig. 356.

 

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Topgallant and Royal Sheets are always single. The former hook to the clews of their respective sails, and the latter have a sennit eye, which fits over a toggle on the clew of the royal. Topgallant sheets reeve through the topsail-yards, to the after-sheaves* of the quarter-blocks, thence they are led through the lubber's hole to the deck. Royal sheets are rove in the same way, except through the sheaves and quarter-blocks of the topgallant yards, and thence through thimbles on the futtock-staffs of the topmast rigging (abreast of the second shrouds), to the top or deck, as may be preferred.

These sheets are of hemp.

Storm-Staysail Sheets are temporary purchases, and consist usually of stout luffs hooked (and moused) to the clew-cringles, and brought well aft, in order to form, as near as possible, a line with the foot of the sail. The hauling part should then lead from the forward-block, by which a greater purchase is obtained; although the reverse of this is advocated by many seamen, on account of the difficulty sometimes experienced in getting a turn with the belaying-end, in consequence of the flapping of the sail; but this objection will be entirely overcome, if the sheet be hauled aft, and the foot taut, before hoisting.

Trysail Sheets. The best plan for fitting these is to have a pendant attached to the clew of the sail for the sheet to hook into, as it saves the trouble of "lighting up" the blocks to hook and unhook in shifting the sheet, as in wearing ship, &c. The sheet is an ordinary luff and hooks well aft to an eye-bolt in the deck.

Jib wad Topmast-Staysail Sheets. Both of these are fitted with a hemp pendant and manilla gun-tackle purchase, as follows:

The pendant, which is wormed and served, shackles into the clew-iron, and has a single block spliced into the inboard end. The other block of the purchase hooks to an eyebolt in the deck. A third single block is often hooked into the deck abaft the purchase-block, as a leader for the hauling part.**

The deck blocks for the staysail sheets are forward of those for the jib.

The standing parts of these head sheets hook into beckets in the breech of the pendant block.

Flying-jib Sheets, may be single, but are generally

* In vessels where the quarter-blocks are threefold, the topgallant sheet is rove in the middle sheave.

** The position of the bolts and blocks (or sheaves) must be such, that the sheet, when taut, shall form a line at right angles with the luff of the sail-for otherwise, either the foot or the leech would become slack, and the jib thus be deprived of a great portion of its efficacy. Head sheets should have a cuckold's neck in the end to prevent unreeving, by accident, as in a squall.
10

 

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fitted with a pendant and whip, hemp and manilla. The pendant shackles or hooks into the clew-iron, the standing part of the whip secures to the whisker or to the head-rail, and the whip reeves through a block on the end of the pendant, a thimble on the whisker and in on the forecastle, forward of the stay-sail sheets.

The object of the pendant is to keep the weather whip-block to windward of the stay, if possible, and it is fitted accordingly, sometimes reeving, itself, through the thimble on the whisker, the whip coming inside of it.

Spanker Sheets, are rove in one with the guy. The standing parts are hooked to the shoulder-band, and rove to the (double) block in each quarter; thence through the sheet-blocks on the boom from forward aft, and back to the second sheaves of the double blocks.

Boom-mainsail Sheets. In small craft, as schooners, &c., a purchase of double-blocks, and working on a traveller, is used; but in larger vessels, two (attached by separate straps, and hooked to eye-bolts in each quarter) are employed to manage the boom-the hauling parts in either case leading from the upper block. This latter method is by far the better, as every one who has had to "jibe" a boom-mainsail, with a single sheet and crotch-ropes, in heavy weather, will bear witness to.

Gaff-topsail Sheets are formed of a single piece of rope, which is middled, and the bight passed through the clew-cringle of the sail; the ends being thrust also through the bight, are led down on each side of the gaff to a belaying cleat on the boom, near the jaws.

Studding-sail Sheets. Those for the lower studding-sail consist of a single piece of rope, passed through the inner clew-cringle like those for the gaff-topsail (or the two parts may be seized together), and in setting the sail, one sheet is rove from forward aft, through a thimble or block on the goose-neck, in order to bring the clew close down to the boom, and the other led inboard over the hammock-rail, on the forecastle, by which to haul on board the sail, when taking it in.

In fitting a topmast studding-sail, two sheets are also required, which are attached to the clew in the same manner as those for the lower studding-sail. One (called the short sheet), being passed forward of the topsail, and aft through a thimble (seized to the jack-stay or quarter-iron) on the outer quarter of the lower yard, into the top, where it is belayed to a cleat; and the other, or deck-sheet, being led to the forecastle, forward of the yard. The sheets and down-haul are always made up with the sail.

The top-gallant studding-sail sheet is simply spliced into the clew of the sail (having parcelling on it for two or three feet below, to avoid chafe from the foot-rope of the topsail-yard), and led into the top, where it is hitched around the

 

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forward-swifter, or it may be led on deck, where it may be made of much service when taking the sail in, in a fresh breeze. The above sheets are manilla.

TACKS.

Fore and Main Tacks are hemp, tapered, rove double, Fig. 357 (except now and then on board of small vessels, where they are single). The standing part, which is wormed and served for a fathom or so from the end (as a protection from wet), is hooked to the bumpkin* and rove through the tack-block at the clew of the sail-then back through a leading-block inside of the standing part, and a hole in the bulwarks.

Studding-sail Tacks, manilla, hook to the tacks of their respective sails, and are rove from in out, through the blocks at the boom-ends. That for the topmast studding-sail is led aft, through a tail-block on the forward-swifter of the main-rigging; and the tack of the top-gallant studding-sail, through a leader tailed around the dead-eye of the after topmast shroud.

The top-gallant studding-sail tack is bent, not hooked.

NOTE. The double block in the main rigging for the tack and boom-brace should not be tailed to the shrouds, as it hauls them out of line and stretches them unduly. It should rather hook to the eye of a long pendant, which hooks far enough aft in the main-chains to form a line with the tack, and passes through a lizard at the proper place in the main rigging.

Spanker and Boom-mainsail Tack (Lashings), are passed through the cringle (into which they are spliced), and an eye-bolt on the upper side of the boom.

The spanker-tack lashing is more frequently passed around the spindle of the spanker-mast step.

Trysail-tack Lashings are passed around the foot of the trysail mast, on a line with the foot of the sail, or through an eye-bolt in the after part of the fife-rail.

Where the trysail is fitted "railway-fashion," the lower end of the grooved batten has a chock to keep the sliding hanks in. This chock has an eye for the tack lashings.

NOTE. In laying-to, in a small vessel, under a balanced-reefed (boom) mainsail, the tack of the sail should be lashed up to the jaws of the gaff, and the whole hoisted several feet up the mast by means of the throat-halliards. In this way the sail is elevated to the wind above the waves, and

* The main tack hooks to a bolt and block in each of the waterways, or deck, forward of the gangway, being rove like the fore, through the block on the clew of the sail, standing part forward.

 

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in the event of being boarded by a quarter sea, it cannot lodge in the belly of the sail, but will pass between it and the boom.

Tacks of Head Sails. All head sails have a cringle in the tack with an iron thimble. To secure the jib tack there is a bail, Fig. 333, or horse-shoe of iron, spanning the upper part of the jib-boom, inside the stay. The two ends of the bail have eyes, through which passes. the pin for the sheave of the jib-stay. On this bail are sister-hooks, which hook into the tack thimble.

The flying-jib tack is fitted in precisely the same way, the bail being held in its place by the pin of the sheave for the flying-jib stay. Fig. 332.

Both bails have projecting eyes, well down, for the down-haul blocks.

For the staysail is fitted a long strap, with sister-hooks in the upper end. The strap is seized to the topmast-stay. and has drift enough for the foot of the staysail to clear the heel of the jib-boom. The hooks in the strap hook into the staysail tack thimble.

This does away with the necessity of tack lashings.

CLEWLINES.

Clew-Garnets are used only on the courses. Lead from the deck to the clew-garnet block under the yard from in out, through the clew block in the sail, standing part taken between the head of the sail and the yard, and made fast to the arm of the truss.

Topsail Clewlines. For small ships may be single, or single with a whip. For large vessels rove as follows: From the deck through the forward sheave of the quarter-block on the topsail-yard, thence through the clew-line block on the sail, the standing part taken up between the head of the sail and the yard, and made fast to the neck of the tye-block.

It would be far better to have a separate block in the quarter of the yard for the clewline, the same as is fitted for clew-garnets. This enables the clewline to be unhooked and shifted to the cap (as is often done) without interfering with the topgallant sheets. Moreover, such a block has enough play to give a fairer lead to the clewline when the sail is bellied out by a strong breeze, and the sail is always hauled up snugger. Fig. 336 shows such a block, fitted.

Topgallant and Royal Clewlines, are both single, are bent to the clews of the sails, and rove through the quarter-blocks of their respective yards, and thence to the deck by way of the lubber's-hole. Topgallant clewlines rove double in large ships, standing part secured to the neck of the quarter-block.

 

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Lower Studding-sail Clewlines, are simply bent to the clews and reeve abaft the sail, through small single blocks on the inner end of each lower studding-sail yard, and thence are led inboard to a tail-block on the forward swifter in wake of the futtock rigging. This clew-line becomes the gear tricing-line when the sail is in. The clewlines are frequently led through a glut in the belly of the sail.

Fore and Main Clew-jiggers. Each consists of a gun-tackle purchase, hooked to the clews of the courses forward and to eye-bolts underneath the forward part of the tops. In furling sails, they are found very useful for rousing the clews and leeches up forward of the yard; while they also serve the purpose of inner halliards for the lower studding-sails, and are often employed as yard-arm jiggers in bending or as reef-tackles in reefing.

Topsail clew-jiggers. Like those for the courses. They are found very convenient in taking the clews well up above, and forward of the yard, greatly facilitating the operation of furling. Upper block hooks under the topmast trestle-trees, or to a strap fitted around the forward cross-tree, close in.

The lower blocks of clew-jiggers are secret and fitted with a pendant and sister-hooks. All clew-jiggers should be long enough to reach to the deck.

Fore and Main Buntlines. Usually rove double (i.e., with two legs on each side), a double block hooked under the top and a swivel-block are used in reeving off each pair of legs. The swivel-block resembles a fiddle-block in appearance, except that both shells are of equal size, and their ends connected by a swivel.

Reeve the standing part of the buntline through the upper sheave of its swivel-block, then take both ends of the standing parts through the sheaves of the block under the top, from aft forward, and toggle these ends, which are fitted with eyes, to toggles on the foot of the sail.

Through the lower sheave of the swivel-block is rove a whip, standing part made fast on deck, hauling part led through a sheave in the fife-rail.

Where there is but little drift between the top and the yard for the buntlines (and leechlines) there are fitted instead of blocks under the top a pair of double blocks on each side, hanging by the legs of a short pendant from a bolt in the forward part of the lower cap; sister-hooks in the bight of the pendant hooking to the bolt. The inside double block is for the buntlines, the outboard one is for the leechlines. Fig. 358.

Topsail Buntlines are single, and rove through the lower sheaves of fiddle-blocks* under the eyes of the

* Upper sheaves of fiddle-blocks at the fore for the jib and fore-topmast stay-sail halliards. At the main and mizzen for topsail bunt jigger and main and mizzen topmast staysail halliards, when rove.

 

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topmast rigging, thence forward through the thimbles of lizards hitched around the neck of the tye-blocks and down to the foot-rope of the sail, to which they toggle-the hauling part leading to the deck through the lubber's-hole. They should be cut long enough to land the topsail on deck.

Topgallant Buntlines lead through the blocks under the eyes of the topgallant rigging and toggle to the foot of the sail, the hauling parts leading on deck.

They are sometimes fitted with two legs, one toggled to the foot, the other to the leech of the sail, so that when the sail is taken in, the leech is brought along the yard ready for furling.

Topgallant buntlines have lizards at the slings the same as topsail buntlines.

In small vessels there is but one buntline. It is spliced around a span, both ends of which are toggled to the foot of the sail.

BOWLINES.

Fore Bowlines. A single rope; the standing part made fast to the breech of a single block, hooked to a span between the fore-stays; the hauling end rove through the bull's-eye hung from the bowline bridle, back through the block at the stay. In tacking, &c., let go the hauling end, and re-reeve when on the other tack.

Main Bowlines consist of a whip and runner the latter reeving through the thimble in the bridle, and belayed to the fore fife-rail; and the former passing through a block in the end of the runner, led well forward-the standing part of the whip being secured to an eye-bolt at the fore fife-rail, and the reeving end over a pin.

In tacking, when it is required to let go the main bowline the standing part of the runner is cast off, and the whole shifted to the opposite side, ready for reeving.

Top-Bowlines. The fore toggle to the bridles, and lead forward through blocks hooked to the bees and back, inboard, to the forecastle. The main reeve through single blocks, connected to bolts in the after rim of the fore-top, and thence to the deck; and the mizzen, through the outer sheaves of the cross-jack brace-blocks on the main-mast.

DOWN-HAULS.

Jib and Flying-Jib Down-hauls, are each

 

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bent to the head cringle of their respective sails, and after being rove through a few of the upper hanks, and a single block hooked to the bail (see TACKS) are led inboard. Jib down-haul port side, flying-jib starboard side.

Should the bail carry away, both the tack and down-haul blocks would be adrift; it is therefore safer to seize the blocks to their respective guys.

Topmast Staysail Down-haul. Rove same as above, comes inboard on the port side, down-haul block seized to the stay, or an eye-bolt in the bees.

Studding-sail Down-hauls. That for the topmast studding-sail is bent to the outer end of the yardarm and rove thence through a thimble on the leech, to the down-haul block at the tack, leading on deck, forward of the foresail, across the forecastle to the opposite side. That for the topgallant studding-sail is merely bent to the inner yard-arm of the sail, and led abaft all to the top.

Gail-topsail Down-haul (and Clewline) is led from the after clew of the sail (to which it is bent), through a single block at the head of the sail and thence through the hanks on the mast down to the deck.

OUT-HAULS.

Spanker Out-haul. Hooks to an eye in the shoulder-band on the boom, reeves through a block on the clew of the sail and through the sheave in the boom, belaying to a cleat on the boom.

Peak Out-haul consists of a whip and pendant. The latter is bent to the peak of the sail, rove through the sheave in the gaff, and at a distance equal to the length of the gaff, has a single block turned in, through which the whip is rove. The standing part of the whip is made fast under the top, the running part leads through a single block and thence on deck.

Lower Studding-sail Out-haul is connected by sister-hooks to the outer clew of the sail, and led through a single block (hooked to the boom with clip hooks) to a sheave above that for the guy in the bulwarks.

Gaff-topsail Out-haul is hitched to the clew of the sail, and rove through a sheave at the gaff-end, down to the deck, where it is belayed to a cleat on the boom.

Trysail Out-hauls. They are always single, and attached to the outer head-cringle of the sail, being rove through a sheave in the gaff-end to a leader hooked under the top, and having a whip, which is led thence to the deck.

 

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REEF TACKLES.

Topsail reef-tackles reeve up through the lubber's-hole, through the upper sheave of a sister-block in the eyes of the topmast rigging (or better, through a single block at the topmast cap), thence through a sheave in the topsail yardarm and a secret block on the leech of the topsail. The end of the standing part secures around the pacific-iron.

Sometimes the reef-tackles are fitted thus: The standing part is spliced to the strap of a bloc] shackled to the leech of the sail, below the close-reef bald, thence led upward through the forward sheave of a double block on the yardarm outside of all, down through the block on the leech, up to the remaining sheave of the double block, and so to the after sheave of the quarter-block, and lastly, through the lubber's-hole to the deck. In this case the quarter-block is three-fold, if there is no special block for the clewline.

Fore and Main Reef-pendants are hooked to the cringle and rove through a single block with lashing eyes, fitted to the yard just outside the lift. There is a thimble in the other end to which hooks the lower block of the clew-jigger, upper block being hooked at the cap.

Instead of these pendants regular lower reef-tackles are being fitted. These consist of a gun-tackle purchase, the lower block hooked to the reef-cringle, upper block to an eye-bolt on the under forward part of the yard-arm. The hauling end leads to the deck through a block seized to the arm of the truss. These reef-tackles are cut long enough for yard-arm jiggers in bending sail.

LEECH-LINES.

These are confined to the courses and are clinched to the leech-outer one about one-third down from the head-earing cringle, and the inner one about two-thirds-and thence rove up through leading blocks on the bending jack-stay* to the inner and outer sheaves (respectively) of a double block hooked under the top, the hauling part of the leech-line reeving through fair leaders on the lower rigging to the side rack, on deck.

See also lead described under BUNTLINES. Fig. 358.

* These blocks should be so placed that the leech of the sails will be taut along the yard when hauled up, and fitted with straps, which permit them to bang about a foot below the yard-a plan obviating the necessity of attending the leech-lines in bracing up. The hauling parts of the leech-lines, after passing through the double block are often rove through a large thimble or hank tailed to the lower part of the forward futtock-shroud. This keeps them from being jammed between the yard and the rigging when braced up.

 

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NOTE. In large ships they are sometimes temporarily rove on the topsail-yards (through tail-blocks on the forward swifters) for furling sails, where the leeches are heavy.

BRAILS.

Spanker and Trysail Brails are middled, and the bights secured to their respective eyelet holes on the leech of the sail by cross-seizings, the ends rove through single blocks seized to the hanks on the trysail-mast.

In addition to the brails there is a down-haul for hauling the head of the sail down on the gaff, rove through a block hooked in the jaws of the gaff. On the opposite side, through a similar block, is rove a clew rope for taking the clew up toward the throat.

A Slab Line is sometimes used on the foresail. It is rove through a tail-block secured to the slings of the yard, abaft, and hanging down clear of the yard. The end is taken down abaft the sail and spliced around a span fitted with eyes, which toggle to the inner buntline toggles.

GUYS.

Lower Boom Guys. When double, the standing part of the forward one has an eye, seizing to the jib-guy just forward of the whisker, seizing to cross at every turn to make the eye lay flat. Rove thence through a single block on the boom, and back to a block with clip hooks at the bees, the hauling part leading inboard to the forecastle. When single, they connect to the boom by sister-hooks, and the block at the boom is omitted. The after guys are rove in the same manner, except abaft, to a bolt in the side and a sheave in the chess-tree, just forward of the gangway,

Spanker-boom Guys. Vide SHEETS.

BUNT-JIGGERS.

Bunt-jiggers are used for the topsails, courses and sometimes topgallant-sails. Courses and topgallant sails have single bunt-jiggers (or bunt-whips), topsails, a whip and pendant. The topsail bunt-jigger pendant for the fore leads through a single block lashed to the topmast-stay collar, close in to the trestle-tree. For the main and mizzen through the starboard and port upper sheaves, respectively, of the fiddle-blocks at the mast-heads. From the block the bunt-jigger leads down forward of the topsail, under the

 

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foot, and hooks to the upper glut. The after end of the pendant has a single block (an iron-bound swivel) spliced in and a whip rove, abaft all, to the deck.

The bunt-jiggers of the courses lead in the same way, through a single block under the top. Rove single.

Topgallant bunt-jiggers lead in a similar way through a small iron block at the topgallant mast-head, and into the top.

In many vessels topsail bunt-jiggers* are led through a single block hooked to the eye-bolt in the heel of the topgallant-mast. This gives a better lead. When sending the mast up and down, the block is transferred to a small strap on the collar of the topmast-stay.

CHANGES IN THE LEAD OF RUNNING RIGGING.

The above list comprises the principal running rigging of men-of-war, together with the leads usually adopted. It sometimes happens that the lead of the gear on deck is modified for special reasons. For instance, in vessels with little quarter-deck space, the hauling part of the fore-brace is often led aft, and that of the fore-topsail brace, forward. The object is to have the foretopmen nearer to their own parts of the ship when bracing in to reef, and to keep them out of the way of the men on the main-topsail brace.

Lead of Gear about the Smoke-Stack. In making long passages under steam against a prevailing contrary wind, it is not unfrequent to see the lead of gear in the neighborhood of the smoke-stack, temporarily altered for the preservation of the rope. The hauling part of the fore topsail-brace and both parts of the fore-brace are brought down; the standing part of the fore-brace being hooked to a band on the mainmast ten or twelve feet above the deck, or to a launch's davit, if waist launches are carried.

Main-topsail-sheets are unrove from the quarter-blocks; gear about the mainmast is hauled up and covered with tarpaulins. All this takes little time to do, and in the event of a favoring slant, the gear can be readily rove off for making sail. The head braces have a fair lead when shifted as above described, and if a favoring breeze freshens, or seems likely to hold, preventer braces can be clapped on, and the regular ones shifted to their proper places aloft without shortening sail.

Temporary changes similar to the above are unobjectionable, in so far as they affect the lead aloft. But care

* The term bunt-jigger is preferred by many officers to the more correct word, bunt-whip. The latter is likely to cause confusion in hailing the men aloft, from the similarity of its sound to bunt-line.

 

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should be taken not to alter leads about the deck except for good cause. So much of the handling of gear is done in the dark that the men may be confused, perhaps at a critical moment, if the position of any running rigging is frequently varied from that sanctioned by well-established custom.
 

CHAPTER X.

SAILS.

CANVAS is made of hemp, flax and cotton.

All canvas used in the navy for sails is flaxen, made in cloths of eighty yards in length, and in breadth of twenty inches. These cloths are rolled up in separate packages, called bolts. The stoutest canvas is No. 1; from this number it increases in fineness, and diminishes in strength, to No. 9 (see table in Appendix E).

In selecting canvas for sails, considerable practice and close observation are required. Besides the method detailed in the table of canvas, above mentioned, a good test is to bore a fid through the canvas, when, if bad, the threads are easily broken.

It is of importance that canvas should have a good and even selvage, and be free from tightness.

There is a great deal of difference in the stretching of canvas-that which is badly struck stretching most.

The principal sails of a ship are-the courses, or sails on the lower yards; the topsails, which are next in order above the courses, and the top-gallant sails, which are extended above the topsails.

For sails, see Plate 3, and corresponding reference numbers.

In all quadrilateral sails, the upper edge is called the head; the sides are called the leeches; and the bottom, or lower edge, is termed the foot. If the head is parallel to the foot, the lower corners are denominated clews, and the upper corners head-earing cringles.

In all triangular sails, and in those four-sided sails wherein the head is not parallel to the foot, the foremost corner at the foot is called the tack, and the after lower corner the clew; the forward corner of the head the nock, the after corner the peak, or head. The foremost edge (or side) is called the fore-leech, or luff, and the aftermost edge the after-leech.

Stay Sails. These are extended upon stays between the masts, taking their names from the stay on which they set. Those used in the navy are the fore-top-mast staysail, main-topmast and main-topgallant staysail and mizzen topmast staysail.

Studding Sails are set out beyond the leeches of

 

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the foresail, topsail and topgallant sail, also beyond the main-topsail and topgallant sail, being known as the lower, topmast and topgallant studding-sails. Their upper edges are extended by studding-sail yards, the lower edges by booms rigged out beyond the extremities of the ship's yards. These sails are used only in favorable winds and moderate weather.

Additional Sails. Above the royals may be set sails called moonsails, sky-scrapers, &c. In the navy nothing is set above royals. In the merchant service rarely anything above a skysail. The sails usually set forward of the foremast are the fore-topmast staysail, jib and flying-jib. Some vessels carry outer-jibs, jib-of-jibs, or jib-topsails.

Storm-Sails are made of the strongest canvas, and are used, as the name indicates, only in the heaviest weather.

These consist of the fore, main and mizzen storm stay-sails and the "storm-mizzen." The storm-staysails set on the respective lower-stays, or better, on a temporary storm-stay, toggled in the collar of the lower stay.

The storm mizzen is a triangular sail set abaft the mizzen-mast on a vertical "stay," hooked under the after trestle-tree, and set up on deck.

The fore and main trysails are also used in bad weather and frequently take the place of the main and mizzen storm-staysails.

The term light sails is generally understood in the service to apply to the topgallant sails, royals, flying-jib, and studding-sails.

Jibs are of great command with any side wind, but especially when the ship is close-hauled, or has the wind abeam; and their effect in casting the ship, or turning her head to leeward, is very powerful, and of great utility.

Although the yards on the foremast are termed head-yards, yet the fore-topmast-staysail and the jibs alone are known as the head-sails.

The after-sails, which are those that belong to the mainmast and mizzenmast, keep the ship to the wind; on which account ships sailing on a wind require a head-sail and an after-sail-one to counteract the other, so that the spanker being at one end of the lever, as it were, and the jibs at the other, they are of great assistance in steering and working a ship.

When a ship sails with a side wind, the clews of the fore and main courses are fastened by a tack and sheet, the tack being to windward and the sheet to leeward. The tack is, however, not in use with the wind aft, whereas the sail is never spread without the assistance of one or both of the sheets.

When on a wind, ships are said to have their starboard

 

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(or port) tacks aboard, according to the side presented to the wind.

On the other hand, schooners have their port (or starboard) sheets aft.

When speaking of topsails, or such sails as are set by halliards, the altitude is termed the hoist, thus one topsail is said to have "more or less hoist" than another.

When speaking of courses the same idea is conveyed by the word drop, as one mainsail has "more or less drop" than another.

It is under the topsails that many important evolutions are made, and they are justly accounted the principal sails in a ship.

The draft of the ship and spars, Fig. 284, Plate 43, is of great service to the sail-maker, as well as to the boatswain, for by it he can measure for and cut out a suit of sails.

The sailmaker generally makes his own draft to work by.

Were a sail to be exactly square, there would be little art in cutting, but as a ship's sails are, mostly, anything but square, there is much skill required in the arrangement of every cloth. In cutting out and making them up, it is a primary object to adapt and cut the numerous gores* which, when brought together, will produce the ultimate form required, with the least possible waste of canvas. This is effected by casting the number of inches contained in each gore, so that when they are brought together they shall be equal to the number contained in the after leech-cloth. This is in reference to fore-and-aft sails, but the same theory applies in the parts of square sails.

Sails should set as nearly flat as possible.

The American schooner is an illustration, where even the jib is frequently laced down to a yard or boom, fitted for the purpose, in the desire to have everything set flat.

In pilot boats and yachts the sails are set as taut and as flat as the sacking-bottom of a bed. The utility of this plan was exemplified in the race between the yacht "America" and the English yacht squadron. Going free, there was not much difference; but on hauling up to make a stretch to windward the flat canvas of the "America" enabled her to distance her competitors.

The efficiency of the "America's" sails, as well as those of all of our small craft, is due to their goreless shape, the canvas being cut as much as possible on the thread or woof, and also to the practice of lacing sails down taut to spars or booms. In Fig. 359, Plate 68, the foot of the sail is gored, and as it cannot be laced down, it bellies out to leeward, on a wind, and consequently much of the effect of the wind is. lost.

* In all sails those cloths which are cut in any direction except straight across with the thread or woof are said to be gored.


Plate 68, Fig 359-362. Schooners and sail hanks.
 

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In Fig. 360, Plate 68, on the contrary, the only gore is at the mast to which the sail is attached; each cloth is pulled downwards bodily, and every single thread is stretched. There is, with this sail, but little concave surface, and therefore but little of the effective pressure of the wind is lost. The same principle applies to all sails.

Cutting out Sails. Sails are cut out cloth by cloth, the width being governed by the length of the yard, gaff, boom, or stay; the depth by the height of the mast. The width and depth being given, find the number of cloths the width requires, allowing for seams, tabling on leeches, and slack cloth; and in depth, allow for tabling on the head and foot. Sails cut square on the head and foot, with gores only on the leeches, as some topsails are, the cloths on the head between the leeches are cut square to the depth; and the gores on the leeches are found by dividing the depth of the sail by the number of cloths gored, which gives the length of each gore. The gore is set down from a square with the opposite selvage, and the canvas, being cut diagonally, the longest-gored side of one cloth makes the shortest side of the next; consequently, the first gore being known, the rest are cut by it.

In the leeches of topsails cut hollow, the upper gores are longer than the lower ones. By drawing on paper the gored side of the sail, and delineating the breadth of every cloth by a convenient scale of equal parts of an inch to a foot, the length of every gore may be found with precision.

The foot of square sails is roached so as not to be chafed by any boat, netting, or stay, that may stand in the line of their middle parts. Topsails are hollowed on their leeches, to avoid long yard-arms for the lower reef earings.

Sails are supplied to vessels complete, with points, earings, bowline-bridles, beckets, and robands. Their edges are tabled and stitched to the bolt-rope. The tabling of large sails is strengthened at the clews and foot by a third fold of canvas sewn in it. The tabling and clew-pieces are sewn on the after side of square, and on the port side of fore-and-aft sails.

Seams. Sails have a double flat seam, and should be sewed with the best American-made cotton twine of three to eight threads, and have from one hundred and eight to one hundred and sixteen stitches in every yard in length. It is the erroneous practice of some sailmakers not to sew the seams any farther than where the edge is creased down for the tabling; but all sails should be sewed quite home to the end, and, when finished, should be well rubbed down with a rubber. The twine for large sails used in the navy is waxed by hand, with genuine beeswax.

The seams of courses, topsails, lower staysails, trysails, and spanker, are 1 1/2 inches wide. After the larger sails have become somewhat worn, they are sometimes treble-seamed

 

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down the middle of the seam, to strengthen them. Seams of other sails are 1 inch wide. One man can sew 100 yards in 9 1/2 hours, single seam.

Tablings. The tablings of sails are of a proportionate breadth to the size of the sail, and sewed at the edge with sixty-eight to seventy-two stitches in a yard.

Holes. Holes are made by an instrument called a stabber, and are fenced round by stitching the edge to a small grommet, made with a log or other line. When finished, they should be well stretched or rounded-up by a pricker or a marling-spike.

Sails have two holes in each cloth at the heads and reefs of courses, top-sails, and other square sails; one hole in every yard in the luff of flying-jibs; and one in every three-quarters of a yard in the lulls of other staysails.

Reef and head holes of sails have grommets of small line, worked round with stitches.

In order to strengthen sails, the boles in the heads and reefs should be placed thus: One hole to be made in the seam, another in the middle of the canvas, and so alternately; the holes in the seam to be half an inch lower than the hole in the middle of the canvas. By this, then strain would lie upon the holes in the seam, which are more capable of bearing it than the holes in the middle of the single canvas. It is likewise recommended to cut these holes with a hollow punch, instead of making them with a stabber or pricker.

Linings. Sails are strengthened with additional canvas at those places most exposed to strain and wear; in square sails, in the wake of cringles along the leeches on the foreside, called leech-lining, c, Figs. 363 and 364, in the wake of buntlines on the foreside, called buntline cloths, g; across the foreside, called reef and belly-bands, a and b; and in the case of topsails on the afterside, called the top-linings and mast-linings, e and f. Fore-and-aft sails are strengthened at the clews by pieces; and jibs sometimes with a strain-band. There is also the foot-lining d, reef-tackle-pieces h, and clew-pieces i.

The clews of courses and topsails are formed of iron. The cringles for earings, reef-tackles, bowlines, &c., are formed of bolt-rope strands, worked round the leech-rope, through eyelet-holes in the tabling. The rope should be new, and half-an-inch smaller than the rope of the sail.

The reef-easing and reef-tackle cringles have galvanized thimbles.

Topsails have two bowline-cringles and one bridle on each leech. Bowline-cringles have no thimbles.

The reef-tackle cringles should be double instead of single, and connected by a stout span into which the reef-tackle hooks, Fig. 374, Plate 71. This distributes the heavy strain of the reef-tackle, and is much better than the present plan.


Plate 69, Fig 363-364. Sail details.
 

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Plate 69, Fig. 363, represents a topsail bent to the iron jackstay of a topsail yard; a' a" are the first and second reef-bands, fitted to reef with beckets and toggles on the yard; a a the third and fourth reef-bands with reef-points; b b, belly-bands-frequently there is but one; c c, leech linings; d d, foot lining or band; e, top lining; f, mast lining; g, buntline cloths; h, reef-tackle pieces or bands; t t, head tabling and head holes through which the robands are passed; all these, with the exception of the top, foot, and mast lining, are on the forward side of the sail.

The Gear. 1, the lift; 2, 3, reef-tackle; 4, head-earing; 5, 6, 7, 8, the first, second, third and fourth, or close-reef cringle-the earing is spliced into the eyelet-hole below the cringle, seized to it and bent to the cringle above; 9, reef-tackle cringle; 10, bowline cringles, bowline bridle and toggle for bowline; 11, iron clew or spectacle-to two of its eyes splice the leech and foot-rope, the eye and splice being leathered-to the third eye shackles the topsail sheet-block; 12, 12, buntline toggles, between which the foot-rope is usually leathered; 13, 14, 15, gluts, the upper two abaft the sail and the lower one forward of the sail as shown in the figure.

Fig. 364 represents a course, also viewed from forward. The lettering and numbers of the details are the same as those for the topsail.

The clew of the course (11), viewed from forward, is shown in an enlarged form, leathered on flap forward between eyes of spectacle.

Generally speaking, topsails have three gluts, two abaft and one forward of the sail; the upper one is for the bunt-jigger to be used when furling sails. The second is for the same purpose when furling with a single reef, and the third, forward of the sail, is for a midship buntline, used for hauling up the slack of the sail in taking in the close reef.

Courses, Fig. 364, have two reef bands on the foreside, each being one-sixth the depth of the sail in the middle from the head; with a belly-band half way between the lower reef and the foot.

Topsails have three or four reef-bands, on the foreside, the lower of which is at half the depth of the sail, nearly; the belly-band, also on the foreside, is halfway between the lower reef and the foot.

Top-gallant sails may have one reef-band, though not pointed, as it is rarely ever used. A topmast studding-sail has one reef-band for setting with single reefed topsails. A lower studding-sail has a rolling-reef. None but the last are likely to be of much use.

Spankers have generally two reef-bands, one band running diagonally-termed a balance-reef.

Frequently the term balance-reef is applied to the close-reef
11

 

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in fore and aft sails, particularly on board of "fore-and-afters."

The jib has a reef-band, and on fore-and-aft coasters a bonnet which is attached to the foot of the sail by means of a lacing. The lug-foresail of a schooner has a bonnet also.

The term lug-foresail is applied to that of the schooner, when the foresail hauls aft by a sheet, to distinguish it from a boom-foresail where the foot is laced down to a boom.

Roping. The bolt-rope sewed on the hollow or straight leeches of square sails, is put on with sufficiency of slack canvas to admit of that stretch of rope which arises from the constant strain upon the margin of such sails; and the necessary allowance for the stretch of the whole is made in the calculation of dimensions of such sails. But in the leeches of fore-and-aft-sails, as also in the round foot of spankers, jibs, &c., &c., a sufficient quantity of slack rope is introduced to keep the foot from curling up, to leave the after-leech of these sails free, and also to compensate for the amount of stretch which those parts of the sails above-named are constantly liable to.

Spankers are made with an allowance of stretch of 3 1/2 inches in each 3 feet of the foot, 1 1/2 in each 3 feet of the head, and 2 1/2 in each 3 feet of the length of the leech.

Sails are always bent to their yard or gaff with the roping next the spar, otherwise the stitches would be cut through by friction.

In square sails the rope is always sewn on the afterside; in fore-and-aft sails, generally on the port side. The roping of the foot is stoutest. tapering off to the leech-rope.

Courses are usually fitted with a double reef point forward of the sail, kept in place by a rope jackstay abaft, which is rove through the bights of the reef points, thrust through the eyelet-holes from forward aft.

Topsails are pointed by reeving one long point through the eyelet-hole, and stitching it in so that two-thirds will be abaft and one-third forward of the sail.

Topmast and Lower Studding-sails are reefed by passing temporary stops of spun-yarn through eyelet-holes.

Boom-mainsails and spanker are pointed by stitching the middle part of the points in holes "stabbed" in the seams of the sails. As in reefing, there is only slack sail to be tied up, heavy pointing is unnecessary.

French Reefs. The first and second reef bands of topsails in our service, and all reefs of square sails in the British and French navies, are now fitted with rope jack-stays instead of points, with reefing beckets, Fig. 367, secured on the yard.

The jackstays on the sails are differently fitted. Our practice is to use two lines, weaving them in opposite


Plate 70, Fig 365-371. Roping and other details of lines on sails.
 

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directions right across, in and out of the holes in the sail, stitching or seizing the crossings together, Fig. 365. The ends of the lines go through the reef-cringle holes and around the leech-rope with an eye-splice.

Sometimes the bights of the foremost line are shoved through the holes with a hard kink, the after line being rove through the kink, Fig. 366. Both plans are poor, and the same may be said of any arrangement involving an after jackstay for a topsail, as it is constantly liable to foul in hoisting.

The French plan dispenses with the rope jackstay abaft the sail. The eyelet-holes are placed in pairs, each eyelet of a pair being about two inches from the edge of a seam. The reef-line is secured by splice to the leech of the sail, passes forward of the sail to the first hole, reeves through that hole from forward aft, out through the second hole from aft forward, then in and out again as before, the two turns of the line being seized together abaft the sail with a fiat seizing. The line then passes twice through the next pair of eyelet-holes in the same way, Fig. 368. Another similar plan of fitting the reef-line, also French, is shown in Fig. 369. In this case the use of seizings is avoided, the bight of the reefing-line being shoved through the first hole, the end taken in the second hole through a kink in the bight and out again, and so on to the next pair of holes.

FITTING AND BENDING, SAILS.

Prior to bending, the sails should be carefully examined, in order to supply any omissions, such as the points, bridles, thimbles, eyelets, and gluts. In addition to which, the fore and aft sails must be prepared with hanks, brail-blocks, lacings and lashings, and the square sails with earings and "rope-bands," or robands.

Head-Earings. Small manilla rope, one end spliced into the head-earing cringle. the other end whipped. It is cut long enough for two turns from the staple to the head-earing cringle, with end enough for several turns through the backer.

Reef-Earings. Similar to the above, but of heavier stuff; one end spliced into the reef-cringle eyelet, just below their respective thimbles; the other end whipped. Length sufficient to haul out to and around the proper cleat on the yard, with end enough to expend around the yard and through the reef-cringle for three or more turns.

Bull-Earings. The simplest and best are of well-worn manilla, with one end spliced into the standing part, Fig. 370, forming a bight long enough to hitch around the

 

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yard outside the proper cleat, and reeve through the reef-cringle and back to the yard.

These are called bull-earings, and remain on the yard instead of in their cringles, that for the first reef being rove through its cringle and brought back to the yard ready for use.

Bull-earings have been made (of smaller stuff) to give more parts in the first turn by splicing on an additional length in the first bight, as in Fig. 371, but they twist up in wet weather, and are otherwise objectionable as compared to the simple form.

Robands, consisting of two-yarn foxes, are middled, and secured to the head rope, by thrusting one end through the bight, which is first passed through the eyelet from the fore side of the sail, and hauled taut.

Gaskets. These are classed as bunt, yard-arm, and sea-gaskets; the first two made of plaited yarns. Those for the bunt consist of two single legs-one on each side of the slings, varying from two to three inches in width, and fitted with a thimble in one end, by which it is secured to the bending jack-stay with a permanent seizing-the other extremity having a laniard, which is hitched to the opposite quarter of the yard on top; the gaskets crossing each other on the bunt when the sail is furled. The yard-arm gaskets are made of sennit also, and fitted with a thimble, or eye, in one end, and the other tapering, and secured at equal distances (generally about every third seam) along the yard, underneath the jack-stay, by a cross-seizing just below the thimble. The gasket lies under the head of the sail. When furling it is taken up forward and over, and the end rove through the thimble, the sail tossed well up and the end expended around its own part.

In making harbor gaskets, the broad part should be long enough to. take the sail in when furled with two reefs; they should be carefully blacked, and to avoid staining the sail, should be lined.

The sea-gaskets, or more properly furling lines (of which there are two on each of the lower and topsail yardarms), may be either of sennit or small-sized rope, and of sufficient length to go around booms and all, when furling in heavy weather. These, however, are not necessarily permanent fixtures to the yard, although usually put round it at the outer and inner quarters with a running eye, and the surplus end bighted up with frapping turns, and thrown forward of the sail, at sea. They are removed in port.

BENDING SAILS.

The minutiae of bending sails "made up for stowage," is given below. It must be borne in mind, however, that the

 

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best authorities recommend that square sails should be made up "as furled" for bending.

A description of the latter-mode of bending sail will be found under the head of PORT DRILLS.

BENDING COURSES.

Making-up for Bending. In making up a course for bending, stretch the head of the sail taut along the deck, having the roping on the under side, bring up to the head the belly-band, then the foot, leaving the clews out at each end, also the bowline-bridles, and roll taut up; pass the head-earing around the sail close inside the leech-rope, and put a stop of good spun-yarn to every seam. The reef-earings are made up in the sail. The head and foot are both left out for bending the gear.

To Bend. Toggle the buntlines to the foot-rope at each side of the midship-seam, and clinch the leech-lines to their cringles, stopping both to the head of the sail-the former to the eyelet of the middle roband. and the latter in the wake of their leading-blocks. Hook the yard-arm. jiggers (usually the clew-jiggers)* from straps around the pacific-iron to the first reef-cringles. Hook on the clew-garnet blocks to the after part, passing them under the sail.

Stop the head-earing along the head of the sail towards the bunt.

Send hands on the lower yards, trice up the booms, man the gear and sway aloft, merely gathering up the slack of the clew-garnets. When high enough (i.e., when the centre of the sail reaches the centre of the yard), "bring to," cut the buntline and leech-line stops, and make fast the midship stop, together with three or four robands at each side of it, by passing the short ends under the jack-stay from forward aft, and the long ones over and under, from aft forward-thence back through the eyelets, and square knot them on top. Carry out the head-earings and haul the sail out until the head-rope is taut along the yard. Pass two turns of the head-earing through its eye-bolt, or thimble of a head-earing strap. Expend the end through the backer, from the head of the sail up forward into the thimble of the backer, down through the backer and up again through the cringle, hauling the cringle up snug at each turn. Hitch the end through the hauling-out parts. Fig. 372.

* Where reef-tackles are fitted to the courses the clew-jiggers may be dispensed with, and the sail hauled out to the yard-arms by the reef-tackles, the head-earing cringle stopped to the standing part. This plan, apart from the facility it affords in reefing, will be found serviceable in bending the sail.

 

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In bending as above stated, if the course is a large one, time will be saved by sending it up loosed, or at least with the greater part of the sail hauled into the bunt. If made up, the weight on the yard-arms will be so great, when the sail is rolled up as described, that it will tend to hang below the yard and be troublesome to haul up.

FURLING COURSES.

The Leeches are handed in along the yard, then the sail rolled up snug, with the ends of the points passed in towards the bunt, to give the sail a gradual increase in that direction. Pass the gaskets square, lower the booms, and if required stop up the gear. The buntlines and leech-lines are stopped to the slings close down, and hauled taut on deck. The bowline-bridles of all sails in furling are laid with the toggle towards the bunt, and bridles taut along the yard.

When a sail is neatly furled, it appears neither above. nor below the yard-earings well slewed up-sail smooth under the gaskets, bunt square, and a taut skin. The heels of the booms should be square, and everything necessary completed, previous to squaring the yards.

BENDING A TOPSAIL.

Having prepared the sails for bending, and supplied deficiencies, get them on deck and roll up on the fore part,* as follows:

To make up a Topsail, stretch the head of the sail taut along, after side down; bring the second reef up to the head, and lay all the points and earings snugly along; then bring up the belly-band, and then the foot. The clews, bowline-bridles, and reef-tackle cringles, should be left out, so that when the sail is sent aloft for bending, the sheets, reef-tackles, and bowlines can be bent without loosing the sail, which will be found of great advantage when blowing fresh. Roll well up, stop with spun-yarn at each seam, and expend the head-earings round the ends of the sail.

To Bend. Hook the sail-tackle to a strap at the crotch of the topmast-stay, and to one bight of a stout pair of slings, passed around the centre of the sail. Seize the other bight to its own part around the standing part, as in Fig. 373. For exercising, a better form of strap is shown in Fig. 375. Hook yard-arm-jiggers, for hauling out the head

* The reason for making the sail up on the fore part is to cause it to fall forward, and clear of the top, when cast loose from the slings.


Plate 71, Fig 372. Details of preparing and bending sail.
 

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of the sail, if the reef-tackles are inadequate.* Overhaul the sheets and reef-tackles, bringing the bending ends of both into the top, and have the bowlines, buntlines, and clewlines ready for toggling, and bending to the sail. Send hands aloft on the yards, man the tackle, trice up the booms, and "sway aloft." When the sail rises above the top, cut the stops; hook or shackle the sheets and reef-tackles, passing the head earing aloft to the yard. Hook also the clewlines (or if double, hook their blocks) to the clews, and toggle the buntlines and bowlines to the foot-rope and bridles respectively. Now haul out on the yardarm-jiggers and lower on the sail-tackle until the head of the sail is stretched along the yard and its centre comes flush with the centre of the yard, then pass the midship stop, rouse out the head-earings, cutting the seizings of the slings around the sail; at the same time gathering up the slack of the buntlines and clewlines. Pass the earings, Fig. 372, and the remaining robands, as in the case previously stated. Then unhook the sail-tackle from the stay, overhaul the gear, sheet home, down booms, and hoist the sail up to a taut leech; after which, lower the topsail, clew up, and furl.

It is better to toggle the buntlines before swaying the sail aloft.

When the sail is nearly rolled up, hook the bunt-jigger, bouse it well up, lower away roundly the buntlines, and shove the sail well into the skin, taking pains to keep the bunt square; pass and secure the gaskets, lower and square the studding-sail booms.

If the bunt-jigger is hooked into the upper glut and stopped to the second one, it will draw up a neat skin to cover the bunt.

HEAD SAILS.

These sails require some fittings not strictly within the sailmaker's department, such as the bails for tack-lashings, the hanks, &c.

Hanks are stout thimbles, of the shape shown in Figs. 361 and 362, which traverse up and down the stay. The common plan is to attach them to the luff by foxes of spun-yarn rove through the eyes of the hank and the eyelet on the sail. A neater plan is suggested by Fig. 362, where a toggle is strapped into one eye of the hank, with a double strap of 6-thread stuff, and hooks into a single strap worked on the opposite eye, of 9-thread.

Fore-and-aft sails running upon hemp stays are bent with

* On board of the practice ships, in lieu of the reef-burtons and pendant which was the old plan, the sail is hauled out by the reef-tackles alone. And whenever the lead permits, reef-tackles are used as yard-arm-jiggers.

 

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manilla bridles, the bridles being toggled to the sails. Those running on iron stays are fitted with hanks, Figs. 376 and 377. Bridles must be passed against the lay of the stay.

To bend a Head Sail. Make it up on the foot, laying the sail down in bights; see the head, tack and clew-cringles clear. Pass a strap around the body of the sail, into which hook the halliards. The down-haul is rove and bent to the sail-strap. By means of the down-haul and halliards rouse the sail out on the boom and bend it to the hanks, hooking the halliards and down-haul to their places in the head and swaying up, when necessary. Begin bending to the upper hanks and work down toward the foot; hooking the tack to the bail, or strap (fore-topmast stay-sail). Shackle the sheets, take off the sail-strap when of no further use.

To stow a Head Sail. Haul it close down and pass the gaskets, have a clew-stop on the clew of the jib to hold the clew forward of the cap, and a similar one from the flying-jib clew to the. wythe. The cover is then placed over and the stops tied. Jib-sheets stopped down and the sheets and halliards hauled taut. The fore-topmast stay-sail stows in a netting or canvas bottom made for the purpose and placed on the bowsprit between the stays.

Furling lines or sea gaskets are used in stowing the jibs at sea; for port there is fitted on the boom a centipede, a piece of sennit running the length of the boom, with short pieces of the same material running athwartship at certain intervals. The sail stows on the centipede, and the short ends are brought over and tied on top, as gaskets. Jibs carefully stowed in their own cloths may be made to look as neat as with a regular cover on, but require more care in stowing than any other fore-and-aft sail.

The flying-jib should be sent out for bending on the starboard side, on account of the boom being on that side of the bowsprit.

Make up a head sail, for stowing away, on the after leech, doubling the tack and head clew in toward the sheet before commencing to roll up.

Royals and Top-gallant Sails. They should be always bent on deck, on account of the difficulty of hauling out by hand; the earings and rope-bands are passed like those for the courses and topsails; the buntlines, clewlines, and sheets, being bent after the yard is crossed. If, however, it should be necessary to bend the top-gallant sail aloft, it may be sent up by the royal yard-rope, and the head-cringles hauled out by means of the top-gallant studding-sail halliards.

NOTE. In furling either a royal or top-gallant sail, it should be rolled up with a long, taut bunt, and the clews "tucked in," to avoid tearing the sail in its upward or downward passage.

 

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BENDING FORE AND AFT SAILS.

The heads of the trysails and spanker are made to traverse on gaffs. To bend:

First Method. Lower the gaff, bight the sail down on the foot, keeping head and luff clear for bending. Reeve the brails (throat, middle and foot) through their blocks, passing the sail through their bights, which are seized to the leech of the sail at the proper eyelet-holes. Bend the head out-haul and secure the head to the hoops, beginning with the hoops nearest the peak. Rouse up and secure the nock or throat earing, which is passed around the gaff and through its cringle, or secure the cringle by an iron staple, both ends of which are then shoved up through holes in the jaws of the gaff and keyed on top. Bend the head down-haul and clew-rope. Sway up the gaff, seizing the luff of the sail to the travelers on the batten, or to the hoops on the trysail-mast, as the case may be; finally, pass the tack lashing. If the sail is a spanker, hook the out-haul block to the clew. Trysail sheets are not usually hooked until just before setting the sail.

Second Method. Keep fast the gaff. Send down a whip from under the top and bend it to a strap around the head of the sail. Trice up the head, stopping the luff to the hoops on the trysail-mast as the sail goes aloft. When high enough pass the throat lashing, bend the head out-haul and down-haul, haul out the head, bending it to the hoops on the gaff as it goes out.

Furling Fore and Aft Sails. They are furled best with a cover, but can be furled in the two after-cloths, though not usually looking so well. In furling with a cover, brail the sail close up and stop the cover around, commencing at the jaws and working down.

BOOM-MAINSAIL.

The routine, as stated in the preceding articles, will be found to answer for this sail, there being, however, necessarily some slight exceptions, viz.: the omission of brails; and in lieu of an out-haul the clew is shackled to a span on the boom. Another distinction is, that the foot of the sail is stopped down taut to the boom by means of points or stops fitted for the purpose.

STUDDING-SAILS.

In bending these sails, place the roping of the sail on the

 

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after and under side of the yard, secured in such manner as to preclude the possibility of its bagging down.

The outer earings, which are spliced into the cringles with a short eye, are passed through holes bored in the extremities of the yard, from the after side-thence back. through the cringle and over the yard, inside of the hole, until three or four turns are taken, when the end is hitched through the cringle and around the single part. The sail is then brought taut along the yard, the inner earing passed in the same manner, and the head-rope secured to the yard by neat sennit stops, which are fixtures in the eyelets. Lastly, the sheets and down-haul are bent as described in RUNNING RIGGING.

To Make up Topmast Studding-Sails when not Bent. Stretch the sail taut along, and overhaul the down-haul through the thimble and block, and bight it along the whole length of the leech. Then roll up toward the inner leech, lay the sheets along the whole length of the sail, roll up over all, and stop the sail well up with rope-yarn. The earings are expended round the head of the sail. The topgallant studding-sail is made up in the same manner.

When Bent. In making up a topmast studding-sail, when bent, overhaul the down-haul the length of the lull or outer leech; then take the foot up to the yard, and place the tack-cringle out. Bight the down-haul along the yard, also the sheets; roll the sail snugly up and stop it with sennit-tails. These are clove-hitched around the studdingsail-yard, and remain there. When the sail is being prepared for going aloft the sennit stops are cast adrift from around the sail, and the latter held together by a rope strap and toggle, as will be described hereafter under MAKING SAIL.

Lower Studding-Sails are bent and made up in the same manner as topmast studding-sails, with the sheet in.

When ready for sea, topgallant studding-sails are kept in the tops with covers on.

The other studding sails are rolled up in their covers and stowed on the booms.

It is the practice to keep, while at sea, the topmast studding-sail up and down the fore rigging, the topgallant studding-sail in the topmast rigging, and the lower studding-sails triced up and down the fore-mast. This is a very good plan when circumstances render a frequent use of these sails liable.

All spare sails should be tallied before being stowed in the sail-room, as it will prevent mistakes; and if a sail is properly stowed, and the sail-maker takes a list when they are stowing, there can never be any difficulty in finding what may be wanted.

 

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Sail-Covers. for fore-and-aft sails, and for square-sails of steamers, very frequently have imitation gaskets, stitched or painted on the outside, which adds much to their appearance.

In addition to the cover for the main-sail and main-topsail, steamers have a "jacket" which laces around the main-mast to protect it from the smoke of the funnel.

Back-Cloths. These are for stowing the bunt of the topsails in. They are made of stout canvas, roped around, and are attached to the after part of the yard close up to the topmast. When arranged for furling, one corner is stopped out to the forward swifter of the topmast rigging, to the topsail-lift, or wherever convenient. They add very much to the neat appearance of the sail when furled.

They should be sent down when the sails are unbent.

An examination of this partial table of allowance of sails for vessels of the "Trenton" class, will give a good idea of the different numbers of canvas used and the various sizes of roping. All the sails allowed are not included in this table:

SAILS FOR A VESSEL OF THE "TRENTON" CLASS.

Sails No. of
Sails
No. of
Canvas
Size of Rope
Head Foot Leech Hoist
Fore-sails* 2 2 2 1/2 5 3/4 5 3/4 -
Fore-topsails 2 2 2 1/2 5 3/4 4 1/2 -
Fore-topgallant-sails 2 4 2 3 1/4 2 3/4 -
Fore-royals 2 8 1 3/4 2 1/2 2 1/2 -
Main-sails 2 2 2 1/2 5 1/2 5 1/2 -
Main-topsails 2 2 2 1/2 5 3/4 4 3/4 -
Main-topgallant-sails 2 4 2 3 1/4 2 3/4 -
Main-royals 2 8 1 3/4 2 1/2 2 1/2 -
Mizzen-topsails 2 3 2 1/4 4 1/2 3 1/4 -
Mizzen-topgallant-sails 2 6 1 3/4 3 2 1/2 -
Mizzen-royals 2 9 1 1/2 2 1/4 2 1/4 -
Flying-jibs 2 5 - 2 3/4 2 3/4 2 3/4
Jibs 2 2 - 3 1/2 3 1/2 3 1/2
Fore-trysails 1 1 2 1/2 3 3 3/4 3
Main-trysails 2 1 2 1/2 3 3 3/4 3
Storm-mizzens 1 1 - 3 1/4 3 1/4 3 1/4
Spankers 2 2 2 1/2 3 3 3/4 3
Fore storm-staysails 1 1 - 3 1/4 3 1/4 3 1/4
Fore-topmast staysails 2 2 - 3 1/4 3 1/4 3 1/4
Mizzen storm-staysails 1 1 - 3 1/4 3 1/4 3 1/4

* One fore-sail, one fore and one main-topsail to be of No. 1 canvas.

 

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All sails are made of flax canvas; cotton canvas is used for the following purposes:

No. 1 is principally for the construction of water-tanks for boats.

No. 2 for mess-cloths.

No. 3 for making tarpaulins and head-cloths.

No. 4 for deck awnings, boom-covers, hammock-cloths, &c.

Nos. 5 and 6 for wind-sails, sail-covers and boat-covers. Nos. 7 and 8 for boat awnings, awning curtains, wheel-covers, &c.

Nos. 9 and 10 for binnacle-covers, side-screens, &c. Hammock stuff for making hammocks.

Bag-stuff for clothes-bags, hatch-hoods, &c.

Cot stuff for cots.

NOTE. All fore and aft sails, as well as courses, topsails and topgallant sails, are finished with iron clews.

See also Appendix E.


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