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V. HANDLING CABLE

A. How to cut cable to length and prepare for pulling

1. Introductory information

Cables are always shipped on reels with size and type marked on the reel. The reels are set on cable jacks or horses so that they will turn freely. The worker can then reel off cable and cut to any length desired. Under no condition must the cable be twisted, bent sharply, or kinked.

2. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Proper size and type of cable
Cable jacks or horses
Length of proper size pipe
Hacksaw
Screw driver
Rule

3. Procedure

a. DETERMINE FROM THE BLUEPRINT THE PROPER SIZE AND TYPE OF CABLE FOR THE RUN.

b. SELECT A CLEAR SPACE IN WHICH TO REEL OFF THE CABLE.

c. ROLL THE REEL OF CABLE TO ONE END OF THE CLEARED SPACE.

1) Put a pipe through hole in the center.

2) Jack up on cable jacks or horses.

3) Put a mark about three feet in front of the reel and from this mark measure off the desired length.

4) Mark the space off in five-foot lengths.

5) Pull off free end of cable and reel it out to the proper mark.

d. CUT OFF AT THE BEGINNING MARK IN FRONT OF THE REEL. (USE HACKSAW FOR CUTTING.)

Note: If the cable is to be carried some distance to the job, it should be rolled up again into a roll and the two ends tied to the roll with a piece of marlin.. On the job it should be unrolled and laid out straight before starting the pull in.

e. PREPARE ONE END OF THE CABLE FOR PULLING IN BY FORCING BACK SEVERAL INCHES OF THE ARMOR WITH A SCREW DRIVER.

 
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A. How to cut cable to length and prepare for pulling (continued)

1) Cut off the remaining lead and cable with a hacksaw.

f. PULL THE ARMOR BACK OVER THE END AND TWIST TO A POINT IF IT IS TO BE PUSHED IN.

1) If it is to be pulled in, form the armor into an eye and tie a rope into it.

Note: Small cables are pushed in, and larger cables are pulled in.

4. Illustration

a. The proper method of cutting cable by hand.
One hand holding saw, the other the cable.
 
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B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger

1. Introductory information

All cables in any one run are laid parallel. Special care should be taken not to damage the cable in any way. Small cables may be bent to a radius of two diameters and the larger cables should be bent to a radius of eight diameters. (See accompanying illustrations.) Regardless of size, all the cables in one run must be bent to conform to the largest cable. Do not bend the cables sharply away from packing or stuffing tubes. (See illustration on page 35, Chapter V.) They must come through the tube straight for at least one inch before beginning the bend. Cables must not cross one another.

Overhead View of Cable Run
Overhead View of Cable Run

Side View of Above Cable Run
Showing Bend
Side View of Above Cable Run Showing Bend

 
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B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger (continued)
Illustration of typical cable run on a destroyer.
 
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B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger (continued)

2. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Soft-headed hammer
Wood prybars
Rope or marlin

3. Procedure

a. SKID ONE END OF CABLE. (SEE INFORMATION ON "HOW TO SKIN CABLE" PAGES 45 - 50 INCLUSIVE.)

1) Enter it into stuffing tube of outlet box.

b. BEGINNING AT ONE END, DETERMINE TAE ORDER IN WHICH CABLE WILL BE LAID.

c. FORCE ALL THE CABLES UP BETWEEN THE FIRST HANGING LUGS.

1) Bolt hanger into place.

d. CONTINUE ALONG THE RUN UNTIL ALL CABIES ARE IN THE RACKS.

e. START AT THE FIRST HANGER AGAIN AND SEE THAT EACH CABLE CONES OUT OF ITS STUFFING TUBE STRAIGHT.

1) If any offset is to be made, make it about one inch from the tube.

f. SECURE THE CABLE OR CABLES IN PLACE IN THE FIRST HANGER WITH A CABLE STRAP FASTENED TO THE HANGER WITH MACHINE SCREWS.

g. IF ANY CABLE OR CABLES BREAK AWAY 1,',ROM THE MAIN RUN, BEND THEM TO THE PROPER RADIUS FOR THE LARGEST CABLE THE RUN.

h. OFFSETS FOR DECK OR BULKHEAD TUBES SHOULD BE MADE AS IN THE ABOVE PROCEDURE.

4. Illustrations

The following are some types of hangers used in marine wiring; these include Section 1--single racks, and Section 2--double and triple racks (as required by specification of the job).

 
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B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger (continued)

a. Section 1

Method of Supporting a Single Row of Cables on Steel Decks and W.T. Bulkheads, -Method A-. Note: This method not to be used in compartments were excessive moisture and drip is present.
 
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B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger (continued)
Method of Supporting a Single Row of Cables on Steel or Aluminum N.W.T. Bulkheads.
 
24
 
B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger (continued)
Two alternates for method A showing only three cables. The strap is supported on a single side with a welded stud, or a bottom welded strap. For 9 inches maximum width.
 
25
 
B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger (continued)
Method of Supporting a Single Row of Cables on Steel Decks and Bulkheads Having Insulation.
 
26
 
B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger (continued)

b. Section 2

Illustration showing a method with two single rows attached to the same support hangers.
 
27
 
B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger (continued)
Illustration showing a method with three single rows attached to the same support hangers.
 
28
 
B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger (continued)
Method showing two single rows attached to a single strap hanger below deck beams.
 
29
 
B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger (continued)
Another method of support for two single rows on Aux. Gen. Flat
 
30
 
B. How to rack cable and strap it in place in cable hanger (continued)
Another method of support for two single rows on Boiler Flat
 
31
 
C. How to form and strap cable

1. Objectives

a. To point out the factors to be considered in forming and strapping cable.

b. To show how to form and strap cable.

2. Introductory information

After all cables in a particular rack have been pulled in and racked, the cable is ready to form and strap.

3. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Rubber mallet
Channel locks
Screw driver
Drift
6" crescent wrench
Pry
Straps
Machine screws (if clearance holes are used)
Nuts
Drill (either a tap size or clearance drill for bolt that is to be used. If straps are to be bolted, use clearance drill.)
Rope, 6 feet and 3/8 inches long (if cable is larger than 3/0)
A piece of hard wood 16 inches long, 3/4 inches thick, and 3 or 4 inches wide, which is tapered on one end.

Short piece of hardwood with taper.

4. Procedure a. ASCERTAIN FROM WHICH POINT THE STRAPPING IS TO BE STARTED.

1) Strapping may be started at some given point and strapped both directions from the point, or may be started at one end of the run and strapped through to the other end.

2) Never start strapping from both ends and work toward the center, for this procedure would cause an accumulation of slack, and there would be no possibility of disposing of it.

 
32
 
C. How to form and strap cable (continued)

b. DRILL HOLES IN SPREADER TO SECURE STRAPS.

1) See that the holes are located in such a manner that when the strap is fastened the cable will lie in a straight line.

Right method shown on left, Wrong method shown on right.

Note: In illustration above of wrong method the holes are not drilled in the proper line; therefore the cable is not lying straight. Before cinching a strap tight, all waves in the cable should be worked out.

c. LOOK AT CABLE RACK FROM THE SIDE.

1) Waves illustrated below will always be apparent.

Cable shown loose with waves.

2) These waves can be worked out by tapping with the rubber mallet on the peak of the bend.

3) In some instances it is necessary to hold a flat board against the opposite side of the cable in order to make the cable flex. The 16" hard wood will generally suffice.

d. THE SLACK GAINED IN THIS PROCESS MUST BE WORKED IN THE DIRECTION THE STRAPPING IS BEING DONE.

e. WAVES IN THE HORIZONTAL PLANE MUST ALSO BE WORKED IN THE DIRECTION THE STRAPPING IS BEING DONE.

1) At this point, if the rack has some cables that are a great deal more rigid than others, it is best to shape the rigid cables first.

2) If the lighter cables are straightened first, they are likely to be pushed out of shape in the process of shaping the stiffer cables.

 
33
 
C. How to form and strap cable (continued)

3) Because there are a number of cables side by side in the rack, it is not practical to try to get the waves out by means of the rubber mallet alone.

f. USE TAPERED END OF HARD WOODWORKED BETWEEN THE CABLE.

1) Do the hammering on the wood.

2) If the cable to be straightened is the third or fourth cable from the outside, do not hammer on the outside cable to straighten it. This may damage the outside cable before you straighten the other cable.

3) Never hammer a cable hard enough or long enough in one place to flatten it, because this might result in serious damage to the insulation and sheathing as well as ruin the appearance of the job.

4) For the same reason, do not use a metal-faced hammer.

g. A GOOD BEND SHOULD BE MADE IN THE CABLE WHEN A POINT IS ENCOUNTERED WHERE THE CABLE IS TURNING INTO THE RACK OR OUT OF IT.

1) A bend with a radius equal to eight times the diameter of the cable should be made.

2) If there are different sized cables, the stiffer cables should be shaped first and the lighter cables shaped to fit the stiffer cables.

3) The bend should be shaped in such a manner that it does not distort the shape in the rack. (See the following illustrations.)

 
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C. How to form and strap cable (continued)

Right procedure Right procedure
Wrong procedure. Wrong procedure
Bend throws cable out of line before it leaves rack.
Wrong procedure. Wrong procedure
Bend is too abrupt. It is likely to damage insulation or armor. It does not show neat workmanship.

h. PUT AT LEAST ONE STRAP ON THE BRANCH RUN TO HOLD SHAPE OF BEND WHEN COMPLETED.

1) Continue one strapping of the main run unless instructed differently.

i. WHEN ENCOUNTERING A BULKHEAD, PASS THE CABLES BEYOND IT THROUGH THE STUFFING TUBES.

1) Shape from the last hanger to tube in such a way that the cable is on the same plane as the tube.

Gentle bend
Right
Sharp bend
Wrong
 
35
 
C. How to form and strap cable (continued)

Note: In illustration showing wrong method, the cable, in entering the tube so abruptly, does not lend itself to easy access of the tube for packing, nor does it permit proper finishing of packing tube with white lead.

2) Along the path of the cable there may be places where one or more cables are to go through the deckhead inside of kickpipes. Never assume that any cable will be all right in any kickpipe that is of proper size, for invariably there is a definite cable to enter a specific kickpipe.

j. USE A ROPE OR PRY WHERE A BEND IS TO BE MADE ON HEAVY CABLE.

1) This will make the process much easier. The method of applying the pry or rope will depend upon prevailing conditions.

k. CONTINUE THIS PROCESS UNTIL CABLE IS STRAPPED FROM ONE EXTREMITY TO THE OTHER.

1. CABLE MUST ENTER KICKPIPE STRAIGHT.

1) Cable that breaks out of a kickpipe must be kept straight for about 3 or 4 inches; then it should break against the bulkhead. (See illustration below.)
Drawing of cable strapped to bulkhead then through a kick tube.
 
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D. How to pack tubes

1. Objectives

a. To point out factors to be considered in the packing of tubes

b. To show how to pack tubes

2. Introductory information

The packing of tubes consists of few details, but is in itself a very important job.

In most instances the packing of a tube calls for a water-tight job.

3. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Channel locks
Hammer
Packing tool
Knife or pliers
Improvised fishing tool or screw driver
White lead
Packing

4. Procedure

a. BACK PACK-NUT OUT OF TUBE AND FASTEN ON CABLE, OUT OF THE WAY.

b. LIFT OUT PACKING RING.

Note: This usually can be accomplished by hooking with a narrow-bit screw driver. If the ring fits too closely around the cable, it may be necessary to flatten an end of a piece of wire and use it for a fishing tool.

c. AFTER THE RING HAS BEEN FISHED OUT, FASTEN IT OUT OF THE WAY.

Note: The tube is now ready for packing. The size of the packing will be governed by the size of cable and tube. In most cases 1/4-inch and 3/8-inch packing is used.

d. MEASURE LENGTH OF THE PACKING TO BE USED BY PUTTING ONE TURN AROUND THE CABLE.

1) Cut this turn about 1/16 inch shorter than the circumference of the cable.

Note: If the packing is cut the same length as the circumference of the cable, the ends will lie as shown in illustration.
 
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D. How to pack tubes (continued)

Too long packing

This creates a condition that makes it almost impossible to start the pack-nut when the proper amount of packing is in the tube.

When the packing is cut slightly short, the ends will lie flat as shown below.

Just a little short.

If the proper size of packing is used there will be room for two to three rings of packing in each tube.

e. PUT EACH RING OF PACKING IN SEPARATELY BY MEANS OF HAMMER AND PACKING TOOL.

f. CUT PACKING WITH EITHER A KNIFE OR PLIERS.

g. PLACE PACKING IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE CUT ENDS OF ANY TWO RINGS ARE NOT TOGETHER.

Overlapping rings.

Note: When the packing tool is being used, great care should be taken to prevent damaging of the threads on the inside of the tube.

h. PUT PACK RING IN POSITION AFTER THE PROPER AMOUNT OF PACKING HAS BEEN PLACED.

 
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D. How to pack tubes (continued)

Note: The starting of the pack-nut can be made much easier if the pack ring is set by driving with the packing tool and hammer. Care must be taken in starting the pack-nut in order that the threads are not crossed. If nut tightens with two or three twists of the nut, one may assume that the threads are crossed and the nut should be backed off and started over. The threads are fine; as they are made of brass, they damage very easily. A pair of channel lock pliers is a good tool to use for tightening the pack-nut.

If the proper amount of packing is used in filling the tube, the nut should be tight before it screws all the way down. (See illustrations below.)

There should be 1/8-inch to 3/16-inch space between nut and tube when the pack-nut is tight on the packing. (See illustration.)

Proper amount of packing with space between nut and tube.

If the nut is tight on tube it is impossible to tell whether nut is tight against packing or tube.

Too little packing.

 
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D. How to pack tubes (continued)

i. AFTER THE PACK-NUT IS TIGHT, FILL GROOVE BETWEEN NUT AND CABLE WITH WHITE OR RED LEAD. THIS WILL MAKE A WATERTIGHT JOB.

5. Illustrations

The following illustrations show various types of stuffing tubes used in marine electrical wiring:

Typical Section.
Stuffing tube-steel, Alternate for pressure hull submarines. Used for passing cable through pressure hull (kickpipe protection not required)
 
40
 
D. How to pack tubes (continued)
Deck and pressure hull without kickpipe. Used for passing cable through deck and pressure hull and W.T. bulkhead (kickpipe protection not required.
Deck and Bulkhead Flanges
Deck and Bulkhead Flanges
 
41
 
D. How to pack tubes (continued)
Surface Vessels, Portable cable through weather deck with wood covering. Used for passing portable cable through weather deck with wood covering, primarily fo leads to lights on jackstaff.
 
42
 
D. How to pack tubes (continued)
Portable cable through weather deck and hull. Use for passing portable cable through hull and weather decks (without wood covering) used for lead to lights on flagstaff aft, leads to boom lights and gangway lights. Note: Installed on outside of hull for lights on flag and jackstaff and on inside of hull for boom lights.
Stuffing Tube
Stuffing Tube
Terminal Tube
Terminal Tube
 
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D. How to pack tubes (continued)
Deck and pressure hull with kickpipe. Used for passing cable through deck and pressure hull (kickpipe protection required.)
 
44
 
E. How to skin cable

1. Introductory information

The outside sheath of cable must be removed before the individual wires can be terminated. Care must be taken to cut the cable the proper length.

Caution: It must not be cut too short.

2. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Hacksaw
Rule
Line or side-cutter pliers
Cable-skinning tool (patented or linoleum knife)
Friction tape
Screw driver

3. Procedure

a. ARMOR FABRIC-COVERED CABLE

1) Wrap a turn or two around the cable to serve as a marker and to keep the armor from fraying.

2) Cut through the armor.

3) Do not cut too deep.

4) Lift armor at cut with screw driver and strip off by grasping at cut and pulling towards terminal end. (See illustration.)

Cable that has armor cut. Just armor cable.

5) Make a cut around the cable with the knife about 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch from the armor. This cut should be no more than two-thirds through the fabric.

6) Pull the skinning knife or tool lengthwise of the cable and skin out the wires. Sometimes the wires can be skinned out for a few inches at the end and pulled in opposite directions. (See accompanying illustrations.)

 
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E. How to skin cable (continued)

Armor and fabric cable.

Note: Do not make the cuts too deep as it is very easy to nick the insulation on the wires.

b. ARMOR LEAD-COVERED CABLE

1) With the skinning tool, ring the lead sheath about 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch from the armor and split towards the end.

2) Make another split about 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch from first split. This forms a strip running lengthwise of the cable.

3) Break the lead at the ring by moving back and forth.

4) Pry up the strip with a screw driver and pull out with pliers.

Lead sheath cable.
5) Sometimes the lead may be taken off with one split as shown in illustration below. Start the opening with. a screw driver.
 
46
 
E. How to skin cable (continued)
Lead sheath split.

Note: Do not cut through the armor as this may injure the wire underneath.

c. UNWIND THE FABRIC TAPE UNDER THE LEAD.

1) Cut off jute packing at the end of the lead or fabric sheath. (See illustration.) This jute is placed in the cable to make it hold its round shape and to serve as protection.
Cable fully opened up.
 
47
 
E. How to skin cable (continued)

d. OTHER TYPES OF ARMORED CABLE ARE HANDLED IN MUCH THE SAME WAY AS DESCRIBED.

e. DIFFERENT TYPES OF SKINNING TOOLS ARE ILLUSTRATED BELOW:

Cable Skinning Knife.
Cable Skinning Knife

Special tool for ringing and splitting cable.
Tool for Ringing and
Stripping Marine Cable
 
48
 
E. How to skin cable (continued)

End view of ringing and splitting tool. End View
Side view of ringing and splitting tool. Side View

Cable Skinning Tool (2 Views)

 
49
 
E. How to skin cable (continued)

f. A STANDARD-TYPE MARINE ARMOR CABLE, CUT SECTIONALLY TO SHOW CONSTRUCTION, IS ILLUSTRATED BELOW:

Opened cable showing tinned copper wire, performite insulation, lead sheath, basketweave armor.

 
50
 
F. How to serve and lace cable

1. Introductory information

Any cable that terminates in the open and is therefore subject to damage should be served or laced, or both. In open switchboards it is desirable to insulate the cables by serving from the point of entry to the terminal lugs and laceing it into a form. Varnished cambric insulation, and types of insulation that may unwind and leave the conductor bare, should be served for protection.

2. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Diagonal pliers
Lacing twine
Tape

3. Procedure

a. PREPARE THE CABLE AS DESCRIBED IN SKINNING CABLE.

b. LAY ONE END OF LACING TWINE ALONG THE CABLE.

1) Wrap back the cable from the wire towards the armor and over it.

2) Be sure the twine is held tight. (See illustration.)

Cable showing end of armor laced.
c. DOUBLE BACK THE EXCESS TWINE THAT WAS LOOPED UNDER THE WRAPPING IN ORDER TO FORM A LOOP.

1) Take five or six more tight wraps and run the end through the loop.

2) Pull the loop under the wraps until the end is held securely. (See illustration.)

3) Tape wrapped under serving helps to make a smooth job.

 
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F. How to serve and lace cable (continued)

d. VARNISHED CAMBRIC INSULATION IS SERVED IN THE SAME WAY AS ORDINARY CABLE. (SEE ACCOMPANYING ILLUSTRATION.)

Cable served at the end of the insulation.

e. LACING CABLE FORMS IS ACCOMPLISHED BY A LOCK STITCH AS SHOWN IN ILLUSTRATION BELOW.

Drawing of the knot.

1) The starting tie is two half hitches taken around the line.

2) Do not use a half hitch for lacing as this tie is apt to come loose. (See illustration.)

Drawing of locking hitch. (marling)

3) The accompanying illustration shows a typical form with conductors broken out for termination.
 
52
 
F. How to serve and lace cable (continued)
Multiconductor cable with lacing and conductors leaving the group.
4) The illustration below shows how cable is laced in a panel.

Note: Tape can be used for lacing. (Sometimes it is required.)

Illustration of power distribution box with lacing of cables.

 
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G. How to connect and hook up cable

1. Objectives

a. To slow the necessity of tight and solid connections

b. To show the proper method of preparing wire for soldering

c. To make good electrical connections

2. Introductory information

The process of connecting wires together or connecting lugs to wires is done by soldering. It is also done with solderless connectors or lugs. Either method is satisfactory and the one used depends upon job specifications and material furnished.

3. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Presto torch or plumber's furnace
Solder pot and ladles
Cloth or pad for wiping
Knife
8" crescent wrench
Allen wrench
Terminal strip
Assorted cable--stranded and solid with various types of insulation
Solder
Flux
Solder type lugs
Solderless type lugs
Solderless connectors

4. Procedure

a. REMOVE ALL PARTICLES OF RUBBER, INSULATION, DIRT, OR FOREIGN MATTER THAT MAY BE ON THE SURFACE OF THE BARE WIRE AFTER THE WIRE HAS BEEN CUT TO PROPER LENGTH AND SKINNED.

Note: Do not handle the bare wire any more than necessary, as any oil or grease from the hands or gloves that gets on the surface of the wire before soldering may result in a poorly soldered connection. The wire must be thoroughly clean and bright; if necessary, it should be scraped.

b. JOIN WIRES TO BE SPLICED AND SERVE AS PREVIOUSLY SHOWN.

c. SPREAD THIN COAT OF FLUX OVER ENTIRE SPLICE.

d. USE WIRE SOLDER IF A PRESTO TORCH IS USED. (SEE ILLUSTRATION BELOW.)

 
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G. How to connect and hook up cable (continued)

Photo of torches.

Note: The lineman's outfit as shown in the above illustration is a combination of soldering copper and open-flame torch stem with an interchangeable torch handle and a handle for carrying an MC Tank. This outfit answers all requirements--soldering, brazing, and splicing on wire, cables, transformers, switchboards, generators, and lighting fixtures.

1) Heat splice carefully and thoroughly.

2) When the wire solder upon contact with splice will run without the flame touching the solder, the splice is hot enough to apply solder.

e. FEED THE SOLDER INTO THE SPLICE ON ALL SIDES.

1) Keep the flame constantly on the joint until the splice is thoroughly saturated with solder.

f. TURN OFF TORCH AND WIPE OFF ANY EXCESS SOLDER WITH PAD OR CLOTH WHILE STILL HOT.

g. INSPECT SOLDERING JOINT WHEN FINISHED TO RE SURE IT IS THOROUGHLY SOLID AND TIGHT.

Note: The full size of wire must always be maintained. Never remove any strands of the wire to accommodate a connector or lug. If necessary, get a larger connector or lug to fit the full size of the cable used.

If a plumber's furnace is used, heat bar solder in pot. Splice is prepared as above and flux applied. Two ladles are used. The solder is

 
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G. How to connect and hook up cable (continued)

poured over the splice from one ladle and the other ladle held below to catch solder. The solder must be poured over splice several times to insure thorough heating of the wire. Determine by observation when the splice is thoroughly impregnated with solder and wipe off excess solder while still hot. Inspect work carefully.

Solder-type lugs (see illustration) should be of proper size to accommodate the full size of the cable to be used. Cable should be skinned so that it will fit into the lug recess as deeply as possible; it also should be thoroughly cleaned and scraped.

Photo of ring and lug terminals.
h. HOLD LUGS FIRMLY IN A VERTICAL POSITION.

1) Apply a small amount of flux in recess of lug and apply flux to bare wire.

i. APPLY HEAT FROM TORCH TO SIDE OF LUG AND INSERT WIRE SOLDER UNTIL ALMOST FULL.

1) Put bare wire into recess of lug, while keeping lug hot. 2) Keep heat on lug for several seconds.

j. REMOVE WIRE TO SEE IF IT IS THOROUGHLY TINNED AND SATURATED WITH SOLDER.

1) When it has reached this state, apply heat again to lug and add more solder to fill recess of lug.

2) Insert tinned wire and keep flame on lug until all solder visible is in a liquid state.

k. REMOVE FLAME AND WIPE ANY EXCESS SOLDER AWAY IMMEDIATELY.

 
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G. How to connect and hook up cable (continued)

1. HOLD BOTH LUG AND WIRE FIRMLY UNTIL SOLDER COOLS.

1) Any movement of wire or lug during the cooling period will result in a poor electrical connection.

Note: The cooling can be speeded up by the application of a wet cloth or brush.

Solderless lugs and connectors of many types (see accompanying illustration) are now in general use, and the same care in preparing and cleaning the wire is necessary. The full size of the wire must be maintained; the nuts, set screws, and Allen screws must be tightened as much as possible to insure a good electrical connection.

A loose or poor electrical connection may be caused by a poor soldering job, dirty or greasy wire, or solderless lugs or connectors which are not properly fitted or tightened. This usually results in a high-resistance joint or in a partial or an intermittent open circuit, both of which are sometimes very difficult to locate. The importance of clean wire, proper soldering, and the making of tight connections, therefore, cannot be treated lightly.

Connecting the lug to the terminal is usually done with a nut or locknut.

Caution: Terminal studs and nuts should be checked and made tight before attaching lugs as they sometimes work loose in shipping.

After making sure that whole assembly is tight, lug may be attached to terminal and terminal nuts tightened.

 
57
 
G. How to connect and hook up cable (continued)

Solderless lugs.
Solderless Lugs

H. How to weld a pad

1. Supplies, tools, and equipment

A supply of pads of the proper size
Screw driver
Pliers
Hammer
Rod 2' long, with screw (of same thread as the pad) welded on one end
Goggles (dark glass)
Gloves
Leather sleeves

2. Procedure

a. OBTAIN PADS FROM THE ELECTRIC SHOP.

1) Ask your leaderman to tell you the size of the pads to be used.

2) Estimate the number of pads needed by counting the places on the job which are marked in white chalk. These marks are usually made by a dot, or by an x with a circle.

3) Obtain requisition from your leaderman to secure the pads from the electrical supply shop.

b. DETERMINE WHERE TO PUT THE PADS.

 
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H. How to weld a pad (continued)

1) Check over job to be done. All installations are laid out ahead of time by a layout man, and white chalk marks will show the location of all pads to be welded.

c. HAVE WELDING FOREMAN FURNISH A TACKER.

1) Ask your leaderman what procedure to follow in securing a welder. He will usually take care of this himself; if not, he will advise you where to get one.

d. EXPLAIN TO WELDER HOW THE PAD IS TO BE WELDED.

1) To assure a level surface tack-weld the pad on all four sides before welding.

2) The weld should extend all around the pad.

Note: The top of the bead should be below the surface of the pad in order that this surface be left smooth. Should the bead extend above the surface of the pad, the cable will not strap in place as it should and the projecting bead is likely to damage the cable. (See following illustrations.)

Perspective View of a Correctly Welded
Pad on the Bulkhead of a Ship
Perspective View of a Correctly Welded
Pad on the Bulkhead of a Ship
 
59
 
H. How to weld a pad (continued)
End View of a Correctly Welded
Pad on the Bulkhead of a Ship
End View of a Correctly Welded
Pad on the Bulkhead of a Ship

Side View of a Correctly Welded
Pad on the Bulkhead of a Ship
Side View of a Correctly Welded Pad on the Bulkhead of a Ship

e. ASSIST WELDER BY HOLDING THE PAD IN PLACE WHILE HE TACKS THE PAD TO THE METAL OF THE SHIP.

1) Assist the welder in order to promote speed and to insure that pads are welded on straight. The welder is unable to see the pad after he pulls his hood down over his face.

f. WATCH WELDING CAREFULLY TO SEE THAT ALL PADS ARE WELDED ON STRAIGHT AND THAT NO WELD IS ALLOWED TO GET INTO THE THREADS OF THE PAD.

 
60
 
H. How to weld a pad (continued)

1) Make sure the pads are straight; if they are not straight, cable will not fit properly.

2) Keep threads in the pad free from weld; otherwise screw will not fit.

3) If pad is damaged while welding, have the chipper chip the damaged pad off and weld a new pad in its place.

g. HAVE WELDER HIT EACH PAD HE WELDS WITH HIS HAMMER.

1) Do this to make sure that the weld is a good one and that the pad will not come off when the cable is strapped on.

h. SEE THAT ALL PADS ARE WELDED ON IN A STRAIGHT LINE.

1) Strive to have all installations done as neatly as possible.

I. How to secure a power panel to foundation

1. Supplies, tools, and equipment

2 wrenches
Rule
Level
Declevity board
6 bolts (size per blueprint)
6 nuts (size per blueprint)
6 lockwashers (size per blueprint)
Power panel

2. Procedure

a. SECURE BLUEPRINT AND PANT, TO BE MOUNTED.

1) Secure blueprint from shop's print man.

2) Secure panel from electrical storekeeper.

a) Panel is used to safely tap the feeder.

b) Branches are connected to one side of circuit breakers and feeder to the other side.

c) Panel is needed to safely feed branch circuits and protect other circuits if trouble develops in one.

b. CHECK THE PANEL MOUNTING STRAPS, FOUNDATION, AND PRINT FOR MOUNTING HOTRS.

 
61
 
I. How to secure a power panel to foundation (continued)

1) Measure distance between holes on panel and foundation to see if they are equal. Compare these dimensions with note on print. They should all agree.

2) Use this method because it is both rapid and workable.

c. OBTAIN WRENCHES AND MOUNTING BOLTS, NUTS, AND WASHERS.

1) Obtain wrenches from tool room.

2) Obtain mounting bolts, nuts and washers on order from warehouse.

3) Determine size of bolts, nuts and lockwashers from blueprint.

d. MOUNT PANEL AND PLACE BOLTS IN TOP HOLES.

1) Place panel against foundation in such a manner that bolts slip through top holes of panel and foundation.

2) Place lockwashers and nuts on these top bolts so panel will not tip or fall.

e. PLACE LOCKWASHERS AND NUTS ON ALL BOLTS.

1) Use lockwashers to lock nuts on bolts.

2) Place lockwashers on bolt after bolt has passed through panel strap holes and foundation holes.

f. TRUE UP PANEL AND TIGHTEN BOLTS.

1) Use declevity board and level to true up or straighten panel on foundation.

2) Do not tighten up all the way on one bolt first. Make a few turns on each bolt until all are firm and tight.

g. CHECK PANEL POSITION WITH PRINT.

1) Take rule and measure all points that are detailed in print.

h. RETURN TOOLS TO SHOP AND PRINT TO RACK.

1) Return tools to tool room and receive signed slip from tool keeper.

2) Return prints to shop's print man and receive slip you signed.

 
62
 
I. How to secure a power panel to foundation (continued)

3) Keep close watch on signed slips as they are important.

i. REPORT COMPLETED PANEL JOB TO FOREMAN.

1) The job is not finished until your report is made. The foreman will determine in advance at what stage of the job a report is to be submitted. When this point is reached, a written or verbal report should be made immediately to the foreman or his assistant.

J. How to put a strap on a cable (drill and tap)

1. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Hammer
Center punch
Air drill, or electric drill
13/64" taper shank drill bit or straight shank drill bit
1/4" - 20 starting tap
1/4" - 20 finishing tap
A small amount of grease or oil
A single hole cable strap to fit cables
1/4" - 20 R. H. brass screws
Screw driver (about 8")
Soapstone

2. Procedure

a. OBTAIN THE TOOLS AND MATERIAL.

1) Obtain the drill, bit, and tap from the tool room.

2) Secure the other tools from your own tool box.

3) Secure the necessary screws and straps either from a supply available on the job or by order from the electrical supplies storeroom.

b. LOCATE THE STRAP.

Note: It is assumed that the cable run is already laid out and that layout is a separate job.

1) Locate the first strap either 8 inches from the first tube or lightening hole, or 18 inches from the last preceding strap, as the case may be.

2) Place the strap so that it will line the cable up properly and mark with pencil the center of the screw holes.

 
63
 
J. How to put a strap on a cable (drill and tap) (continued)

c. CENTER PUNCH THE HOLE.

1) Set the center punch with the point on the mark just made so that it stands squarely with the plate.

2) Strike it a light blow and check to be sure the punch has not slipped. If correct, re-insert the center punch in the punch mark and strike it a hard blow, leaving a full-sized punch mark.

d. DRILL THE HOLE.

1) A 13/64" drill is the proper tap size for a 1/4" - 20 brass screw in steel plate. A 7/32" drill may be used in some cases but usually it will make a loose fit and inferior job.

2) Drill the hole clear through the plate, but before doing so be certain that there is nothing on the other side of the plate that you might damage by drilling here.

e. TAP THE HOLE.

1) Tap the hole first with the starting tap and next with the finishing tap.

2) Use plenty of oil or grease.

3) The job may be done in soft steel in one operation only with the finish tap if you are skillful enough, but it is best to do the job in two stages.

Note: Be very careful in this operation as there is great danger of breaking the tap if too much pressure is applied, or if the twist on the wrench is uneven. Usually a broken tap cannot be removed from the hole; however, if tap is broken, care should be taken to see that there are no small pieces of hard steel left in the hole since these would cause another tap to break when job is being completed.

f. PLACE CABLE IN POSITION.

1) Bring the cable into its proper position; while holding it up by hand straighten it out so it will remain in the proper position.

g. PLACE STRAP ON CABLE.

1) Place screws and screw driver within easy reach.

2) Place the strap on the cable in its proper place with one hand.

 
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J. How to put a strap on a cable (drill and tap) (continued)

3) Secure screws and screw driver with the other hand.

h. INSERT SCREW IN STRAP AND SCREW UP.

1) Insert a 1/4" - 20 round head brass screw in the strap and start it in the tapped hole.

2) Be careful not to start it cross threaded.

3) Screw it up tight enough to hold the weight of the cable.

i. STRAIGHTEN THE CABLE.

1) Pull the cable up by hand.

2) Tap it with the hammer handle to take out humps.

3) Be careful that you do not damage the cable.

j. STRIKE THE STRAP WITH HAMMER TO TAKE UP SLACK.

1) Tighten up the screw and then hit the strap hard enough to set it firmly against the plate, being careful that you do not distort it or damage the cable.

k. TIGHTEN UP THE STRAP.

1) Tapping the strap should enable you to take up the screw a little more.

2) Do not twist off the head of the screw.

l. INSPECT THE JOB.

1) Check the job and correct any faults in alignment and workmanship which may be discovered.

3. Questions

a. How could you put a strap on a cable without drilling and tapping a plate?

b. What method do you think would be most suitable on an aluminum bulkhead?

c. Would you expect a screw in a tapped hole to be watertight?

d. Why wouldn't you run a cable along the deck--or would you?

e. Suppose that you had so much cable to strap up that you had 50 holes to drill and tap. Can you think of a way to make the job easier?

 
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K. How to install cable in a battery compartment

1. Objectives

a. To properly install batteries in the battery room or box.

b. To properly install and protect from acid, wiring and fittings in battery room or box.

2. Introductory information

Batteries on board ship must be ready for service at all times as they are used for starting and running emergency equipment, general alarm bells, telephones, etc. Only lead cable should be used in battery compartments.

Open flame should never be used around batteries or in a battery compartment. Care must be taken not to drop or tip batteries. They should remain on the charging line as long as practical and should be installed just before the final tests.

3. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Pocket tools
Electric drill
Drills and taps of appropriate size
Hammer
Center punch
Rubber tape
Insulating varnish or Glyptal
Packing and Hydroseal
Vaseline

4. Procedure

a. REMOVE THE OUTER STEEL OR BRONZE ARMOR FROM THE POINT WHERE THE BATTERY LEADS ENTER THE BOX.

1) Never leave any metal other than lead on the cables.

2) When a battery compartment is used, the armor is removed to a point well out of reach of the acid mist which the battery gives off during the charging period (about 4' above the battery shelf, or from the point where they leave the kickpipe if it is under the shelf).

b. REMOVE THE TAPE PROTECTION UNDER THE ARMOR, THUS EXPOSING THE LEAD.

1) Handle with care cable that has the armor and tape removed, as the lead breaks very easily.

c. STRAP THE CABLE VERY SECURELY TO THE POINT WHERE THE LEAD IS TO BE REMOVED FOR HOOKING UP.

1) Remove the lead about 18 inches from the end.

d. SOLDER ON BATTERY TERMINALS.

 
66
 
K. How to install cable in a battery compartment (continued)

e. COVER THE EXPOSED WIRES FROM TERMINAL TO A POINT AT LEAST 2 INCHES OVER THE LEAD.

1) Cover with a double layer of rubber tape.

2) Be sure no wire is exposed.

f. PAINT THE CABLE FROM THE POINT OF ENTRY TO THE BATTERY TERMINAL.

1) Paint with two coats of insulating varnish.

2) Cover the terminals with vaseline.

5. Illustrations

a. Battery installations

Section of Battery Box
Section of Battery Box

 
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K. How to install cable in a battery compartment (continued)

Cable with Armor and Tape
Removed (Top View)
Cable with Armor and Tape
Removed (Top View)

Battery Box
Battery Box
Note: Mark all terminals so they may be identified easily (+ on white wire and - on black wire).

 
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