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IN rope-making, the fibres of hemp, not averaging more than three and a half feet in length, must necessarily be overlapped among themselves and compressed together so as not to be drawn apart. The required compression is given by twisting, the fibres being continuously drawn out together, from a bundle, in the right quantity to produce the required size of thread or yarn. Yarns are then combined by twisting, and form a strand; three or four strands, by twisting, form a rope, and three or four ropes, a cable. These successive steps, in each of which the twist is reversed, cause the strain to be more equally diffused among the fibres than it would be if these were laid together in sufficient quantity at once and twisted, and moreover, the alternating directions given to the twist in the several operations, cause the different portions to bind upon themselves, and form a permanently firm bundle. The fibres only once twisted, make but a loose bundle, which, though decidedly stronger than the same quantity made into a hard-twisted rope, is not so durable nor so well adapted to the ordinary purposes of rope.* The actual loss in strength, by twisting, as found by trial, is about one-third the full strength of the fibre; its loss in length, from the same cause, being also one-third.

Rope is made in long buildings called rope-walks, and the process may be described briefly as follows:

Hemp, the material commonly used, is first hackled, or combed out, to remove the dust and tow. The hackle consists of a strong board, holding in a vertical position long steel prongs sharply pointed and polished. The hackling is done by hand.

The "preparation machines" prepare the hemp still further for spinning into yarn by a finer process of hackling. First is the "spreader," a machine having two endless chains fitted with gill-bars and gill-pins (steel teeth), which combs or straightens out and evens the fibres. The spreader is fed with the hackled hemp at one end, and throws it out in a "sliver" from the other. From the spreader the sliver is passed through two or more "drawing-frames," by which it is drawn down still more, and the fibres still further combed out straight, the size of the sliver being reduced at each step. The drawing-frame is similar to the spreader, but has only one chain. The sliver is now passed to the spinner, where it is spun into yarn, and at the same time reeled upon a bobbin. A recent improvement in the spinner, tubes the yarn, rendering it smoother and more even than any process yet devised, leaving little to be desired in the manufacture of rope. The yarn is spun right-handed. The size of the yarn varies according to the kind of rope for which it is intended. Forties-so-called because forty yarns will just fill a half-inch tube-are for the finer kinds of rope; twenties, requiring twenty to fill the tube, are for cables, hawsers, etc. From the spinning-room the bobbins containing the yarn are taken to the tar-house, where they are placed in frames conveniently arranged with reference to the tar-box. This is a long box filled

* The wires which compose the cables of the East River Suspension Bridge (N. Y.) are not "laid-up," or twisted, but are run straight and bound together.


with tar kept during the operation of tarring at a temperature of 220° F. by means of steam heaters. The yarns are led from the bobbins in the frame through two or more guide-plates working in a vertical plane over the tar-box, and convenient for lowering into the tar; thence to the farther end (between metal rollers, which press out and return to the box the superfluous tar) on to a
Fig A. Rope making machine.
large wooden drum to cool them; through fair-leaders, and finally to a fresh set of bobbins, where they are wound up with the utmost regularity.

Rigging is so much exposed to moisture and heat that hemp would soon decay if not protected. Tar, though really injurious in its effects upon the hemp fibre, has been found indispensable to its general preservation. The weight of


Fig B. Frame with multiple holes. the yarn is increased from sixteen per cent. to twenty per cent. by the amount of tar required.

The bobbins containing the tarred yarn now go to the laying-ground, for hauling down, or making into strands. The laying-ground, where the rope is laid up, occupies the entire length of the rope-walk. The yarns for the strands, generally three in number, are led from the bobbins, in Fig. A, through holes bored in concentric circles in the frame. Fig. B, thence through a tube adapted to the size of the strand,

Fig C. Rope making machine.

and attached to a hook on the end of a spindle in a movable machine like a car, called the former, Fig. C.

There is a plate, tube and hook for each strand; and the number of yarns to a strand is regulated by the size of the intended rope. All being ready, the machinery is put in motion, when the former is drawn down the walk, and the yarns, as they are hauled through the tubes, are formed into left-handed strands. Closing the strands is the next step, for which two machines are used. The lower one-the layer-lays up or closes the rope, and is movable; the upper one, which keeps the proper twist in the strand while laying, is stationary. Each strand being secured to its proper spindle, the machinery is put in motion and the strands hardened. A press attached to the layer prevents too much drawing up as the strands shorten by the additional twisting. After hardening, the strands are placed together on a central spindle of the layer and closed, a top inserted between them preventing too rapid closing. The top is a wooden cone with grooves cut to hold the strands, while tails of soft rope attached to it, by being applied to the rope as it is made, still further prevent, by the additional friction, the too rapid closing of the rope. The layer makes two revolutions to one of the upper machine. The skill of the ropemaker consists in knowing how to gear his preparation machines so as to draw a clean and uniform sliver; in giving the proper degree of twist to the yarn and strand; and in regulating the amount of hardening and the speed of the top in closing.

The foregoing process gives right-handed, tarred rope of three strands, or plain-laid rope. If the yarns are not tarred we should have white rope.

In the manufacture of manilla rope the first step in the foregoing description, hackling by hand, is omitted as being unnecessary; the manilla is oiled to enable the harsher fibre to pass the more readily through the preparation machines, and the yarns are not tarred, excepting when large hawsers are made, in which case the outside yarns are passed through the tar trough before laying up.

Fig D. View of the rope machine.
Twelve-flyer machine for forming strands. A, heart; B, bobbins; C, top and tube; D, draw-off drum; E, bobbins for large sizes: F, bobbins for small sizes.

Wire Rope may be made either of forty-nine coarse wires or one hundred and thirty-three fine wires, put in six strands, and seven or fourteen "hearts"

To make a one-inch fine wire rope, fill the bobbins of a "six-flyer" machine similar to Fig. D, with what is known as No. 8 wire, Birmingham gauge. And


Fig E. Another view of ropemaking machine.
A, hear; B draw off drum; D, driving pulley; F, bobbins; T, top; V, tube; S driving shaft; R, reel.

for the heart, lead a single wire from its bobbin up through the vertical shaft. This will form a seven-wire heart for the strands. Next fill the bobbins of a twelve-flyer machine with the same size wire. Pass all the wires up through holes, pass the top, arrange the wires through the grooves of the top, twist them together by hand, splice in a piece of rope and pass it five or six times around the draw-off drum. Friction straps attached to the bobbins preserve an equal tension on the wires. Putting, now, the machine in motion, the seven-wire heart is drawn up the shaft, and at the same time the twelve single wires are wrapped about it as the disc revolves, each separate bobbin turning on its own centre in the opposite direction, so as to avoid twisting the wire. As the strand is formed it is reeled upon a bobbin. Having filled seven bobbins, six are placed in a laying-up machine, Fig. E, and one in rear for a heart. The heart, on motion being given to the machinery, is drawn through and the six strands wrapped about it, giving six outer and one central strand of nineteen wires each.

Cross section of rope. In making strands for wire rigging, it is the practice to substitute hemp for the single wire of the heart for the strands, and to make a hemp heart for the rope also. Fig. F shows a section of such a rope, where the hearts are of hemp.

The following table shows relative strength of the different kinds of rope;


Table of comparative dimensions of chain-cables, hemp rope, iron and steel rope, their weight per fathom, and breaking-strain.

Breaking strain of wire and hemp ropes Approximate size of chains corresponding thereto Circumference Weight per fathom Size of wire used in rope (iron and steel) Remarks
Hemp Rope. Iron wire rope. Steel wire rope. Chain as weighted at Washington Navy Yard. Hemp rope, tarred. Hemp rope, not tarred. Iron wire rope. Steel wire rope. Circum-
ference of rope.
Number of wires.  
Pounds. Inches. In. In. In. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. In. B.W.G.  
4,880 5/16 2 1/2 1 1/4 7/8 5.18 1.48 1.25 1.28 - 1 1/4 22 Steel and iron wire rope, in accordance with this table, have a hemp heart. The sizes of the wire given are those in use at the government rope-walk at the navy-yard, Boston, Mass. No data for the weight of steel ropes smaller than 1 1/4 inches. Proof strains to be as nearly as possible on-half the breaking strain. In practice it is advisable to take it at 3/7 of the average breaking strain.
7,040 5/16 full 3 1 1/2 1 1/6 - 2.12 1.77 1.72 - 1 1/2 21
8,260 3/8 scant 3 1/8 1 5/8 1 1/8 - 2.46 1.87 2.12 - 1 5/8 21 full.
9,580 3/8 3 1/4 1 3/4 1 1/4 7.70 2.66 2.03 2.49 1.29 1 3/4 20
11,000 3/8 full 3 1/2 1 7/8 1 3/8 - 2.76 2.30 3.06 1.60 1 7/8 20 full.
12,520 7/16 4 2 1 1/2 11.11 3.72 3.09 3.22 1.74 2 19
14,130 7/16 full 4 1/2 2 1/8 1 5/8 - 4.67 3.89 3.65 2.14 2 1/8 19 full.
15,840 1/2 4 3/4 2 1/4 1 3/4 14.08 5.69 4.33 4.15 2.51 2 1/4 18
19,560 9/16 5 1/4 2 1/2 1 7/8 18.64 6.94 5.29 5.27 3.09 2 12 18 full.
23,660 5/8 5 3/4 2 3/4 2 22.20 8.33 6.35 6.31 3.25 2 3/4 17
28,160 11/16 6 1/2 3 2 1/8 25.81 9.66 8.05 7.46 3.68 3 16
33,050 3/4 7 1/4 3 1/4 2 1/4 30.31 12.78 10.09 8.97 4.19 3 1/4 16 full
38,330 3/4 full 7 3/4 3 1/2 2 1/2 - 14.35 11.52 10.69 5.32 3 1/2 15
44,000 13/16 8 3 3/4 2 5/8 37.73 14.65 12.21 12.72 5.97 3 3/4 14
50,060 7/8 8 1/2 4 2 3/4 41.71 16.57 13.80 14.81 6.37 4 14 full.
56,520 15/16 9 4 1/2 3 1/8 47.81 18.48 15.48 16.71 8.35 4 1/4 13
63,360 1 9 1/2 4 1/2 3 1/4 55.16 20.71 17.25 18.95 9.05 4 1/2 13 full
70,580 1 1/16 10 1/8 4 3/4 3 5/8 66.44 25.83 19.68 21.40 10.02 4 3/4 12
78,220 1 1/8 11 5 3 1/2 75.27 27.82 23.20 24.20 10.79 5 12 full.
86,240 1 3/16 11 1/4 5 1/4 3 3/4 83.64 30.57 24.29 27.15 12.84 5 1/4 11
94,650 1 3/16 full 11 3/4 5 1/2 4 90.40 33.54 26.50 30.52 14.95 5 1/2 11 full.
103,450 1 1/4 12 1/4 5 3/4 4 14 - 36.40 28.80 33.95 16.87 5 3/4 10
112,640 1 5/16 13 1/2 6 4 3/8 102.22 44.17 34.99 37.70 18.10 6 10 full.
122,220 1 3/8 15 6 1/4 4 1/2 112.27 54.72 43.20 41.65 19.13 6 1/4 9
132,200 1 7/8 15 1/2 6 1/2 4 3/4 120.84 58.27 46.12 45.90 21.61 6 1/2 9 full.
142,560 1 7/16 full 16 6 3/4 5 130.69 61.84 49.15 52.50 24.44 6 3/4 8
153,320 1 1/2 16 1/2 7 5 1/4 - 66.03 52.27 56.89 27.42 7 8 full.

NOTE.-Column 1 is not a standard of strength of cables.

Column 2 is intended to give, as nearly as possible, the size of chains approximating in strength to certain given sizes of wire and hemp rope.





Single Block, with Lashing Eyes. For the length to cut the strap, take twice the round of the block and once the round of the rope, and marry the strap once and a half the round of block, and half the round of the rope.

Single Block with Thimble, or Hook and Thimble. Take twice the round of the block, and once the round of the rope. The rounds of the block, thimble and rope, taken once, is the length to marry the strap.

Single Block with Long Strap and Lashing Eyes. Take twice the round of the block, twice the round of the rope, and once the round of the yard. After splicing the two eyes, the length of the strap should be once the round of the block and once the round of the yard; and, after the block is seized in, the length of each leg should be one half the round of the yard. The seizing at the block will take up enough to give sufficient drift between the eyes for lashing.

Single Blocks with Straps to Fid out. Take once the round of the yard, once and a half the round of the block, and once And a half the round of the rope; at the distance of once round the yard, block and rope, marry the strap.

A Single Block with Double Scores, for a double strap. Take twice and a half the round of the block, twice the round of the yard, and once and a half the round of the rope. At twice the round of the yard and block, and once the round of the rope, marry the strap. That which is taken up by the strap passing around the yard, will give sufficient drift between the eyes for lashing.

Double Blocks with Thimbles, or Hook and Thimble, as luff tackles, &c. Cut the strap twice the round of the block, and marry it once the round of the block, once the thimble, and two thirds the round of the rope.

Grommet Straps. One length of rope makes three straps. For a double 10-inch block, 3 1/2-inch rope.

  fm. ft. in.
3 times the round of 10-inch block 1 1 0
3 times the round of 8-inch thimble   2 0
3 times the round of 3 1/2 inch rope     10
3 times the round of rope at each end for splicing   1 9
Length to cut the rope for 3 straps 1 5 7
And once round the block   2 4
And once round the thimble     8
And once round the rope     3 1/2
The length to marry the strand   3 3 1/2

And this length is to be marked with chalk on the rope before unlaying.


For a single 6-inch block

  fm. ft. in.
3 times the round of block   3 10 1/2
3 times the round of thimble   1 6
3 times the round of rope     7 1/2
3 times the round of rope at each end for splicing   1 3
Length to cut the rope for 3 straps 1 1 3
And once round the block   1 3 1/2
And once round the thimble     6
And once round the rope     2 1/2
The length to marry the strand   2 0

And so on for any size.

If the grommet is made from four-stranded rope, it will only require three rounds of block, three of thimble, and enough to splice and to marry the strand, once round of block and once of thimble.

To Measure for Seizings of Block Straps. Supposing there are to be seven lower, six riding, and three cross turns-measure where the centre turn comes, which take as the average length of one turn, and allow as much for the six riders as the seven lower turns; this will give fourteen turns; then allow for the three crossing turns and splicing the eye, and there will be sufficient end left to heave the last crossing turn on, making seventeen turns in all.

If there are six lower turns, five riders and three cross turns, allow fifteen turns in all, and so on.

If the block is double strapped, allow five turns for crossing each way.

To put a Seizing on the Strap of a Block. It should be well stretched, a few turns taken out and well rubbed down. Splice an eye in one end, sticking the ends once through, but not cut them off. Pass the eye round the strap, reeve the end through it and round the strap, as many times as required for the lower turns; then pass the end underneath the turns and through its own eye, leaving sufficient bight to heave the turns on; place it square round the strap, lay two strands of the splice down the strap, for the seizing to lay over it, heave the lower turns taut on, haul the slack through the eye, and heave it taut; lay the third strand of the splice on top of the lower turns, and pass the riding turns over it, put the end between the two last parts of the lower turns, and put the cross turns on; pass one round turn, which will be the centre one, and heave it well taut; then form a half-hitch on each side of the centre turn, which will form a clove hitch with three parts, unlay the ends, make a wall or crown knot, trim off the ends and it is finished.

A double strap should be crossed both ways; first pass two turns between the strap that faces the side of the block, then bring the end out in the same direction as the sheave, and pass three turns there as before.

Proportions of Blocks to Straps, and to Size of Rope Reeving. For a common thick block, take one third its length for the rope reeving, as a 12-inch common thick block will reeve a 4-inch rope.

For a clump block, take one half its length.

For a thin block, take one fifth its length. For instance, a 12-inch block should reeve a 2 1/2 inch rope.

For a fiddle block, take one sixth the length of block.




In turning in an old fashioned dead-eye in a hemp shroud, the principal caution is to keep the lay in the rope, as it prevents the wet getting in. If the shroud is to be wormed and served in the wake of the dead-eye, the worming should not be hove in too taut, as breaking the shroud round the dead-eye would probably snap it.

Fig A-B. Marrying shroud to dead-eye. The score being well tarred, the end of the shroud is taken underneath, round the dead-eye, inside standing, or mast-head part; a bolt is put in a hole of the dead-eye. Take a good strand, knot both ends together; it is then middled and crossed round the end of the shroud; both bights are taken round the bolt, one on each side of the dead-eye, and a smaller bolt put in each of the bights, which are hove round the large bolt in the dead-eye. As the turns accumulate, it heaves the shroud taut round. The dead-eye should be secured through one of the holes, with spun-yarn, to the shroud before heaving, where the shroud is marked, for the lower part. When the dead-eye is turned in, in a loft, the shroud is hove in with a jigger (or dead-eye machine).

When the shroud is hove well round, pass a good throat-seizing. When secured, take out the bolts, get a smaller jigger, hook one end to a strap round the end of the shroud, and the other to the mast-head part; take a good strand, knot both ends together, take it round the end and standing or mast-head part; put-a bolt in both bights, and heave it round, pulling up the jigger at the same time; this will bring the end taut up, as heaving on the strap brings both parts close together; then pass a round or quarter seizing, and a smaller one on the end.

In the figures A and B, the quarter seizing is omitted to show the direction taken by the shroud.

To Turn in Cutter Stay Fashion, Put a temporary seizing on the cross; carry the end round the standing part, and heave it taut alongside its own part; then seize those two end parts together with a throat seizing, making-the eye as small as possible, put a quarter seizing (a flat one) on as well, about


six inches nearer the end; cut the temporary seizing on the cross, open out the clinch, put in the dead-eye, drive the clinch down, keeping the dead-eye with a little cant against the pull of the laniard.

Two seamen should turn in a dead-eye, with 11-inch rope, in a workmanlike manner, in two hours.

The cutter-stay method had its origin, as its name indicates, in the forestays of cutters. As a sail was set on the stay, this plan admitted of its hauling down snugly.

Fig. C is a fair representation of the plan with an improvement in the method of securing the standing part of the laniard by splicing it into an eye-bolt in the channels,

Fully setup dead-eye with lanyards.
Rigging Screws. There is still another plan of setting up rigging, as represented in Fig. D, by screws. When not to be used, a small iron plate keys on top of the screw, which keeps it from working, and the thread should be thickly smeared with tallow, covered with parcelling and marled. Whenever screws are used, it must be remembered that sufficient end should be turned up to allow it to be turned in afresh after knotting or splicing, in the event of its being shot or carried away. The same contingency should be provided for in all rigging.

This plan is not considered advantageous in setting up wire rigging, as it makes the whole too rigid.

In the service the use of these (or similar) turn-buckles is confined to places where no give is required, as in the case of chain topping lifts for waist launches.

Rule* for Finding the Size of the Fore and Main Shrouds, based on the area, in square feet, of the mainsail, topsail, and topgallant sail.

Rankin, in his work, gives a rule for finding the direct pressure of wind, in

* Book of Allowances, Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting, 1881.


Fig D. Screw turnbuckle. pounds, on the sails, that is, when it strikes them at right angles, as follows: "Divide the square of the velocity of the wind in knots by 150 for the direct impulse on a flat surface in pounds on the square foot." Assuming the velocity of wind in a storm to be 53 miles per hour, and applying this rule of Rankin, the pressure on the sails will be found to be 19 pounds per square foot of surface. Bracing the lower yards at an angle of 35° with the keel, the wind strikes the sails at an angle of 55°. A simple calculation shows that at this angle the pressure is reduced to 15.6 pounds per square foot. Therefore, multiply the area of these sails by 15.6 and the actual angular force exerted will be the result; and this will be the support in pounds required for the mast. Now find the angle of support, or the angle which the shrouds make with the mast. A convenient method is to take a line from a lower dead-eye abreast the mast, and carry it to the centre of the mast horizontally, so as to form a right-angle with it, and measure its length in feet. Then measure from this point on the mast the distance to the upper side of the trestle-trees. Now divide the length of the line taken from the dead-eye by the above measurement on the mast, and the result will be the tangent of the angle of support. Then to the log. cosec. of the angle of support add the log. of the angular force, and the result will be the power of support required in pounds for that angle; but for greater security add one-half of this amount to it, and the result will be the total power of support desired. Divide the total power of support thus obtained by the number of shrouds proposed for one side; the quotient will be the breaking-strain of a single shroud, which seek in the table of strength for the required size. This table is given in Appendix A.

In fore-and-aft rigged vessels, the sail-area used in the computation will be that of the main-sail and main gaff-topsail.

This rule involves the same principles as those of Rear-Admiral T. O. Selfridge, adopted and used by him in the preparation of the allowance tables for 1870.


Area of mainsail 4789 square feet.
Area of main topsail 4178 square feet.
Area of main topgallant sail 1789 square feet.
Angular force = 167793.6 pounds.


Log. cosec. 19° 15' 10.48189
Log. 167793.6 5.22477
Log 5.70666
Nat. number corresponding to log. 5.70666 is 508927
Add 1/2 254463
Power of support 763490 pounds.

If we allow 10 shrouds, one shroud will be one-tenth of the total power, which will be 76349 pounds. Corresponding to this number in Appendix A, the size of shroud will be 10 3/4 inches hemp, or 5 inches wire.

NOTE.-The angle of support in this case is 19° 15', that being the mean of the angles of the fore and main, and is taken from the constructor's draught.



To guard against the injury which the lower masts of ships have frequently sustained in consequence of the injudicious manner in which they have been stayed and the lower rigging set up, the following suggestions should be of value when fitting out or when setting up lower rigging at any time.

To regulate the setting up of rigging, and to determine if a lower mast is straight, a middle line should be cut on each of its sides and upon the after part. These lines should be painted a different color from the rest of the mast, and extend from the trestle-tree to the heel.

At the upper part of each line a small eyebolt should be placed, and op the line near the deck another such eyebolt. A rope line fastened to the upper one, and rove through the lower, and pulled tight, will, if the mast be straight, coincide with the middle line cut upon it; or, if not straight, the fact will be evident by the cut line and the rope not being parallel. The amount by which parallelism is departed from will represent any curve the mast has taken.

As the lines are to be cut from the heel of the mast to the tressle-tree, by knocking up a side wedge, any curvature that may exist below the wedges may be seen. Consequently, should the rigging be set up with the wedges in, or with them altogether withdrawn, the side lines will afford the means of detecting any bending in the mast, from the crushing tendency of the combined strains upon the stays and shrouds, and of deciding when these ropes should be relaxed.

The middle lines used in conjunction with straight-edged battens present an easy and a safe way of seeing that the mast, when being stayed, is not pulled more than slightly out of the position it is permanently to have.

First, as to the correct athwartship position. If a batten about seven (7) or eight (8) feet long be placed upright on the middle line of the deck, considerably abaft the mast, and its edge can be made to coincide by eye with the middle line on the after part of the mast, the mast will be upright by the shrouds; or, if the edge and the middle line do not agree, the divergence will show to which side, and by how much, the mast inclines.

Second, as to the rake. If a batten standing on the deck, with a rake equal to that which the mast is to have to the deck, be used with the side middle line, and its edge and the middle line coincide, the rake of the mast must be correct; or, if they do not coincide, the direction and extent of their disagreement will show how much the mast is out of place in a fore-and-aft direction.

The rake of the mast has reference to the keel; but as the deck and the keel are not parallel, the angle between their planes must be considered, when


determining the angle the batten shall have to the deck, in order that it may have the-assigned angle to the keel. This correction may be readily made, and the batten be set at the required angle in a firm base or foot, parallel to the deck.

The lower masts should be placed with such rake as may be shown in the drawings of the ship's original construction, or as may have been subsequently decided as preferable; and in the event of experience rendering it advisable to alter the rake of the masts, every particular relative to the change should be noted in the log-book, and reported in the sailing qualities.



Showing the Length, Breadth, and Strength of Flax and Cotton Canvas, as used" in, the U. S. Navy. Together with the Number. Length, and Breadth of Strips cut crosswise and lengthwise, used in the Test of Strength, and the Average Weight required of them, before received for use.


Flax canvas to be 20 inches wide, and each bolt to contain 80 running yards. The blue thread in Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 to be 1 5/8 inches from the selvage; and in Nos. 5, 6, and 7 to be 1 inches; and in Nos. 8 and 9 to be 1 inch. The warp and filling to be spun exclusively of long, well-dressed, water-rotted flax of the best quality, without any mixture of shorts or tow. The yarns to be evenly spun and of proper fineness; the warp to be rather more twisted than the filling. The warp and filling, from Nos. 1 to 4, inclusive, to be double thread; Nos. 5 and 6 double warp and single filling: and Nos. 7, 8, and 9 single warp and filling.

No description of weaver's dressing, or any pressing or beating to be used in the manufacture.

Three strips to be cut lengthwise and three crosswise will be used to test the strength, each to be 1 inch wide and 20 inches long, except Nos. 8 and 9, which will be 1 1/4 inches wide.

Weight per
Weight borne by Strips.
Crosswise Lengthwise.
Pounds. Pounds.
1 84 470 316
2 76 420 280
3 70 370 250
4 64 340 230
5 58 320 216
6 52 300 200
7 46 280 193
8 40 300 200
9 34 280 193


Cotton canvas to be 22 inches wide and to contain 80 running yards to the bolt. In Nos. 1, 2, and 3, the blue thread must be 1 1/2 inches from the selvage; in Nos. 4, 5, and 6, 1 1/2 inches; in Nos. 7 and 8, 1 inch; in Nos. 9 and 10, inch; and in the cotton ravens, 7/8 inch, from the selvage. The filling should be stronger than the warp in all numbers. In testing, three strips crosswise and three strips lengthwise will be cut; the strips to be each 1 inch wide and 22 inches long, except in Nos. 8, 9, and 10, which will be cut 1 1/2 inches wide and 22 inches long.

Weight per
Weight borne by Strips.
Crosswise Lengthwise.
Pounds. Pounds.
1 90 280 250
2 85 260 230
3 80 240 210
4 75 230 200
5 70 220 190
6 65 210 180
7 60 200 170
8 55 220 190
9 50 210 180
10 45 200 170
Light ravens 30 92 86
Heavy ravens 38 150 128



I. Rowing to Seaward. As a general rule, speed must be given to a boat rowing against a heavy surf. Indeed, under some circumstances, her safety will depend on the utmost possible speed being attained on meeting a sea. For if the sea be really heavy, and the wind blowing a hard, on-shore gale, an approaching heavy sea may carry the boat away on its front, and turn it broadside on, or up-end it. A boat's only chance in such a case, is to obtain such way as shall enable her to pass, end on, through the crest of the sea, and leave it as soon as possible behind her. If there be a rather heavy surf, but no wind, or the wind off shore and opposed to the surf, as is often the case, a boat might be propelled so rapidly through it that her bow would fall more suddenly and heavily after topping the sea than if her way had been checked.

It may also happen that, by careful management, a boat may be made to avoid the sea, so that each wave may break ahead of her, which may be the only chance of safety in a small boat; but if the shore be flat, and the broken water extend to a great distance from it, this will often be impossible.

* From a pamphlet of the National Life-boat Institution.


The following general rules for rowing to seaward may therefore be relied on:

I. If sufficient command can be kept over a boat by the skill of those on board her, avoid the sea if possible, so as not to meet it at the moment of its breaking or curling over.

II. Against a head gale and heavy surf; get all possible speed on a boat on the approach of every sea which cannot be avoided.

III. If more speed can be given to a boat than is sufficient to prevent her being carried back by a surf; her way may be checked on its approach, which will give her an easier passage over it.

II. Running before a Broken Sea, or Surf, to the Shore (Flat Beach). The one great danger, when running before a broken sea, is that of broaching-to. To that peculiar effect of the sea, so frequently destructive of human life, the utmost attention must be directed.

The cause of a boat's broaching-to when running before a broken sea or surf is, that her own motion, being in the same direction as that of the sea, she opposes no resistance to it, but is carried before it. Thus, if a boat be running bow on to the shore, and her stern to the sea, the first effect of a surf or roller, on its overtaking her, is to throw up the stern, and, as a consequence, to depress the bow; if she then have sufficient inertia (which will be proportional to weight) to allow the sea to pass her, she will in succession pass through the descending, the horizontal, and the ascending positions, as the crest of the wave passes successively her stern, her midships, and her bow, in the reverse order in which the same positions occur to a boat propelled to seaward against a surf. This may be defined as the safe mode of running before a broken sea.

But if a boat, on being overtaken by a heavy surf; has not sufficient inertia to allow it to pass her, the first of the three positions alone occurs-her stern is raised high in the air, and the wave carries the boat before it, on its front or unsafe side, the bow deeply immersed in the hollow of the sea, where the water, being stationary, or comparatively so, offers a resistance, while the crest of the sea, having the actual motion which causes it to break, forces onward the rear end of the boat. A boat will, in this position, sometimes, aided by careful oar-steerage, run a considerable distance until the wave has broken and expended itself. But it will often happen that, if the bow be low, it will be driven under water, when, the buoyancy being lost forward, while the sea presses on the stern, the boat will be thrown end over end. Or if the bow be high, or protected by a bow air-chamber, so that it does not become submerged, the resistance forward acting on one bow will slightly turn the boat's head, and the force of the surf being transferred to the opposite quarter, she will in a moment be turned broadside to the sea, and be thrown by it on her beam-ends, or altogether capsized. It is in this manner that most boats are upset in a surf; especially on flat coasts.

Hence it follows that the management of a boat when landing through a heavy surf, must stop her progress shoreward at the moment of her being overtaken by a heavy sea and enable it to pass her. There are different ways of effecting this object:-

1st. By turning a boat's head to the sea before entering the broken water, and then backing in stern foremost, pulling a few strokes ahead to meet each heavy sea, and then again backing astern. If a sea be really heavy and a boat small, this plan will be generally the safest.

2d. If rowing to shore with the stern to seaward, by backing all the oars on the approach of a heavy sea, and rowing ahead again as soon as it has passed to the bow of the boat, thus rowing in on the back of the wave; or, as is practised in some life-boats, placing the after-oarsmen, with their faces forward, and making them row back at each sea on its approach.

3d. If rowed in bow foremost, by towing astern a pig of ballast or large Stone, or a large basket, or a canvas bag termed a "drogue" or drag, made for the purpose, the object of each being to hold the boat's stern back and prevent her being turned broadside to the sea or broaching-to.


A boat's sail bent to a yard, loosed and towed astern, the yard being attached to a line capable of being veered, hauled, or let go, will act in some measure as a drag, and will tend much to break the force of the sea immediately astern of the boat.

Heavy weights should be kept out of the extreme ends of a boat; but when rowing before a heavy sea, the best trim is deepest by the stern, which prevents the stern being readily beaten off by the sea.

A boat should be steered by an oar over the stern or on one quarter when running before a sea.

The following general rules may, therefore, be depended on when running before, or attempting to land, through a heavy surf or broken water:-

I. As far as possible avoid each sea by placing the boat where the sea will break ahead of her.

II. If the sea be very heavy, or if the boat be small, and especially if she have a square stern, bring her bow round to seaward and back her in, rowing ahead against each heavy surf; sufficiently to allow it to pass the boat.

III. If it be considered safe to proceed to the shore bow foremost, back the oars against each sea on its approach, so as to stop the boat's way through the water as far as possible, and if there is a drag, or any other appliance in the boat which may be used as one, tow it astern to aid in keeping the boat stern on to the sea, which is the chief object in view.

IV. Bring the principal weights in the boat towards the end that is to seaward; but not to the extreme end.

V. If a boat worked by both sails and oars be running under sail for the land through a heavy sea, her crew should, unless the beach be quite steep, take down her masts and sails before entering the broken water, and take her to land under oars alone, as above described. If she have sails only, her sails should be much reduced, a half-lowered fore-sail or other small head-sail being sufficient.

III. Beaching, or Landing through a Surf. The running before a surf or broken sea, and the beaching, or landing of a boat, are two distinct operations; the management of boats, as above recommended, has exclusive reference to running before a surf where the shore is so flat that the broken water extends to some distance from the beach. On a very steep beach, the first heavy fall of broken water will be on the beach itself; while on some very flat shores, there will be broken water extending four or five miles from the land. The outermost line of broken water, on a flat shore, where the waves break in three or four fathoms of water, is the heaviest, and therefore the most dangerous; and when it has been passed through in safety, the danger lessens as the water shoals, until, on nearing the land, its force is spent and its power is harmless. As the character of the sea is quite different on steep and flat shores, so is the customary management of boats, on landing, different in the two situations.

On the flat shore whether a boat be run or backed in, she is kept straight before, or end on to the sea until she is fairly aground, when each surf takes her further in as it overtakes her, aided by the crew, who will then generally jump out to lighten her, and drag her in by her sides. As above stated, sail will, in this case, have been previously taken in, if set, and the boat will have been rowed or backed in by the oars alone.

On the other hand, on the steep beach it is the general practice, in a boat of any size, to sail right on to the beach, and in the act of landing, whether under oars or sail, to turn the boat's bow half round, towards the direction in which the surf is running, so that she may be thrown on her broadside up the beach, where abundance of help is usually at hand to haul her as quickly as possible out of the reach of the sea. In such situations, we believe it is nowhere the practice to back a boat in stern foremost under oars, but to row in under full speed, as above described.





Monthly Routine.-On first Sunday in month, read Articles of War.

On first week-day in month, officers of divisions inspect clothing, see them properly marked with name of the owner, and make out list of clothes.

On first week-day in month, at evening quarters, each man will muster with his hammock, and officers of divisions will inspect the bedding.

On the twelfth of the month, serve out small stores and make out requisitions for clothing.

On the fifteenth of the month, issue clothing. If these days fall on Sunday, issue the following day.

On the first day in month, the midshipmen will send to the Captain for inspection their journals, watch, and station bills.

On first Thursday in month, scrub hammocks.

On second Thursday in month, wash blankets.

At a suitable time during the quarter, overhaul cables and shot lockers.

Half-Monthly Routine.-First and third Tuesdays, air bedding. Second and fourth Tuesdays, scrub mattress covers.

Second and fourth Wednesdays, scrub windsails, etc.

First and third Fridays, scrape masts.

Second and fourth Saturdays, overhaul and mark clothing.

Daily Routine-In Port.-Early daylight. Reveille: Call warrant officers and mates of decks ten minutes before. Call all hands, allowing twelve minutes to clear decks of hammocks, lay up rigging and sweep clean, pump ship out, wipe off paint-work, clean boats, clean ship outside, wash down, clean copper, place wash-deck gear to dry and square yards.

7:30 A.M. Inspect servants and boys.

7:45 A.M. Mate of berth-deck reports deck ready for breakfast.

7:50 A.M. Spread mess-tables.

8:00 A.M. Colors, breakfast, light smoking lamp, crew dress for the day, report chronometers wound.

8:45 A.M. All hands, out smoking lamp, clean gun bright-work, quarter gunners spread tarpaulins and get out cleaning rags, sick call.

9:00 A.M. Down wash-deck gear if dry, down all ditty boxes and clothes bags.

9:15 A.M. Knock off bright-work, clear up decks for quarters, sweep clean.

9:30 A.M. Quarters for inspection; drill as per routine.

11.30 A.M. Flemish down rigging aft if deck is dry, clean sweep down, ship's cook bring dinner to the mast.

11:45 A.M. Mate of berth-deck reports deck ready for dinner.

11:50 A.M. Spread mess-tables.

Noon. Dinner, light smoking lamp.

1:00 P.M. Turn to, out smoking lamp, sweep clean.

2:00 P.M. Serve Jut provisions.

4:30 P.M. Lay up rigging, sweep down.

4:45 P.M. Mate of berth-deck reports deck ready for supper.

4:50 P.M. Spread mess-tables.

5:00 P.M. Supper, light smoking lamp, shift in blue, get out dirty clothes if the routine is to wash clothes next day.

5:30 P.M. All hands, out smoking lamp, sweep down.

Ten minutes before sunset. Get clothes line ready for tricing up.

Sunset. Colors, up boats, up wash-deck gear, trice up clothes line when colors come down, evening quarters.

After Quarters. Pipe down hammocks, after hammocks light smoking lamp.

9:00 P.M. Tattoo, sound call at 8:50 P.M., pipe down, crew turn in and keep silence, set anchor watch.


MONDAY.-Scrub clothes, scrub decks, ladders, etc., with sand.

TUESDAY.-Scrub decks without sand.

WEDNESDAY.-Scrub clothes and holystone decks.

THURSDAY.-Scrub spar-deck without sand, ladders, gratings, boats' oars and masts with sand.

FRIDAY.-Scrub clothes, scrub boat awnings, mess cloths, etc., scrub decks with sand.

SATURDAY.-Holystone decks, ladders, and gratings, and scrub bright woodwork with sand and canvas.

SUNDAY.- Scrub decks without sand, and prepare for inspection. MONDAYS.-Examine and sign yeoman's weekly accounts.

FRIDAYS.-Clean out galley funnel.

At Sea.-5:00 A.M. Call idlers, lay up rigging and sweep clean, scrub clothes except on Sunday, execute morning orders, place wash-deck gear to dry, see all snug aloft, etc.

7:00 A.M. Call all hands, allowing ten minutes to clear decks of hammocks, serve out tea water, up ashes, if steaming.

7:15 A M. Master-at-arms inspects servants and boys, mate of berth-deck reports deck ready for breakfast.

7:20 A.M. Spread mess-tables.

7:30 A.M. Breakfast, light smoking lamp, crew dress for the day.

8:00 A.M. Relieve watch, wheel and look-out, report chronometers wound.

8:30 A M. "Turn hands to," clean gun bright-work, out smoking lamp.

9:00 A.M. Sick call, put away all pea-jackets, ditty and clothes bags, down wash-deck gear, if dry; clear decks for quarters.

9:30 A.M. Quarters for inspection, drill as per routine, after drill watch below to have their bags.

11:00 A.M. Up ashes, if steaming.

11:30 A.M. Call Navigator, lay up rigging, sweep decks, clean out spit-boxes, ship's cook bring dinner to the mast.

11:50 A.M. Spread mess-tables.

12:00 M. Report latitude to commanding officer, dinner, light smoking lamp.

12:30 P.M. Relieve watch.

1:00 P.M. "Turn hands to," out smoking lamp, sweep decks, pipe down wash clothes, if dry; otherwise at 3:30 P.M.

1:30 P.M. Sound call for provisions.

3:00 P.M. Up ashes, if steaming.

3:30 P.M. Lay up rigging, sweep down, etc., serve out tea water.

3:50 P.M. Spread mess-tables.

4:00 P.M. Supper, light smoking lamp, shift in blue.

5:00 P.M. "Turn hands to," out smoking lamp, coxswains report breakers of water in boats.

Sunset. Evening quarters.

Immediately after sunset. Serve out pea-jackets.

Fifteen minutes after sunset. Pipe down hammocks, light running lights, light smoking lamp, up wash-deck gear and clothes lines.

8:00 P.M. Call the watch, out smoking lamp, muster the watch, see life-buoys in order and life-boats ready for lowering.

Night look-outs to be stationed at dusk, and called down at daylight. A man on the fore-topsail yard when look-outs are not stationed. A man always to be stationed at life-buoy, night and day. When square-sails are set, men always at the halliards. Muster watch and life-boat crews at eight bells.

The above routine is given subject to the approval of the commanding officer. The times will have to be modified to suit the season of the year, and the station to which a vessel is attached.

Preparing Ship for Sea. Gun divisions are sent to quarters and the battery secured for sea.

The officer of the forecastle will see to the following: Lower booms rigged.


in and secured; riding chain brought to, if in a single-deck ship, cat and fish fall rove; tacks and sheets hooked; studding-sails bent and gear rove; covers off head sails, chafing gear put on.

The officers of the gangways will see to the following: Riding chain brought to the capstan, if a single-deck ship; that carpenters unship accommodation ladder; studding-sails bent and gear rove, chafing gear put on, covers off trysail, tacks and sheets hooked.

The officer of the quarter-deck will see to the lowering apparatus on lifeboats, all davits rigged in and boats secured for sea, chafing gear put on, etc. Coxswains of boats and two boat-keepers will suffice for securing boats.

In addition to these preparations made just before getting underway, the following duties are to receive attention in good season before putting to sea;

The navigation officer should see that the compasses, timepieces, sandglasses, and log, have been verified, and that they and the chronometer are kept in their proper places and have a free motion. That the chronometers are well regulated, the rate known before sailing, and are regularly attended to. That everything belonging to the cables, such as the stoppers, hook-ropes, compressor-tackles and blocks, are ready for use. That the shackle-pins for the chains are kept well white-leaded, in order that the chains may be easily unshackled. That the vessel's draught of water be taken immediately before getting under way, and that hand leads and lines, properly marked and fitted, are placed in the channels abreast the mainmast. That the deep-sea lead and line are properly fitted, the latter being on a reel or in a tub; and, if a patent apparatus, that it is thoroughly understood and in good working order. He should see the tiller-ropes properly attended to and examined in port and at sea to detect chafes. If they are of raw hide, they should be occasionally oiled.

The boatswain should see that the masts are upright, well stayed and greased, head booms well supported, yards square, lifts marked, heels of booms square and toggled ends, equally rigged out, gaskets passed square and at equal distances, ropes clear for running on deck and flemished down in the tops. The ends of all running rigging neatly hitched or pointed, square and "sharp up" marks on all braces. New topsail halliards well stretched and re-rove that they may not become cable-laid when making sail.* He should see that the hawsers and towropes are so stowed that their ends may be passed up from the reels at any moment. Preventer braces, hammock girtlines and clothes lines in order, stern ladders in place and fitted with life lines. That ropes likely to unreeve in a squall, such as the main and jib-sheets, have an overhaul knot in the end.

Besides the square mark on the braces, it is well to have a mark on the jib and spanker sheets, as they are frequently trimmed too flat.

He should see that the laniards of the rigging are good, that the dead-eyes. and ends of the shrouds are square. That the purchases, winding and rolling tackles, preventer-shrouds, storm-sails and gear, including relieving tackles, are fitted and at hand. That the running rigging all leads fair, and that mats, raw hide, scotchmen, and timenoguys, are placed about the rigging and yards, wherever they may prevent chafes and fouling. He should see that the ratlines of the lower and topmast rigging are trustworthy and square, and that defective ones are instantly replaced by new, so that the men may go aloft with confidence. That each top is supplied with a top-maul, secured by a laniard; and a small top-chest to contain marlinspikes, stoppers and jiggers. That stoppers are-prepared and ready to be applied to the braces, sheets, halliards, etc., wherever they are belayed; and that the captains of the forecastle, masts, and tops, have always at hand jiggers to be applied to any rope when necessary. That chain slings for the yards and gaffs are properly fitted, and at hand for instant use.

The gunner should see that the whole apparatus for securing and working the guns is complete, handspikes, port laniards, muzzle bags and lashings, priming

* The lower block of the topsail halliards should have a swivel hook for clearing when cable-laid.


wires, boring bits, rammers, sponges, side and in-tackles, and port bucklers, and that the breechings are good and well fitted. That the fire buckets are fitted with laniards and kept in their proper places. When powder is on board, he should see that there are a certain number of cartridges filled, not only of full but of reduced charges. That the shot are properly stowed as/well as all the torpedo fittings and torpedoes.

That the arrangements for flooding the magazine are complete and in working order. That the armory and shell room are dry and properly stowed, shell whips fitted and in place, chutes, etc., made in accordance with Ordnance instructions, and proper care taken of the small arms.

In addition to the ordnance stores, the gunner has special charge of the anchor buoys and life buoys, to see that they are in good order, and the latter ready for use at all times. He examines and primes the life buoys every evening, and reports their readiness to the officer of the deck.

The sailmaker should see that the sails bent are properly brought to the yards and gaffs; that every roband is well secured, and that the head and reef-earings are good, and all arrangements for reefing in thorough order. That the spare sails, properly fitted with robands, bowline bridles, head and reef-earings, buntline b toggles and reef cringles are made up, tallied and stowed conveniently in the sail-room; that each studding-sail has its appropriate cover, and that all sail covers, boats' sails, wind-sails, awnings, hatch-covers, hammock cloths, etc., are on board.

The carpenter should see, previous to sailing, that the rudder is well hung and free in its movements, and that pieces to make a spare one are on board, and at hand in the hold. That the capstan and its fittings, bars, swifters, etc., are in good working order, and spare spars properly cared for. He should see that the spare tiller fits, and is at hand ready for use; that the relieving tackles are in their places; that the air ports and lower deck ports are well lined and secured in, or that the apparatus for closing them is always within reach, and ready for immediate use; that the bilge and force pumps are in good order. He himself, or one of his assistants, ascertains at least every hour, while at sea, and every morning and evening in port, the quantity of water in the vessel. He should see that all the pump gear and the sounding rod are always kept in their proper places; that the lightning conductors are in good order; shot plugs ready for use; that the tarpaulin covers for the hatches are in a good state, and he should be always ready with gratings and battens for the hatches. He should see that there is an axe at each mast ready for use in cutting away spars or rigging.

Before leaving port and upon entering it, the carpenter is always to take the ship's draft.

The executive officer, in addition to his general supervision over all preparations, should see that equipment, construction, and other stores and water are on board in accordance with the requisitions made and approved, and that they are properly stowed where they belong, that they are entered on the log and books of the yeoman or others in charge of them, and that the expenditure of articles in the general store-room is properly accounted for; that the general store-room is properly regulated, so that any article required may be instantly obtained.

After the boats are in, he should see that they are properly stowed, and that they, the galley, spare spars, anchors, and everything that may be affected by the rolling and pitching of the vessel, are well secured. That there are stretchers in all the boats, and that one of the quarter or stern boats is always kept in readiness to be lowered at short notice. That the plugs of the boats are secured near the plug hole by a good laniard, and a line from well forward in the forechains secured to the ring-bolt in the bows. That at least one of the outside boats is fitted with a lowering apparatus, and that each one has a breaker of water and their gripes fitted with slips. That the fittings of all boats are thorough for any service.

He should see that the watch, quarter, and station bills are properly made out, and that before sailing each person on board is made acquainted with his proper


station and duties, for action and for evolutions, and with his berth and mess and that the ship herself is in all respects prepared for battle.



Black down, and as soon as the blacking is dry, scrape and grease spars, and paint ship, in the order named. If intending to coal ship, do that first of all.

It is customary in some ships first to scrape masts, then tar down the rigging, and lastly paint; but the men are liable to daub the masts when tarring, down.

To prevent spotting the deck. Wet down and sprinkle liberally with sand. This prevents the grease or tar from striking in, and is better than keeping a couple of inches of water on deck by closing the scuppers, as the oily matter in that case floats to the water-ways and soils the paint work there.

Mixture for blacking down. By measure, two parts Stockholm tar, one part coal tar, one part tar oil. This is for rigging which has been neglected for some time. To give a light coat, thin the above with additional tar oil, to suit.

Scraping and greasing spars. When the blacking of the rigging is dry, the masts ought to be scraped and cleaned, then greased. For the men to stand upon when scraping the lower masts, rig triangles of capstan bars, with whips to the mastheads; for hoisting and lowering, with the topmasts, handspikes answer instead of capstan bars, and the royal and top-gallant masts may be managed from a bowline in the end of a girtline, or a span from shroud to shroud.

The top-gallant and royal yardarms should not be neglected. The studding-sail booms, except when new, ought to have the least possible shaving taken off them by a carpenter, and then varnished. This does not injure them more than scraping, and keeps them smoother.

Before laying on the grease, the captains of the tops should report that everything is scraped and ready, and the boatswain should examine.

Studding-sail booms should never be greased, as they are liable to soil the sails.

Painting Ship.* White lead is the principal ingredient in all ordinary colors used in painting; the quality is therefore of the greatest importance. The cheap kinds are adulterated by "byrates," which cause them to be more easily acted upon by the atmosphere. In mixing, the oil and turpentine should be thoroughly incorporated with the white lead. If adulterated, the white lead will have poor body when mixed.

ZINC WHITE is more durable than white lead; it is pure, but possesses little body.

VEGETABLE BLACK is the cheapest and best black for all ordinary work. In a dry state it resembles soot, and being free from grit does not require grinding. It should be mixed with boiled oil.

LAMPBLACK is allowed in the service for ordinary ship's use.

VERMILION in a state of powder may be tested by placing the dust of it on a piece of clean white paper and crushing it with the thumb nail. If pure it will not change color by any amount of rubbing, but if adulterated it will become a deep chrome yellow or assume the appearance of red lead, with which article it is mixed in order to cheapen it.

BLUE.-The most serviceable blue for the painter is French ultramarine. It may be deepened by Prussian blue or indigo, or by a trifling addition of vegetable black.

Mixing Colors. CREAM COLOR. Chrome yellow, the best Venetian red and white lead.

*Bedford. For additional recipes, &c., see Qualtrough's "Sailor's Handy Book."


SALMON COLOR. White lead, tinged with the best Venetian red, or burnt sienna.

IMITATION OF GOLD. Mix white lead, chrome yellow, and burnt sienna till the proper shade is obtained.

Proportions of Materials for Mixing Paint.*


100 pounds of lamp black, in oil,
5 gallons linseed oil, raw,
5 gallons linseed oil boiled,
1 gallon turpentine,
1/4 gallon Japan drier.

One pound will cover about five square yards of surface.


100 pounds white lead, in oil,
4 gallons turpentine,
1 pint linseed oil, raw,
1/2 gill Japan drier,

One pound will cover about three square yards.


100 pounds white lead, in oil,
1 gallon turpentine,
3 1/8 gallons linseed oil, raw,
1/2 gill Japan drier.

One pound will cover about one and a half square yards.


100 pounds white lead, in oil,
25 pounds yellow ochre, in oil,
2 pounds Venetian red, in oil,
2 ounces Vermilion.

One pound will cover about one and a half square yards.


1 1/2 pounds of gum shellac,
1 gallon of alcohol.

NOTE.-The above are general allowances. The actual quantities used must depend upon the character of the material and of the work. Generally speaking, the purer the coloring matter the greater thinning it will bear, and if the surface to be painted is very rough or old it will need more oil than new work.

COPPER COLOR PAINT. Six parts spruce ochre, one part Venetian red, one part black.

REMOVING OLD PAINT. Nothing is so efficacious as heat, applied by a small brazier with a handle.

One part of pearlash mixed with three parts of quick stone lime (by slaking the lime in water and then adding pearlash) laid over paint work and allowed to stand 14 or 16 hours will soften it so that it can be easily scraped off.

GILDING. Books of gold leaf contain 25 leaves. Gilders estimate their work by the number of "hundreds" it will take (meaning one hundred leaves) instead of the number of books.

The simplest way to use gold leaf is as follows Procure a clean sheet of silver or tissue paper of not too great density, and rub it over lightly on one side with a piece of white wax. The paper should be placed on something flat, so that the wax is spread evenly.

After waxing a sheet of paper it should be cut into squares a little larger than the leaves of the book of gold, which should be opened and the waxed side of the tissue paper gently pressed on the gold leaf. On removing the paper the gold leaf will be found attached to it and it is ready for use. All that the gilder

* Allowance Book, Bureau Construction and Repair, 1881.


has to do is to cut it into convenient strips and press it on the sized surface, when the gold will readily leave the paper. The work should be finished by gently dabbing it with a pad of cotton wool.

Gilt work exposed to the weather lasts much longer if it receives a coat of clear varnish when finished.

SIZE. If unprovided with regular gold-size, mix chrome yellow with the fat oil from the surface of paint that has been standing, and add a very small quantity of dryer to form a moderately thick coat. Apply the leaf when the size is "tacky" enough.

In estimating the amount of gold leaf required for gilding ordinary grooved moldings around boats, &c., one leaf covers about nine running inches.




IN drifting or working down a river, with a strong tide, great care is necessary to prevent falling afoul of other vessels which may be at anchor on the way, or to avoid endangering the vessel on rocks or shoals.

With the wind directly in the harbor, or partly across the tide, the current running out, you may either work out by tacking from shore to shore; let her drift out broadside to the current; or, having her under the direction of the helm, by sufficient sail set to give her good way through the water, keep her head to the current, and drift down stern on, or you may club her down.

Bear in mind, in every evolution performed in a tideway, that the after part of the keel being more deeply immersed in the water, and presenting a broader surface to the action of the current than the forward, the stern of a vessel will always have a tendency to drift faster than the bows.

If the wind should be partly across the tide, she should be cast, in getting under way, with her head towards the weather shore.

After getting under way, which is sufficiently explained in CHAPTER XXII., keep her head to the current, by sufficient sail, until the anchor is catted and fished.

Never weigh the anchor until the sails are so arranged that the vessel will be immediately under the influence of the helm.

If you have room, you may then proceed to bring her by the wind, make sail, and work her down as in the common evolution of working to windward, making an allowance for the strength of the current, in approaching any vessel, or either shore, and in giving yourself sufficient room for stays.

Should the wind be across the tide, you may approach the weather shore boldly; for should you miss stays, you have recourse to wearing or box-hauling. But approach the lee shore cautiously, always leaving room to recover her and gather headway, to go in stays a second time.

Avoid standing into eddy currents on either shore; they may be plainly distinguished by the worried appearance of the water; for a vessel, when in their influence, is at their mercy, and quite out of the management of the helm or sails.

If you approach a narrow passage, or the anchorage of a number of vessels, bring her head to the current, bracing the yards full, and keeping only sufficient sail on to give her good steerage-way through the water, that you may sheer her to either side; and in this manner she will drift down with the current, past or between any vessel or shoals. This is the best, being the safest method for a narrow channel.

Arriving again at an open space, you may bring her broadside to the current, keep the topsails shaking and the helm a-lee, and presenting only the surface of

Plate A. Ship working its way through a pair of river bends.

the spanker to the wind, which will serve to counteract the force of the current Upon the stern. In this manner she will drift more rapidly than by the former method. By filling the head yards and taking in the spanker; or by filling the after yards and taking in the jib; or by bracing all aback, using the helm as necessary, you can, at any time, have her under control, shoot ahead, back astern, or bring her head to the current.

Clubbing. Clubbing is recommended for smaller sailing vessels in a rapid river; you may heave in the cable until the anchor is under foot, when she will drift down by the force of the current, veering out or heaving in the cable as she deepens or shoals the water, or as you may wish to diminish or increase her drift. Vessels drifting in this manner, generally have a spring from the ring of the anchor, leading in at one of the quarters, so that by veering on the cable and rousing in the hawser, you may present her broadside to the current. This is termed clubbing a vessel.

Clubbing is such a simple manoeuvre, where the sets of the tides are known, that it is only necessary to observe that a ship at anchor, with a tide running past her, is as much affected by a motion of the helm, as if she were reaching at the same rate under canvas; therefore, if a ship's helm be put over one way or the other, she will answer it, and shoot across the tide, taking her anchor with her, if there be short enough scope, so by heaving in to that scope, and putting the helm hard over, she will cross the tide without losing much ground; hence, although the tide may set athwart the deep water channel, yet by sheering her as far as she will go, and bringing her up when she begins to lose ground, she may be dropped down, or sheered across any channel against the wind, where she might otherwise wait months for a fair wind to sail down. It is scarcely necessary to observe, that she will sheer to port more readily with her starboard anchor down, and vice versa.

Backing and Filling. Before steam-tugs were so plentiful, vessels relict! upon the tides, in many instances, to get them to sea.

You may drift a vessel down broadside to the current, keeping the yards counter-braced as in lying to, shooting ahead, or backing astern to avoid danger; then, as you approach either shore, you may fill away until she gathers sufficient headway for stays, or wear around, putting her head towards the other shore, this is termed backing and filling.

To do this properly, a knowledge of the times and sets of the tides, depth of water, eddies, etc., and especially a correct judgment of distance, are of the first importance.

To give a clear idea of the various manoeuvres, and show what can be done with a ship without steam, a sketch (Plate A) is given of a vessel backing and filling up a narrow channel, with the wind and tide in every possible different position with respect to each other.

The wind and sets of the tide are designated as before by arrows and half arrows, and the vessel's track or course by the dotted lines from number to number. No. 1, Plate A, represents a vessel reaching the tide with her main yard aback to avoid reaching too fast; proceeds to No. 2, having reached out of the strength of the tide, has thrown her fore yard aback, and is making a stern board, by which she will fetch No. 3, fills and reaches to No. 4, tacks, the tide sweeping her while in stays round the point, but not sufficiently soon to enable her to fill on the starboard tack; the fore yard therefore kept aback, as in No. 5, while the tide is setting her to No. 6, fills; the tide in this reach setting to leeward, she does not make a weatherly course until she meets it running to windward again, when she reaches to No. 7, where the helm is put a-lee and the main yard swung, and she shoots into the position of No. 8, is not permitted to come round, but falls off again, and makes a sternboard to No. 9, fills and reaches ahead as far as she can, then repeats the manoeuvre of No. 7 to No. 10, whence, as before in No. 8, she makes a sternboard to No. 11, where she is in a "fair way," and will maintain her position in the strength of the tide, by backing, filling, or shivering the main yard, or both, till the tide sets her into the


position of No. 12, where she is being brought astream of the tide, to drop stern, first under better command, through a channel which is too narrow to allow her to drop athwart.

From No. 11 she might have reached into the bight, and tacking there, have fetched as far to windward as No. 13; but there being an eddy tide in the bight, she would perhaps have lost half the tide before she got out of it again, unless she had a commanding breeze.

No. 13, being astream of the tide, is dropping through the narrow channel to, No. 14, and thence to No. 15, where she is hauling her wind on the starboard tack to No. 16, in a "fair way" to No. 17, where the tide is setting to leeward, and the fore-topsail is clewed up, as she is going to bring up, there not being sufficient water for her to proceed; the main yard is therefore braced up to take-aback, that when she rounds to, as in No. 18, she may not shoot across on to the opposite bank.

No. 19, the main-topsail being clewed up or down, the anchor is let go, and the vessel swings head to wind and tide, as in No. 20; having to wait a short time here till there is sufficient water for her in the next channel, the jib-boom is rigged in and the fore-topsail furled, as she is coming to a more crowded part of the river, and does not require to reach any distance. When there is sufficient water for her to proceed, known perhaps by the time of tide, or by the water she is riding in, or if it be a shifting channel by a boat stationed there, the cable is. hove in and she clubs to No. 21, where she is sheering across the channel to No. 22; the tide here setting into the bight, she is obliged to sheer broad to port to prevent her being set in there.

No. 23, the helm aport to bring her astream again, clubs to No. 24, has got the main-topsail set again to help her to No. 25, wind abeam, main-topsail shivered, or backed as required till she arrives where the tide is setting to windward, as in No. 26, heaves up and drops, filling or shivering the main yard, to No. 27, clear of the buoy, is brought astream again, as in No. 28, and dropped to, No. 29, hauling her wind to cross the tide, as in No. 30, where the main-topsail full prevents the tide from setting her up on the sand astern, when she fetches. No. 31, is again brought astream and drops to No. 32, where she is again laid athwart and drops fore-reaching a little with her main yard full, as in No. 33, and thence to No. 34, where the main yard is laid aback for a stern board to No. 35, whence, by backing, filling, or shivering the main yard, either to keep in the best of the tide, or to make way for other vessels passing up or down the channel, she arrives as in the following figures at No. 39, where she is again laid astream and the main-topsail clewed up, as in No. 40, where she can drop her anchor and ride-to windward or to leeward, according to circumstances.



Tending ship is the art of keeping an anchor clear. When hemp cables were used this was a necessary precaution, the neglect of which rendered the cable liable to foul the anchor at each turn of the tide. The object to be attained, is. to keep the cable taut, and to sheer the ship on the same side of her anchor every time she swings, and keeping her as much as possible away from the anchor.

With chain cables there is not the same necessity for tending ship, as the vessel will probably ride by the bight of her chain in light winds if she has a good scope out, and will not approach her anchor.

The tide being supposed in these cases stronger than the wind, we see that after the weather flood makes, the ship will probably ride to leeward of her anchor by the bight of her chain; if now the breeze freshens and becomes stronger

Plate B. Ship riding at anchor.

than the tide she will probably swing round, still being to leeward of her anchor.

By always sheering the ship on the same side of her anchor we insure its turning in the ground, and avoid fouling or tripping it.

In tending ship we make use of the helm, jibs and spanker. An officer understanding the effect of each, will find no difficulty in keeping the ship away from her anchor, and sheering so that she will tend to the same side of it at each turn of the tide.

Riding to Leeward in Moderate Weather. A deep ship will ride best to windward of her anchor, because she has more hold of the tide and less of the wind; for the opposite reason, a light ship will not ride to windward at all.

No. 1, Plate B, represents a vessel riding out the lee tide in moderate weather, with about thirty fathoms chain cable; square yards and her helm amidships.

NOTE.-In all weathers a ship should be kept to leeward of her anchor, so long as she will ride so.

It is intended to ride to leeward on the next or weather tide, therefore when the present lee tide eases, put the helm hard a-starboard, which will give her a sheer to leeward, as in No. 2.

When the tide is done she will thwart, and ride with the chain slack under foot. This is the time to sight the anchor. No. 3.

The helm is now of no service, so shift it hard a-port and hoist the fore topmast-staysail with the port sheet aft; the wind being on the starboard quarter, the staysail will help her away from her anchor until the weather tide makes, when she will swing to the bight of her chain, and bring the staysail aback, as in Nos. 4 and 5; and as the tide gains strength she will gradually drop astream of her anchor until it rides, as at No. 6, when the helm must be eased as the tide attains its full strength, and lashed a few spokes a-port the whole tide; if the stream be not sufficiently strong to keep a taut cable, she will require the staysail. set all the tide, otherwise she will not ride quiet; the relative strength, therefore, of wind and tide will determine when it is required.

When the weather tide is nearly done, put the helm hard a-port, which will give her a broader sheer to leeward, as in No. 7.

This is called tending to windward or tending to a weather tide.

When the tide changes, the wind remaining the same, say northeast, we must. again go to the westward of the anchor. To do so give her a sheer with the port helm just before the tide ceases, and hoist the staysail; she will then, as the tide slackens, forge ahead and thwart as before, when the helm must be shifted and the staysail hauled down; she will then drop astream of her anchor, and ride as at No. 1.

It will make no difference whether the ship swings with her head towards her anchor or not; all we wish is to keep her away from it. This second operation is called tending to leeward, or tending for a leeward tide.

If left at No. 6 to swing herself, her first movement, as the tide eases and becomes weaker than the wind, would be to forge ahead (the wind being abaft the beam), dragging the bight of her cable with her, as in No. 8; and as she thwarts, the yards being full and a drain of tide under her lee, she will shoot a little across the tide and swing with the bight of her cable on the weather side of the anchor No. 9. This on the next tide becomes a round turn, see No. 10, &c., as she cannot possibly return the way she came without assistance.

The result is a foul anchor, the chain taking a turn around the upper fluke. A fresh squall now strikes the ship, and straightens out her chain; the strain coming on the upper fluke, the anchor is tripped, and away goes the ship, fouling some of her neighbors, getting on shore, or bringing up in some out of the way place by a second anchor, or else, by continued neglect (Nos. 11 and 12), the entire scope is expended around the anchor.

Riding to Leeward in Heavy Weather. Suppose, in the diagram, the wind to be N. W., and the ship riding to the weather tide, heading


east, as at A. If now the wind freshens, the ship will lie uneasily, and will be continually yawing about. Hoist the staysail to steady her; but should the wind freshen so as to force her into the position B, haul down the staysail and set the spanker, to prevent breaking her sheer and walking off with her anchor. By hauling down the staysail and setting the spanker, we keep her in the position B', where she will ride in safety, though she may sheer about a great deal.

The wind continuing to increase when the ship is at B, she will forge still more ahead, and bring her anchor on her weather quarter. The yards must now be pointed to hold less wind, C', a most dangerous position for a vessel to be placed in, as she must presently break her shear. A light vessel would have swung head to wind long before this; and although she would sheer about with the tide under her counter, still she could not get near her anchor so long as the wind continues in the same direction.

Circle showing ship anchored in different directions.
By breaking her sheer she fills her yards, and staysail if up, and with the helm a-port as it was properly put, shoulders her anchor and shoots across the tide with it, perhaps ashore if there be shoal water in the vicinity, C". If there be no shoal to bring her up as at C", she will reach to windward as at C, taking her anchor with her to the imminent risk, not only of herself; but of other vessels near.

The object now is to get her head to tide again, and the wind on the other side; it is evident she will not ride to leeward, she must therefore be put to windward of her anchor, a manoeuvre only practicable during the strength of the tide. At any other time she would remain wind rode.

Riding to Windward. Instead of riding as at A, however, it would be better to sheer her with the starboard helm, and lie to windward of the anchor as at D. If now the wind increases, we must set the staysail and shoot her into the position E, where she will remain quiet: without the staysail as long as the wind is stronger than the tide; if the wind lulls, the staysail must be set again. If she lies uneasily, the after yards may be braced up and the head yards abox, when she will, in fact, be hove to with the tide on the starboard bow, the wind on the port beam, and the anchor on the starboard quarter, the strain on her cable being eased by the counteracting influence of wind and tide.

If the ship was not deeply loaded, of course she would swing head to wind


as the wind freshened. In these cases we suppose a strong tide and a heavy ship.

The ship being in the position E, when the tide slacks fill the head yards and put the helm hard a-starboard; as she swings into the position F, right the helm, haul down the staysail and point the yards to the wind; she will then drop into the position G.

With chain cables, it would be impossible to keep them taut from the anchor, except with a very short scope.

Ship riding anchor with change in tide.

To Tend with the Wind Athwart the Tide. Let us suppose the ship A to be riding to the ebb, heading north, the wind at west. As the tide slacks put the helm hard a-starboard, and she will gradually come head to wind, as at B, when the staysail must be hoisted and the sheet hauled to windward. This will tend to force her astern and clear of her anchor. Her stern will then cant at C, when the helm may be righted and the head-sails hauled down. She will finally drop into the position D.

Fire raft illustration.

If there is no wind, and she drifts over her anchor, then is the time to sight it, that is, to heave it up and see that it is clear.

The foregoing cases will sufficiently illustrate the theory of tending ship. Every officer should be familiar with it, for although we rarely take much trouble to keep the anchor clear, still the helm should always be used when necessary.

If tending ship be entirely neglected, the anchor should be sighted occasionally, and, if necessary, the second one let go while the first is clearing.

Precautions against Fire-Rafts. The following were adopted by the English fleet in the Canton river, 1856-7:

Ships off the factories, moored head and stern, were protected by a boom thrown across the river, above and below the position. The largest boom, above the factories, was formed of two layers of large spars, lashed together, with a stream chain laid between them, bolted to the spars on alternate sides, and the whole woolded round at intervals.

The spars were not placed so as to lock in throughout, but a small space was left every forty feet or so, to impart flexibility to the boom. At c c were two loaded sunken junks. At b b two junks moored head and stern, with long thirty-two's mounted forward, and guns' crews on board. At a a, two junks, to which was attached a small boom to screen the entrance.

The ships were fortified With a spar from each bow, meeting, and lashed together at the outer ends, and dropped by a tackle from the jib-boom end. Flying jib-boom kept


in. From these outriggers, spars were continued aft to the gangways, supported by tackles from the lower yard-arms and boomed out by spars from the ship's side, which afforded space and shelter for the boats to be within.

From the jib-boom end was suspended a fire grapnel, or a small anchor, shackled by a length of small chain to the riding-cable, outside the hawse. This was intended to drop into the fire-vessel, and anchor her by, on the cable being slipped and the ship dropping clear.

Over the stern, an anchor was hung, which, in the event of a fire-vessel becoming fixed to the bows, would, on being let go, and the forward cable slipped, bring the ship by the stern, and throw the junk off.

As wooden tanks, containing upwards of a ton of powder floating at the water's edge, were occasionally sent down, the fire-booms were kept eased down, and floated on the water, and a guard-boat anchored ahead.

Destruction of Booms. Blow the boom up with powder; rouse up the bight of the chain; load with round shot a launch's gun; lash the chain across the muzzle; fire, and take advantage of the result. You may even fracture a chain in the same manner with a blank cartridge.






THE Hankow is a single-screw steamship, of 3,594.12 gross tonnage; net, 2,331.75 tons. Length, 389 feet; breadth, 42 feet 1 inch; depth, 28 feet 8 inches.

Her propeller is four-bladed, right-handed, with a diameter of 20 feet, and a pitch from 24 to 26 feet. The mean angle of its surface with a vertical athwart-ship plane would be 21°, hence the streams would be delivered on an average at an angle of 21° from the vertical fore-and-aft plane.

Experiments were conducted on March 8, 1877, in lat. 8° 50' S., long. 153° 58' E., between 9:20 and 11:30 A.M., as follows:

Sea smooth, or between 1 and 2 of Beaufort scale; ship drawing probably 24 feet 8 inches forward and 23 feet 8 inches aft.

First Experiment. Ship going ahead full speed (say 10 knots), engines were suddenly reversed, helm put hard aport; immediately the engines started, time noted, and bearing of ship's head by standard Admiralty compass noted, and the bearing of the ship's head also noted at every 15 seconds, until the ship came to a dead stop.

Time Interval Ship's head by compass Head turned to-
Port Starboard.
h min secs m secs      
9 20 7 - - N.62 W - -
9 20 22 0 15 N. 62 1/2 W 0 1/2 -
9 20 37 0 15 N. 66 W 3 1/2 -
9 20 52 0 15 N. 69 W 3 -
9 21 7 0 15 N. 73 1/2 W 4 1/2 -
9 21 22 0 15 N. 77 W 3 1/2 -
9 21 37 0 15 N. 80 W 3 -
9 21 52 0 15 N. 84 1/2 W 4 1/2 -
9 22 7 0 15 N. 88 W 3 1/2 -
9 22 22 0 15 N. 88 W Stationary -
9 22 37 0 15 N. 87 W - 1
9 22 52 0 15 N. 85 1/2 W - 1 1/2
9 23 7 0 15 N. 84 W - 1 1/2
9 23 22 0 15 N. 82 1/2 W - 1 1/2
9 23 37 0 15 N. 79 1/2 W - 3
0 3 30 3 30 - 26 8 1/2

Ship came to a dead stop in 3 min. 30 secs., and turned to port 26° in 2 min., and then to starboard 8 1/2° for 1 1/2 min.

Second Experiment. Ship going ahead full speed, say 10 knots. Engines suddenly reversed to full speed astern; helm put hard a-starboard, bearing on ship's head taken, and time as before.


Time Interval Ship's head by compass Head turned to-
Port Starboard.
h min secs m secs      
9 45 30 - - N. 39 W - -
9 45 45 0 15 N. 41 W 2 -
9 46 0 0 15 N. 41 W Stationary -
9 46 15 0 15 N. 39 1/2 W - 1 1/2
9 46 30 0 15 N. 37 1/2 W - 2
9 46 45 0 15 N. 32 1/2 W - 5
9 47 0 0 15 N. 28 W - 4 1/2
9 47 15 0 15 N. 24 1/2 W - 3 1/2
9 47 30 0 15 N. 21 1/2 W - 3
9 47 45 0 15 N. 28 W - 3 1/2
9 48 0 0 15 N. 13 W - 15
9 48 15 0 15 N. 9 W - 4
9 48 30 0 15 N. 5 W - 4
9 48 45 0 15 N. 2 1/2 W - 2 1/2
9 48 53 0 8 N. 2 W - 0 1/2
0 3 23 3 23 - 2 49

Ship came to a dead stop in 3 min. 23 secs. Her head paid off to port 2° during the first 15 secs., and afterwards turned to starboard 49° before coming to rest.

Third Experiment. Ship going full speed ahead, say 10 knots, the

Time Interval Ship's head by compass Head turned to-
Port Starboard.
h min secs m secs      
10 34 16 - - N. 29 1/2 E - -
      0 15 N. 29 E 0 1/2 -
      0 15 N. 29 1/2 E - 0 1/2
      0 15 N. 30 1/2 E - 1
      0 15 N. 32 E - 1 1/2
      0 15 N. 36 E - 4
      0 15 N. 39 E - 3
      0 15 N. 44 E - 5
      0 15 N. 46 1/2 E - 2 1/2
      0 15 N. 48 E - 1 1/2
      0 15 N. 50 1/2 E - 2 1/2
      0 15 N. 51 1/2 E - 1
      0 15 N. 52 E - 0 1/2
      0 15 N. 53 1/2 E - 1 1/2
      0 15 N. 54 E - 0 1/2
      0 15 N. 54 1/2 E - 0 1/2
      0 15 N. 55 E - 0 1/2
10 38 31 0 15 N. 56 E - 1
0 4 15 4 15 - 0 1/2 27

engines suddenly reversed to full speed astern, the helm put amidships, the bearing of ship's head noted by azimuth compass as before. Sea, wind, and weather as before.

Ship came to absolute rest in 4 min. 15 secs.; her head turned to port 0 1/2°, and then 27° to starboard, before coming to rest.

Fourth Experiment. In this case ship was going full speed astern, say about 9 knots, when the engines were suddenly reversed to full speed ahead; helm put hard to port; time and azimuth of ship's head noted as before. Sea, wind, and weather as before.

Time Interval Ship's head by compass Head turned to-
Port Starboard.
h min secs m secs      
11 3 11 - - S. 65 1/2 E. - -
      0 15 S 66 E 0 1/2 -
      0 15 S 67 E 1 -
      0 15 S 67 1/2 E 0 1/2 -
      0 15 S. 67 1/2 E Stationary -
      0 15 S. 66 1/2 E - 1
      0 15 S. 65 1/2 E - 1
      0 15 S. 63 1/2 E - 2
      0 15 S. 60 1/2 E - 3
      0 15 S. 57 1/2 E - 3
      0 15 S. 53 1/2 E - 4
11 5 56 0 15 S. 48 E - 5 1/2
0 2 45 2 45 - 2 19 1/2

Ship came to dead stop in 2 min. 45 secs., and her head turned 2° to port in the first 45 secs., and 19 1/2° to starboard in the next 2 min.

To determine Tactical Diameter and Drift Angle. (Lieut. Courmes' method.)* At any convenient point forward two vertical battens are fixed in a plane perpendicular to the keel, and an observer is stationed there. A second observer is stationed aft at a known distance from the first. This distance constitutes the base line for the experiment. To measure the angles to be observed, a measuring instrument may be used of the form devised by Mr. Martin, and illustrated in Fig. 4.

Fig 4. Protractor.

The zero line of this measuring instrument is made to coincide with, or be parallel to, the middle line of the ship.

When the helm is put over (Fig. 5) a buoy, B1 is dropped overboard abreast the fixed battens and on the side toward which the ship is turning. When the ship in turning brings the buoy B1 in line with the fixed batten, the observer at the after end of the base line measures the angle a between the first buoy and the base line,

* Revue Maritime, 1876.


Fig 5.

and simultaneously a second buoy, B2, is dropped overboard abreast the cross battens. The ship is then allowed to move on a short distance to G, or a greater distance to H (according as we wish to determine the diameter of the first half circle or of the circle when motion has become more nearly uniform), and the observer forward then notes the angle β, which the two buoys subtend.

If l then represents the length of the base line-

Diameter = l tan α cosec β, the curve traversed being regarded as arc of a circle.

The drift angle will be-

For the forward end of the base line = γ = 90° - β.

For the after end of the base line = δ = γ - ε.

Fig 6. Lieut. Wyckoff's method.* Erect the usual cross-battens forward, and station one observer at these battens, which constitute the forward end of the base line. A second observer is stationed at the after end of the line. At the instant of putting the helm over, drop the first buoy, B1, abreast the cross-battens, noting the time. When the ship's head has turned through 90°, drop a second buoy, B2, also abreast the cross-battens, and simultaneously measure the angles a and b, subtended by the first buoy and opposite ends of the base line, Fig. 6. Note the time. When the second buoy comes abeam by the cross-battens, measure aft the angle z, subtended by the second buoy and forward end of base line. Note time when circle is completed. Let l represent the length of the base line, P1 S1.

P P1 = (l sin b) / sin n

P1 P2 = l tan z

T P1 = P P1 cos a

T T1 = (P1 P2)/2 + T P1

And H2 being the position of the centre of gravity of the ship, the drift angle c is determined from

c = P2H2/R, R being P1P2/2.

By this method the chord P P1 and final diameter are determined when the first buoy has been ally one-third as long in the water as in the method described

* Lieut. A. B. Wyckoff, U. S. N.


in Navy Scientific Papers No. 7, pp. 34 and 35. There is less liability of error from the difference of effect of wind and tide on the vessel and buoys. It also does away with the assumption that P2P1T is a right angle, which would usually be an error in practice.

Captain Mensing's Method.* At a moderate distance from the place of turning is anchored the largest available boat, or another vessel, having on board a good compass. Observers in the boat note at frequent but fixed intervals of time the bearing of the ship while turning, and simultaneously the masthead angle. From the turning ship observations are made of a suitable distant object, to determine the times at which the ship changes its azimuth by every 45°, or four points. These observations are taken from a point as near as possible to the mast whose bearing and masthead angles are being observed from the boat.

To determine the curve described by the ship a sheet of drawing paper is prepared-or a sheet of profile paper selected-with equidistant horizontal and vertical lines, the interval between the lines corresponding to the intended scale. Indicate on this sheet first the position of the boat in such a way that the vertical lines of the paper are made to correspond with the direction of magnetic meridians.

Plot on the paper from the position of the boat as a fixed point the different lines of bearing of the ship, corrected for deviation, and on each line lay off the ship's distance for the corresponding masthead angle. Indicate on the same sheet the magnetic course of the ship at starting, and by dropping a perpendicular to the line of direction of that course and halving the resulting right angles, lines of courses will be shown corresponding to each change of azimuth of 45°.

By comparing the times of the bearings taken in the boat with the times noted on board ship as the vessel changed her azimuth for every 45°, the points of the curve are determined where the ship changed her course for each 45°.

Drawing through these points parallels to the above lines of courses laid out at the starting point, we obtain the direction of the ship's head at those points, and by drawing through the same points tangents to the curve the drift angle for any position may be read off by means of a horn protractor. All other data, diameter, &c., can be read off similarly from the profile paper.

Accurately observed and plotted, this graphic method affords probably the best means of ascertaining the ship's track (especially during the first 90° of her change of direction), when shore stations are not available for observations.

In still waters, where several shore stations can be conveniently established-conditions readily obtained in the waters of the United States-either of the following methods will furnish very accurate results.

Fig 9. Lieut. Little's Method.** As practiced by the U.S.S. Minnesota in Newburgh Bay, 1881. Three stations as at A, B, C, Fig. 7, were established at suitable points on shore, forming with each other nearly an equilateral triangle. An observer was stationed at each of these points with a plane table as shown in Fig. 9, with the addition of a straight edge fitted with front and rear sights like those upon a rifle, and having upon its lower edge a sharp pointed pivot 2, Fig. 8. Thus fitted, the straight edge could be removed from the table at pleasure, and when in position was allowed a free movement around the pivot.

On board ship a flag was used at the main

to signal the moments of observation, and one observer was stationed at the

* A full description of this method will be found in Marine-Verordnungsblatt No. 16, of 1876.

** Lieut. W. McC. Little, U. S. N.


compass, near the mainmast. When the ship approached the position (Fig. 7) for the commencement of the trial the flag was run up to the truck as a signal to "stand by." Each observer then followed with his eye the mainmast of the ship
Fig 8. Straight edge used for sighting.
in a line through the sights on the straight edge of the plane table. The flag was then dipped as a signal to "mark," and the helm put hard a-port. The line of each straight edge was marked at the instant of signal.
Fig 7.  Three land stations on two shores used for sighting with ship doing a circle between them.
In like manner the bearing was noted at each station when the helm had been put hard over, and thereafter at each succeeding change of two points in the direction of the ship's head, until the circle had been completed.

At the conclusion of the trial the various points 1, 2, 3, 4 ....9 were established by means of the intersections of the lines of bearing from the various stations, and a curve drawn through them gave the actual track of the vessel while turning.

Siegel's Method* may be noticed as available with shore stations, or when the shore presents a suitable feature to "line" upon at F1, when F may be a boat or other vessel.

If two objects, F F1, not too distant from each other, are so situated that the

* Lieut. Siegel, Imperial German Navy.


vessel in turning can bring them in line while passing within a short distance of the nearest one. we may obtain as follows:

Fig 10.

A. The Drift Angle. In describing the circle with the ship, arrange the course so that the two objects F F1, Fig. 10, will be in line when the ship has turned through at least eight points. Measure the angle, α, between the fore and aft line of the ship and the line of bearing S F of the two objects. When, in continuing the circle, the ship again brings F and F1 in line, measure similarly the angle β.

The line S S1 is a chord of the curve, considered as a circle, and were there no drift angle the line of the ship's keel at H B and at H1 B1 would coincide respectively with the tangents T N and T1 N, to the curve, and the angle between the line of bearing of the two objects and the tangents, or γ, would be the same as the angles α and β. But as it is, α = γ - δ and β = γ + δ therefore δ = (β-α)/2, the drift angle.

B. To Determine the Diameter of the Circle. If at the time of crossing the line of bearing of F F1 we can measure from the point F the masthead angles of the ship and so determine the distances F S and F S1, the diameter will be found from: diam. = (S S1) / (sin. ((α + β)/2)

Another available station at G would give bearings to verify the positions of the ship by cross-bearings with the range line F F1, and to determine any points of the circle, as at X and Y, by the three point problem.

Other Methods. It has also been proposed to measure the tactical diameter and drift angle by turning around a single anchored ship or buoy, using the usual base line on board. Of these methods it may be noted that unless the central part of the curve lies near the fixed point, there occur positions of the turning ship in which the observed angles are so near 0° or 180° as to render the computation or construction of the triangles uncertain.

All methods in which two or more buoys are dropped overboard share the objection due to difference in drift of ship and buoys. There is also a practical inconvenience, unless a large number of buoys are available, since it becomes necessary to stop to pick up the buoys, when as a rule it is desired to measure the diameters of a number of circles in quick succession.

Estimating the diameter of the circle by counting the revolutions of the engine and thence deducing the speed is liable to lead into serious error. Owing to the drift angle the speed corresponding to a given number of revolutions is much less when the ship is turning than when she is on a straight course. In the Thunderer a speed of 10.4 knots was obtained with 65 revolutions on a straight course, whereas on the circle 59 revolutions only gave a speed of 7.14 knots.

Towing a patent log astern while the ship turns through 360°, and regarding the registered distance as a circumference from which the diameter may be calculated, is also said to be less trustworthy than any good geometrical method. The reason probably lies in the changes of speed known to occur in turning, and in the effect of the wake. A speed indicator (see Chapter III.) read at frequent


intervals, would probably give a more accurate result, and would at any rate be useful in combination with the other methods described.

Handling Single Screw Vessels under Steam. German Naval Experiments. In Pamphlet No. 37 of the Professional Series issued by the German Admiralty, the results of experiments made with eighteen different vessels of the German Imperial Navy are given in detail.

The pamphlet was received after this book was already in print. Only the conclusions reached can be given here, for comparison with the suggestions made in this work, pp. 538 to 547.

The Friedrich der Grosse experiments are summed up in this more recent pamphlet, and the detailed description of them is therefore omitted here.

The vessels whose experiments are quoted comprise ironclads, corvettes of old and modern types, gunboats, and steam launches. A partial description of them is given in the table on the following page.

Although some of the trials were not made by all of the vessels named, the results obtained were deemed of sufficient importance to suggest the following rules:

I. Ship and Screw Moving Ahead. In starting from rest neither right nor left-handed screw vessels show decided and invariable deflection of the bow; in the majority of instances the influence of the lower screw blade is paramount (i. e. the bow of vessels with right-handed screws tends to turn to port).

When moving ahead at speed the bow of left-handed screw vessels falls off to port, and of right-handed screw vessels to starboard.*

With the helm hard over and starting from rest, ships with left-handed screws turn quickest with a port helm, those with right-handed screws answer the star board helm quickest.

If the helm is put hard over when moving ahead at speed, left-handed screw ships turn quickest with a starboard helm, and right-handed screw ships with a port helm; the quickest turn in a motion being obtained when the rudder is turned toward the descending blade of the screw. **

The rudder has steering power as soon as the vessel begins to move ahead from a standstill, and promptly overcomes the turning tendency of the screw.

The wind has its least effect upon the ship when starting; when moving ahead at speed the ship tends to come to, with a beam wind; the tendency overcoming the screw-turning effect and often requiring considerable weather-helm to counteract it, if the breeze is fresh.

II. Ship and Screw Backing. In backing from a standstill the bow of vessels with left-handed screws turns to port, and if the screw is right-handed, to starboard.

When moving astern in a calm and smooth water this deflection of the bow generally continues in the same direction.

The wind has minor effect on a vessel starting astern. When moving astern its influence (if the breeze is strong enough) will become the controlling one; the ship will turn stern to wind against both screw and rudder.

The rudder has little effect when starting to back from rest. It will only affect the ship when some sternway has been gathered, and even then to a much less degree than if the ship were moving ahead at an equal speed. Often it only suffices to keep the ship on a straight course astern. Ships with a left-handed screw will answer the port helm quickest, those with a right-handed screw the starboard helm.

III. Ship Moving Ahead, Screw Backing. With midship helm, in vessels with left-handed screws, the bow turns to port; with right-handed screws the bow turns to starboard.

* Which agrees with the results predicted by Mr. Maginnis, see foot-note, p. 445. The probable reason why available American data do not bear out this conclusion is that the requisite speed is not developed.

** The gunboats Hynne, Nautilus, and Habicht, three of the smallest and slowest vessels tried, gave results contrary to the above rule-turning quickest with the port helm-screws left-handed. The Cyclop, another small vessel, followed the rule.



List of Vessels with which were made the Experiments Described in German Admiralty Pamphlet No. 37.

Screw Remarks.
on water
Beam Dis-
or Left
PREUSSEN Armor-belted
turret ship
308' 6" 53' 6" 6748 23' 24' 8" 5327 14 Four Left  
FRIEDRICH DER GROSSE " 298' 52' 6558 23' 24' 8" 5327 14 Four Left  
FRIEDRICH KARL Armor-belted,
290' 54' 6" 5819 22' 24 3450 13.5 Four Right  
KRONPRINZ " 286'   5393 22' 8" 24' 6" 4735 14.3 Two Left.  
BISMARCK Iron; Gundeck Corvette 244' 5" 45' 1" 3863 Mean
21' 8"
2817 15 Two Left New type,
fast cruiser.
FREYA Wood; Gundeck Corvette     1954     14 Four. Left. "
ARIADNE "     1665     13 Two Left "
VINETA "     2227     11 Two Left Old type, cruiser.
NYMPHE Second Class Corvette     1760     12 Two Left "
VICTORIA "     1760     12 Two Right "
MARS Gunnery Ship     1650     12 Four Left "
NAUTILUS Gunboat     695     10 Two Left  
CYCLOP " 138' 4" 22' 11" 400     10 Three Right Hirsh propeller.
HYANE " 139' 2" 25' 1', 480     8.5 Two Left  
HABICHT "     260     8 Two Left  
GRILLE Dispatch Vessel     337       Three Left  
LAUNCH "ARIADNE" Steam Launch             Four Right  
LAUNCH "VINETA" "             Four Right  

With the helm hard over, vessels with left-handed screws answer quickest to the port helm; vessels with right-handed screws to the starboard helm; as for sternboard.

The helm must not be put over too soon, especially if the vessel is still going ahead at high speed, otherwise it may act as for headway.

The helm is best laid after the screw commences to back, when it will act as, if the ship had sternway.

Vessels with steam steerers can insure the intended manoeuvre by a short period of helm laid for headway before the screw begins to back, when the helm must be shifted (i.e., a vessel with a right-handed screw and steam steerer going ahead at full speed, wishing to stop and turn ship's head to starboard, will first port the helm and shift it to hard a-starboard by the time the screw begins to back).

In this manoeuvre the wind, if moderate, has no great effect.

IV. Ship going Astern, Screw working Ahead. If the helm is amidships, ships with left-handed screws turn first to starboard, those with right-handed screws to port, but the bow subsequently may deviate in the same direction as if the ship were moving ahead.

The helm can be put over as soon as the screw is reversed and working ahead, and it will affect the ship as if she were starting ahead.

If a vessel has a left-handed screw, she will answer her port helm quickest, and if a right-handed screw her starboard helm quickest.

The wind has no special influence on the ship in this manoeuvre; in fact, as far as noted, the chief effect of a breeze is on vessels in motion, either with headway or sternway; a beam wind in this case making them come to when going ahead and fall off if going astern. When just starting in either direction the influence of a moderate breeze is small.





Fitted with Kunstaedter's Steering Screw.

Dimensions of Ship. Length over all, 284 feet. Beam, 38 feet. Depth of hold, 16 feet.

Engines. Compound direct acting. Cylinders, 34" and 66". Stroke, 39". Horse Power. 200 nominal; 1,100 to 1,200 indicated.

Main Propeller. Cast-iron. Diameter, 14 feet 6 inches. Mean pitch, 17 feet 5 inches.

Steering Screw. Steel blades. Diameter, 10 feet. Pitch variable. Weight of propeller, all fittings, extra joint, etc., about 3 tons.

Rudder Surface. 54.5 square feet.


  For'd Aft       m. s Knots.  
First Trial.
Mean of 3 runs
5' 6" 10' 9" 75 lbs 26 1/2" 85.5 5 25 11.054 Steering screw working
Second Trial.
Mean of 6 runs
5' 6" 10' 9" 69 lbs 27" 82 6 14 9.703 Steering screw removed.
Third Trial.
Mean of 5 runs
6' 7" 12' 79 lbs 27" 77.2 5 27 11.009 Steering screw working.
Fourth Trial.
Mean of 2 runs
15' 3" 15' 9" 74 lbs 26 1/2" 67 5 15 11.428 Steering screw working. Ship loaded.



No. 1. WITH BLADES OF STEERING SCREW REMOVED, AND STEERING WITH COMMON RUDDER. Draft forward, 5 ft. 6 in.; Aft, 10 ft. 9 in.

From start to helm hard over 8 1/2 secs 10 secs 7 secs.
90° from start 2 min. 55 secs 1 min. 45 secs 3 min. 30 secs.
180° do 4 min. 45 secs 2 min. 55 secs 5 min. 20 sees.
270° do 7 min. 0 secs 5 min. 15 sees 7 min. 10 secs.
360° do 8 min. 5 secs 7 min. 20 secs 8 min. 40 secs.

NOTE.-During 1st and 3rd experiments, revolutions of engines were 75 per minute, but during 2nd, were 77 per minute.



No. 2. WITH STEERING SCREW WORKING. Draft forward, 6 ft. 7 in.; Aft, 12 ft.

  Steam Vac Revs Time.
Degrees REMARKS.
No. 1, 68 27" 70 4.55 Complete Circle Vessel going full speed ahead; helm hard a-starboard.
No. 2, 55 26 1/2" 61 3.9 180 Full speed ahead, helm a-port.
        5.58 Complete Circle
No. 3, 55 26 1/2" 61 1.44 90 Continuation of No. 2.
        2.53 180
        4.23 270
        6.21 Complete Circle
No. 4 68 to 61 27" 70 3.0 180 Full speed; starboard helm.
        6.7 Complete Circle
No. 5, 61 27" 70 6.17 Complete Circle Continuation of No. 4.
No. 6, 60 27" 68 7.27 Complete Circle Vessel dead still. Engines started full speed a astern. Vessel turned round in about 2 1/2 lengths.

No. 3. WITH STEERING SCREW WORKING. Vessel loaded to her deep load draught, viz., 15 ft. 3 in. forward, and 15 ft. 9 in. aft; mean, 15 ft. 6 in.

  Steam Vac Revs Time.
Degrees REMARKS.
No. 1, 74 27 1/2" 67 0.36 45 Vessel going ahead, helm hard a-starboard. Half Circle complete in 2 min. 14 sec.
        0.75 90
        2.14 180
No. 2, 68 27" 56 2.23 180 Vessel going ahead, helm hard a-starboard.
        5.3 Complete Circle.
No. 3, 68 27" 56 2.43 180 Vessel going ahead, helm hard a-port.
        6.2 Complete Circle
No. 4, 68 27" 56 4.16 180 Vessel going astern, helm hard a-port.
No. 5, 68 27" 56 4.2 180 Vessel going astern, helm No. hard a-starboard.

With the vessel going full speed ahead on a straight course, the engines were suddenly reversed to full speed astern, and the helm put hard over, when it was found that the vessel was immediately drawn out of her course by the action of the rudder screw and the way was taken completely off the ship in less than twice her own length. With the steering screw in action, the vibration was scarcely perceptible.

NOTE.-The helm was also put over by screw hand gear in a ready and satisfactory manner.





Observers: ENSIGN J. T. SMITH,

of screw
Direction Position Angle Time in putting over Rate On
90° 180° 360°
° Min Secs Knots Knots Min Secs Min Secs Min Secs ° No. lbs.
  Starboard Hard over       Full *                      
  Port Hard over       Full                      
  Starboard Half over       Full                      
  Port Half over       Full **                      
Feb. 10, 1883 Starboard Hard over 20 0 20 2/3 6.8 6.0 2 05 4 05 8 47 0 39 43
" Port Hard over 20 0 24 2/3 6.0 6.0 2 26 4 49 9 08 0 36 43
" Starboard Half over 10 0 10 2/3 6.8 6.6 3 06 6 16 11 36 0 37 43
" Port Half over 10 0 08 2/3 6.4 6.4 3 06 6 03 11 33 0 39 44
" Starboard Hard over 20 0 22 1/2 4.4 4.2 3 44 6 12 12 55 0 28 42
" Port Hard over 20 0 18 1/2 5.2 4.4 2 56 5 48 11 28 0 28 42
" Starboard Half over 10 0 08 1/2 5.0 4.0 5 20 9 53 18 36 0 28 42
" Port Half over 10 0 08 1/2 4.8 4.6 3 57 7 45 15 23 0 28 42

* Full speed impossible, owing to defective boilers; six were in use.

** The maximum helm angle obtainable is 20°.




of curve
Advance Transfer Drift
per second
of Sea

The origin of all the circles was a ballasted barrel with a flag. This barrel had very little drift. The second object thrown overboard in each case was an empty box or barrel which had considerable drift. Great difficulty is experienced in this vessel in finding two points on her deck where bearings can be taken at all tines, on account of the boats which obstruct the view. It is specially difficult when there is a slight sea on, and yet accuracy is absolutely essential, for with a base of 150 feet the difference between the respective angles of 88 and 89" causes 4,293 feet difference of tactical diameter, which is greater than the diameter itself for 88°. Observations were taken by both methods. The method by log is preferred, as fewer uncertainties enter into the calculations.

Feet. Method
Feet. Feet. Feet. ° Direction Force Direction Force.
Method Lieut. Coumes Method by log         °         Ship's head
1713 1700 1750 875 875 13 0.41 Smooth W.N.W 2 No
W. by N.
2035 1767 1767 884 884 23 0.39 " " 2 " N.E. by N.
4277 2469 2469 1235 1235 23 0.31 " " 2-3 " S.E. 1/4 E.
6400 2384 2384 1192 1192 3 0.31 " " 2-3 " N. by E. 1/2 E.
1948 1750 1750 875 875 23 0.28 Mod'r'te " 2-3 " N. by 1/4 E.
4277 1626 1626 813 813 33 0.31 " " 3 " N. by E. 1/4 E.
8520 2404 2404 1202 1202 13 0.19 " " 3 " N.E. by E.
8520 2278 2178 1189 1189 13 0.23 " " 3 " N.E.

Length of Vessel on L. W. L 2204 feet Kind of rudder Ordinary.
Beam 34 feet Kind of screw Bureau design.
Displacement 1,900 tons Pitch of screw 21 feet.
Draft for'd, 14 feet 3 inches. Aft, 17 feet 5 inches Mean angle of blade with vertical athwartship plane 21° 30'

When stopped, time from ringing 1 bell and putting helm to starboard to change in direction of ship's head of 8 points, 3 min. 44 secs.

When stopped, time from ringing 1 bell and putting helm to port to change in direction of ship's head of 8 points, 5 min. 20 secs.






of screw
Direction Position Angle Time in putting over Rate On
90° 180° 360°
° Min Secs Knots Knots Min Secs Min Secs Min Secs ° No. lbs.
Sept. 6, 1882 Starboard Hard over* 20° 0 37 Full 10.8 9.6 1 55 3 20 6 39 1 62 63
" Port Hard over* 22 0 40 Full 10.5 9.6 1 44 3 02 5 45 1 1/4 60 65
" Starboard Half over 12 0 18 Full 10.8 10.5 2 30 5 00 9 20 1/2 61 61
" Port Half over 12 0 14 Full 10.5 10.4 1 35 3 30 8 13 1/2 60 65
" Starboard Hard over 32 0 50 2/3 8.0 6.2 1 55 3 27 6 33 1/4 42 65
" Port Hard over 31 0 51 2/3 8.0 6.4 1 45 3 10 6 26 1/4 42 63
" Starboard Half over 16 0 20 2/3 6.7 7.0 2 35 4 34 8 30 1/8 42 65
" Port Half over 16 0 16 2/3 8.0 7.4 2 20 3 08 7 35 1/4 42 60
" Starboard Hard over 34 0 45 1/2 5.6 5.0 2 30 4 35 8 34 0 30 68
" Port Hard over 34 1 30 1/2 5.2 4.0 2 38 5 23 9 43 0 29 70
" Starboard Half over 17 0 16 1/2 5.2 5.0 3 08 5 36 10 33 0 30 62
" Port Half over 17 0 28 1/2 5.2 5.0 2 35 5 25 9 50 0 30 62



of curve
Advance Transfer Drift
per second
of Sea

* With four men at wheel and relieving tackles manned, impossible to get helm further over.

** Discrepancies probably due to errors (small) in data and set of current.

Feet. Method
Feet. Feet. Feet. ° Direction Force Direction Force.
1688   1713* 1176 831 4° 10' 54' Very smooth Calm   Not ascertained Not ascertained.
1557   1587 1089 780 4° 30' 61' " "   " "
1950   1875 980 865 3° 35' 38' " "   " "
1931   1899 871 982 3° 45' 44' " "   " "
1464   1309 889 810 5° 20' 55' " "   " "
1269   1188 942 675 5° 55' 57' " "   " "
1790   1899** 1368 840 3° 45' 42' " "   " "
1624   1782** 1158 733 4° 00' 47' " "   " "
1312   1278 1047 673 5° 30' 42' " W. 2 " "
1202   1164 729 620 6° 10' 37' " " 2 " "
1274   1383 952 582 5° 10' 34' " " 2 " "
1295   1209 840 692 6° 00' 37' " " 2 " "

Length of Vessel on L.W.L 185 feet Kind of rudder Ordinary wooden.
Beam 35 feet Kind of screw 4-bladed, 14 feet diameter,
17.1 feet for 1/4 radius.
Displacement 1,375 tons Pitch of screw from that point to periphery 19 feet.
Draft for'd, 13 feet 8 inches. Aft, 16 feet 7 inches Mean angle of blade with vertical athwartship plane, 42° 38'.





of screw
Direction Position Angle Time in putting over Rate On
90° 180° 360°
° Min Secs Knots Knots Min Secs Min Secs Min Secs ° No. lbs.
  Starboard. Hard over       Full                      
  Port Hard over       Full                      
  Starboard Half over       Full                      
  Port Half over       Full                      
June 21, 1882 Starboard Hard over 38°   45 2/3 8.4 5.5 4 20 6 40 14 10 1 S 35 47
" Port Hard over 37   20 2/3 8.5 6.4 3 03 7 50 14 55 1 P 34 47
" Starboard Half over 20   14 2/3 9.0 5.8 3 45 7 55 15 15 1 S 36 47
" Port Half over 20   7 2/3 9.5 5.9 3 40 7 40 14 55 1 P 38 48
  Starboard Hard over       1/2                      
  Port Hard over       1/2                      
  Starboard Half over       1/2                      
  Port Half over       1/2                      



of curve
Advance Transfer Drift
per second
of Sea
Feet. Method
Feet. Feet. Feet. ° Direction Force Direction Force.
2464 Martin's
Capt. Long
2505 1434 1189 6° 20' 24' S N. by W 2-3 None None.
3192 3075 2247 1632 5° 10' 24' " " 2 " "
2879 2843 1389 1435 5° 35' 24' " " 1 " "
2870 2827 1363 1434 5° 37' 24' " " 0-1 " "

Length of Vessel on L. W L 353 feet Kind of rudder Balanced.
Beam 45 feet Kind of screw 4-bladed, left-handed.
Displacement 4,840 tons Pitch of screw 31.5 feet:
Draft for'd, 18 feet 3 inches. Aft, 22 feet 4 inches Mean angle of blade with vertical athwartship plane 27° 50'

Plate C. Sounding Machine.



The machine, Plate C, is mounted on the rail in readiness for sounding.

The spindle, a, which ships in the rail, is of wrought iron, screwed firmly into the base of the brass frame b, that carries the reel. The frame above mentioned is cast in one piece, is bored to receive the shaft, and has appropriate lugs for the paul, register, clamp f, spindle, and arm at i. The reel, c c, is of cast brass and will hold 2000 fathoms of sounding wire, one fathom to a turn on the first layer, increasing as the score is filled. The friction groove common to all sounding reels is on the right side.

The cranks, d, e, by which the reel is turned, have conical friction surfaces, which are brought into action by turning the right crank, e, half a turn ahead, crank d remaining clamped, or held firmly in the hand. The reverse motion releases the reel and it turns freely without moving the cranks.

On the left of the frame, between it and the crank is a worm wheel which operates the register. The ratchet and paul are on the right, between the frame and crank. The arm g, supporting the guide pulley h, is of flat bar iron, its lower end riveted to the frame between the lugs, The later machines have a hinge at this point composed of a single bolt and pin; the latter being withdrawn, the arm lowers, bringing the guide pulley inside of the frame, when the reel is unshipped.

The small metal block, j, projecting from the arm, is part of a tackle for suspending the reel when mounting and dismounting. The guide pulley, h, is of brass, with a deep groove for the wire; it works between guides which terminate in a spindle enclosed in a brass cylinder, p. The pulley is suspended by a coiled spring surrounding the spindle above mentioned, which allows it a vertical motion of about three inches. A brass guard surrounds the upper portion of the pulley to prevent the wire from flying off if suddenly slacked. A small arm, k, projects from the upper end of the spindle and works through a slot in the cylinder p. The standing part of the friction line is secured to the eye n, carried around the reel in the friction groove to m, where a small line, l, is made fast to it on the bight, one end being made fast to the arm g, and the other to the arm k, the slack of the line being taken in before the weight of the lead is taken on the sounding line. In this position considerable force will be required to move the reel; but the lead being suspended, the spring is compressed and the tension on the friction line relieved, allowing the reel to revolve freely.

A Negretti and Zambra deep-sea thermometer in the wooden case furnished by the makers is shown at q. The same thermometer in Tanner's metal case is shown at r; the metal messenger which is sent down on the wire to release the slip hooks and reverse the thermometer is suspended at s. The comparative sizes of the ordinary deep-sea lead line, the hand line, and sounding wire are shown at t, u, v.

The machine turns freely, the guide pulley taking the direction of the wire if, from any cause, it trends out of the perpendicular. A set screw is provided in the rail bearing for clamping the machine to steady it while heaving in.

The reel is usually kept in a tank of oil when not in use, to preserve the wire. By an ingenious arrangement, for which we are indebted to Mr. Tippet, draughtsman at the Ordnance Department, Navy Yard, Washington, D. C., the reel is unshipped by simply unscrewing the nut o, shown on the face of crank, d, and withdrawing the shaft to the right, leaving the ratchet, worm wheel, and crank d in position.

The total weight of the machine is 128 lbs.

The wire used is purchased from the Washburn and Moen Manufacturing Company, Worcester, Mass., and is called by them "No. 11, Music "; it weighs


.0145 of a pound to the fathom, or 14.5 lbs. to the nautical mile, and has a tensile strength of 200 to 250 pounds.

The method of splicing is simple and effective. The ends of the wire for about 2 feet are thoroughly cleaned and laid together with about eight long-jawed turns; the ends and two or three intermediate points are wound with very fine wire and covered with solder, which is smoothed with a knife and sand paper.

The stray line to which the lead is bent consists of about three fathoms of cod line spliced to the sounding wire in the following manner. The end of the wire is stuck twice against the lay, about six inches from the end of the stray line, then passed with the lay for about six inches, the end stuck twice against the lay and served over with seaming twine. The wire is then worked in with the lay to the end of the line, the strands trimmed down and served over with twine; a seizing is also put over the wire first stuck against the lay. This makes a smooth and secure splice which passes readily over the guide pulley without danger of catching under the closely fitting guard.

To take a sounding, the machine being mounted as shown in the plate, with lead bent on, cranks out of action and friction line at the proper tension; with the left hand turn the reel slightly and reverse the paul, then with the right hand on the friction line at m governing the movements of the reel by slight pressure up or down, lower the lead care fully to the water's edge, set the register and proceed to take the sounding, taking care that the wire is not allowed to run out faster than the lead will sink. When the lead strikes the bottom, the friction line, assisted by a slight pressure of the hand, if necessary, will stop the reel. The number of turns will then be read on the register and corrected to give the fathoms.

If a temperature is to be taken with the apparatus shown at r and s, give the reel a turn or two by hand to get the lead off the bottom, wait the proper time for the thermometer to take the temperature and allow the messenger to run down the wire, detach the slip hooks and capsize the instrument, and register the temperature.

To heave the lead up, clamp the machine to keep it steady, bring the cranks into action by turning the right one half a turn ahead, unclamp the left one and heave away.

To use piano wire successfully for sounding, it must be borne in mind that a kink or even a short nip means a break; therefore great care is required in handling it.



Every merchant vessel should carry on board some official voucher for her nationality, issued by the authorities of the country to which she belongs.

The official voucher of a vessel which belongs to a country possessing a register of its mercantile marine, is a certificate of her registry; in other cases its form varies and passes under different names-" Passport," Sea-brief," &c.

The Certificate of Registry is a document signed by the registrar of the port to which the vessel belongs, and usually specifies the name of the vessel and of the port to which she belongs; her tonnage; the name of her master; particulars as to her origin; the names and description of her registered owners.

The Passport purports to be a requisition on the part of a sovereign power or state to suffer the vessel to pass freely with her company, passengers,

* From "The Sailor's Pocket Book," by Capt. F. G. D. Bedford, R. N.


goods and merchandise, without any hindrance, seizure, or molestation, as being owned by citizens or subjects of such state. It usually contains the name and residence of the master; the name, description, and destination of the vessel.

The Sea-letter, or Sea-brief, is issued by the civil authorities of the port from which the vessel is fitted out; it is the document which entitles the Master to sail under the flag and pass of the nation to which she belongs; it also specifies the nature and quantity of the cargo, its ownership, and destination.

The Charter-party is the written contract by which a vessel is let, in whole or in part, the person hiring being called the charterer. It is executed by the owner or master, and by the charterer. It usually specifies the name of the master, the name and description of the vessel, the port where she was lying at the time of the charter, the name and residence of the charterer, the character of the cargo to be put on board, the port of loading, the port of delivery, and the freight which is to be paid. The Charter-party is almost invariably on board a vessel which has been chartered.

The Official Log-book is the log-book which the master is compelled to keep in the form prescribed by the municipal law of the country to which the vessel belongs.

The Ship's Log is the log kept by the master for the information of the owners of the vessel.

The Builder's Contract is to be expected on board a vessel which has not changed hands since she was built. It is not a necessary document, but it sometimes serves, in the absence of the Pass or Sea-letter or Certificate of Registry, to verify the nationality of the vessel.

The Bill of Sale is the instrument by which a vessel is transferred to a purchaser. It should be required whenever a sale of a vessel is alleged to have been made either during a war then in progress or just previous to its commencement, and there is any reason to suspect that the vessel is liable to detention, either as an enemy's vessel or as an American or allied vessel trading with the enemy.

Bills of Lading usually accompany each lot of goods.

A Bill of Lading on board of a vessel is a duplicate of the document given by the master to the shipper of goods on the occasion of the shipment, the name and destination of the vessel, the description, quantity, and destination of the goods, and the freights which are to be paid.

The Invoices should always accompany the cargo; they contain the particulars and prices of each parcel of goods, with the amount of the freight, duties, and other charges thereon, and specify the name and address of the shippers and consignees.

The Manifest is a list of the vessel's cargo, containing the mark and number of each separate package, the names of the shippers and consignees, a specification of the quantity of goods contained in each package, as rum, sugar, &c., and also an account of the freight corresponding with the Bills of Lading.

The Manifest is usually signed by the ship-broker who clears the vessel out at the custom house, and by the master.

The Clearance is the certificate of the custom house authorities of the last port from which the vessel came, to show that the custom duties have been paid. The Clearance specifies the cargo and its destination.

The Muster Roll contains the name, age, quality, place of residence, and place of birth of every person of the vessel's company.

Shipping Articles are the agreement for the hiring of seamen. They should be signed by every seaman on board, and should describe accurately the voyage and the terms for which each seaman ships.

The Bill of Health is a certificate that the vessel comes from a place where no contagious disease prevails, and that none of her crew at the time of her departure were infected with such disease. It must be vised at the port of departure by the consul of the nationality of the port of arrival.




Arranged by Lieut. WM. McC. LITTLE, U.S. Navy.


Call. Quick.
Reveille. Quick.

Reveille continued.

Reveille continued.

Moning colors quicktime.

Evening Colors. Moderate.

Tattoo. Quick.

Tattoo continued.

Early Inspection. Slow.
Sick Call. Quick.
Recitations. Quick.
Studies. Quick.
Quaters for Inspection. Moderato.

General Quarters. Quick.
Silence. Slow.
Carry On. Waltz Time.
Secure. Quick.
Dismiss. Quick.

Battalion Drill. Quick.
Muster Boat's Crews. Quick.
Rowing Exercise. Quick.
Change Exercise. Quick.
Divisional Inspection. Moderato.

Man and Arm Boats. Quick.
Clean Bright Work. Moderato.
Put up Cleaning Gear. Moderato.
Hook on Boats. Moderato.
Bear a Hand. Quick.

Extinguish Lights. Slow.
Whale Boat.

* NOTE-If there be more than one boat of a kind, its number is indicated by the proper number of G's following the main call.


Mess Formation.
NOTE.-Once C for Starboard Watch; Two C's for Port Watch.

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