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I. HAND TOOLS

A. Introductory information

The student must rely to some extent upon his mechanical ability to direct him in the proper use of tools. Only a few of the more important points in the care and use of tools are covered here.

The tools listed below are the minimum essentials which every helper should have before going out on a job.

B. Supplies, tools, and equipment

7" or 8" pliers (lineman or side cutter)
7" diagonal pliers
Channel lock pliers (pump pliers)
3" insulated screw driver
6" insulated screw driver
8" insulated screw driver
6" crescent wrenches
Heavy pocket knife
Linoleum knife
6' zig-zag, or other wooden rule
Ball peen hammer
Center punch

C. Care and use of tools

1. PLIERS (side-cutter type usually known as lineman's pliers)

a. These pliers are used for cutting wire and making up joints.

b. The proper cutting procedure is to give the pliers a slight downward twist as the pressure is applied to the handles.

c. The joint of the pliers should be oiled occasionally. Pliers should not be used to hold anything that is hot or is being heated, as heat takes the temper out of the pliers.

Drawing of lineman's pliers.

 
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C. Care and use of tools (continued)

2. DIAGONAL PLIERS

a. Diagonal pliers are used for cutting and skinning wire.

b. Their handling and care is the same as that for lineman pliers.

Drawing of diagnal pliers.

3. CHANNEL LOCK PLIERS (pump pliers)

a. Channel lock pliers are a special make of pump pliers that are used extensively by marine electricians because they are strong and safe. They are not as likely to slip as are other makes of adjustable pliers.

b. These pliers are used to install kickpipes and to tighten bushings and locknuts. They are also used wherever quickly adjustable pliers are needed.

c. Channel lock pliers require very little care except for an occasional cleaning of the gripping teeth.

Drawign of channel lock pliers.

4. INSULATED SCREW DRIVERS

a. Screw drivers are insulated to protect the user from electric shock.

b. They are used to drive, and to tighten or loosen screws. They must not be used as chisels or pry bars.

c. A screw driver is one of the most dangerous tools in the kit; it should be handled with great care. A slip in handling often means a punctured skin or the loss of an eye. Never carry a screw driver in your pocket with the handle down. Always keep the point protected.

 
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C. Care and use of tools (continued)

d. A screw driver should never be ground unless it is done by an expert. Incorrect grinding causes the screw driver to slip easily.

5. CRESCENT WRENCHES

a. Crescent wrenches are well-known, adjustable wrenches that have a wide use in the electrical field. They are used whenever a bolt can be easily reached.

b. When using a crescent wrench, one should make sure that the adjustable jaws are always on the side opposite the applied force. The wrench is so constructed as to form a brace against spreading of the jaws when used properly.

Drawing of crescent wrench showing how to use a crescent wrench. I.e. with the force torqued towards the moving jaw.

6. POCKET KNIFE OR LINOLEUM KNIFE

a. Knives are used to skin and scrape wires, to cut cable, and to cut, scrape or trim any soft metal or wood.

b. Knives should be kept sharp at all times. A fine-grit power emery stone, which is kept cool by frequently dipping it in cool water, can be used for this purpose. The knife should be ground slowly, as fast grinding may cause it to burn. A whetstone can be used to touch up the knife occasionally.

c. Do not use a knife in any way that may cause injury to yourself or others. Never try to split a round object, such as a cable, by holding the left hand under the knife while splitting, as a slip of the knife might cause serious injury.

 
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C. Care and use of tools (continued)

Photo of folding electricians pocket kife.

7. SIX-FOOT RULE

a. A wooden zig-zag rule is selected because it is light and will not conduct electricity.

b. One should not attempt to estimate distances by "guess work"; the use of a rule for measuring is a necessary precaution against inaccuracy.

c. The rule should be oiled at the joints to permit easy working and to prevent wear. It should be kept absolutely clean; any paint or dirt spots which may get on it should be removed immediately.

Drawing of folding ruler.

8. BALL PEEN HAMMER

a. A ball peen hammer should be carried at all times and used wherever a hammer is needed.

b. The peen may be covered with rubber and friction tape to make a soft mallet for dressing and pounding cable.

Drawing of ball peen hammer.

 
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C. Care and use of tools (continued)

9. CENTER PUNCH

a. A center punch is used to center holes for drilling. After the position of the hole is determined with the rule, the center punch is placed on the mark and struck with a hammer. This mark shows where the drill should be started.

b. The center punch should be kept sharp and should be ground always at the same angle as when new.

Drawing of six different size punches.

 
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II. CABLE HANGERS

A. How to make cable hangers and lugs

1. Objective

To show the proper method of manufacturing hangers and lugs used for the support of cables throughout the ship.

2. Introductory information

Cable hangers and lugs are used to support cable runs throughout the ship wherever it is necessary to keep the cables away from the deck or bulkhead. The "cable rack" is the complete installation and consists of hanging lugs, hanger, and strap. The success of the installation job depends upon the correct making of these parts, which requires accuracy in measuring and bending, as well as the proper use of tools.

3. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Center punch 1-lb. ball peen hammer Heavy-duty shear or power hacksaw 6' rule Bending machine Punch (size for punching 1/4" or 3/8" iron) Strap iron (1-1/4" x 1/4" x 3/8"--as specified in blueprint)

4. Procedure

a. MAKING THE LUG

1) Square and shear off one end of strap iron (material as specified).

2) Measure to length as specified (in this case 2-1/2 inches).

3) Shear off square. This gives us a flat iron bar 1-1/4" x 1/4" x 2-1/2". Two of these bars are needed for each hanger.

4) Put a center punch mark 1 inch from the end of each of these bars, being sure that it is in the center of the material.

5) Drill or punch a 3/8-inch hole at the center punch mark for the bolt. This completes the lug. Two lugs are needed for each hanger. (See accompanying illustration.)

 
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A. How to make cable hangers and lugs (continued)

b. MAKING THE HANGER

1) Select the proper size of iron bar (as specified).

2) Square and shear off one end of iron bar.

3) Measure off the proper length for a 12-inch hanger (as specified). Allow for a 2-inch lip at each end to be bent at right angles. Since inside measurements are given, allowance must be made for thickness of material; therefore 1/2 inch is subtracted from total length. The total length is now 15-1/2 inches.

4) Shear off at this mark. (See illustration, Step 2.)

5) Measure 1 inch from each end and center punch in center of material.

6) Punch a 3/8-inch hole at each center punch mark. (See Step 3 of accompanying illustration.)

7) Since outside dimensions are given for the 2-inch lip, the flat bar is placed in the bender 1-3/4 inches from the end, and a 2-inch lip is bent at right angles on each end. (See illustration, Step 4.)

8) The hanger is next galvanized or zinc coated. Red lead paint is used when specified. Lugs do not need this coating as they are welded to the ship's structure.

 
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A. How to make cable hangers and lugs (continued)

5. Illustrations

Stemps in Making a 12 inch Hanger. Cut to 15 1/2, punch 3/8 inch diatermter hole 1 inch from end, bend up 2 inches. Steps in making a hanging lug are shown, cut to size, punch hole in center.
 
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B. How to install cable hangers

1. Objective

To show proper method of aligning and installing hanging lugs for the support of cable hangers.

2. Introductory information

All cables on shipboard are supported in cable racks built of a series of hangers and lugs, placed at regular intervals (as specified by the builders), and perfectly aligned. The cables are then secured to the hangers by suitable types of straps. The straps are secured in place by machine screws for which the hanger must be drilled and tapped. (See accompanying illustration, Steps 3 and 4.)

3. Supplies, tools, and equipment

6' rule
Channel lock pliers
Heavy gauntlet-type gloves
Chalk line
Ladder
Marking crayon
6" crescent wrench
Necessary number of lugs and hangers (hangers to be of the proper size to accommodate the number and size of cables to be in run)

4. Procedure

a. SECURE THE RIGHT NUMBER OF LUGS AND HANGERS OF THE PROPER WIDTH TO ACCOMMODATE THE CABLES TO BE RUN. (SEE ILLUSTRATION.)

1) Bolt a hanging lug to each lip of hanger. (See illustration, Step 1.)

2) Determine center line for the run of cable.

3) Put a mark at each end of the run over to one side of the center line, a distance of half the width of the hanger.

4) Run a chalk line between these two marks and line one side of the hanger to this line.

5) Mark off the distance between hangers as shown in the illustration.

b. WELDING THE LUGS

1) When the electric welder is ready to weld the lugs to the deck or bulkheads, the helper will hold the strap square with the line of run, and one lug on
 
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B. How to install cable hangers (continued)

the aligning mark while it is being welded in place. (See illustration, Step 2.)

Note: Wear heavy duty, gauntlet-type gloves to protect the hands and arms from welding sparks. Leave no part of the arms exposed to the arc. Use welding helmet to protect face and eyes. Never look directly at an electric arc unless properly fitted with dark glasses.

Installation of Hanger
Installation of Hanger

 
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III. MAKING KICKPIPES

A. How to make a Type A kickpipe

1. Introductory information

Cables which are run through decks are insured against mechanical injury by kickpipes. The installation of these cables is made watertight by the use of washers, locknuts, and red lead around the pipe where it goes through the deck or is welded to the deck. A properly packed terminal tube keeps the water from going through the pipe. The installation and packing of the tube will be given in another lesson. (See accompanying illustration.)

2. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Hacksaw
Reamer
Rule
Stock and dies
Pipe wrenches
Pipe vise
Cutting oil
Conduit bushing
Conduit of proper size to
accommodate cable to be
run through it
Conduit coupling
Terminal tube
2 brass locknuts
2 canvas washers

3. Procedure

a. PUT A LENGTH OF CONDUIT IN VISE.

1) Thread 1/2 inch or more, according to size of conduit.

2) Ream it.

b. SCREW ON A CONDUIT COUPLING.

1) Tighten with pipe wrench.

c. MEASURE OFF AND MARK THE CONDUIT 18 INCHES FROM THE TOP OF COUPLING. (THIS WILL BE THE TOP OF THE THREADS WHEN THEY ARE CUT ON THE CONDUIT.)

d. MEASURE THE DISTANCE THROUGH THE DECK.

1) Add the space taken up by the locknuts, washers, and bushing.

2) Add 1/2 inch.

e. ADD THE ABOVE TOTAL DISTANCE TO THE 18-INCH MARK.

1) Cut off the conduit with a hacksaw.
 
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A. How to make a Type A kickpipe (continued)

f. THREAD A STRAIGHT THREAD (NOT TAPERED) TO THE 18-INCH MARK.

1) Ream the end.

g. SCREW ON A LOCKNUT.

1) Put on a brass washer, two canvas washers, another brass washer, another locknut, and the bushing.

h. SCREW A TERMINAL TUBE INTO THE COUPLING. (IT NEED NOT BE TIGHTENED AS IT WILL HAVE TO COME OUT AGAIN WHEN THE PIPE IS INSTALLED.)

i. THE KICKPIPE IS NOW COMPLETED AND READY FOR INSTALLATION.

4. Illustrations

Type A Kickpipe (Parts)
Type A Kickpipe
(Parts)

 
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B. How to install Type A kickpipe

1. Introductory information

All kickpipes in any one grouping, regardless of their size, must be the same height above the deck to insure a good looking job. It will be assumed that two or more kickpipes are going in this location and that the holes are already laid out and drilled through the deck. The pipes are held securely at the top by tie plates which are already on hand. The tie plates are to be welded to the bulkhead after the pipes are installed. (See illustration.)

2. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Completed kickpipes of proper size
Tie plates
Pipe wrench
Lock channel pliers

3. Procedure

a. DETERMINE THE PROPER SIZE OF KICKPIPE FOR THE FIRST HOLE ON EITHER END.

b. TAKE OFF THE BUSHING, FIRST LOCKNUT, BRASS WASHER, AND CANVAS WASHER.

c. PUT A GOOD COATING OF RED OR WHITE LEAD AROUND TEE HOLE.

d. INSERT THE THREADED END OF THE KICKPIPE THROUGH THE HOLE WITH TEE CANVAS WASHER AGAINST THE DECK.

1) Put a coating of red or white lead on the under side of the deck around the hole.

2) Put the canvas washer over the pipe against the deck.

3) Put on the brass washer and then the locknut. Screw tight with wrench.

4) Put on the bushing and screw tight with channel lock pliers.

e. (ABOVE DECK) TAKE OFF THE TERMINAL TUBE AND INSERT IT THROUGH THE PROPER TIE PLATE.

f. SCREW THE TERMINAL TUBE (WITH TIE PLATE) INTO THE COUPLING AGAIN AND TIGHTEN WELL WITH PIPE WRENCH.

Note: The tie plate will be welded on to the bulkhead later.

g. PUT THE NEXT KICKPIPE INTO THE ADJACENT HOLE IN THE SAME MANNER.

 
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C. How to make a Type B kickpipe

1. Introductory information

On a Type B kickpipe, an extra-heavy coupling is screwed onto the lower end of the pipe. This coupling goes through the deck and is welded in place. Otherwise the procedure is the same as for making a Type A kickpipe. Measurements, however, are different. Regardless of type, they both measure 18 inches from the deck to the top of the top coupling.

2. Supplies, tools, and equipment

Hacksaw
Reamer
Rule
Stock and dies
Pipe wrenches
Pipe vise
Cutting oil
Proper size conduit to accommodate the cable to be run
through it
Regular conduit coupling
Extra-heavy conduit coupling
Bushing

3. Procedure

a. PUT A LENGTH OF CONDUIT IN THE PIPE VISE.

1) Thread one end.

2) Ream this end with a pipe reamer.

b. SCREW ON A CONDUIT COUPLING.

1) Tighten it with a pipe wrench.

c. TO DETERMINE THE POINT AT WHICH TO CUT OFF THE CONDUIT, PROCEED AS FOLLOWS:

1) Measure off on the conduit 18 inches from the top of the coupling.

2) Hold an extra-heavy coupling alongside the conduit with its center at the 18-inch mark.

3) Estimate the distance the conduit will screw into the coupling, and mark the conduit for cutting at this point.

d. CUT OFF THE CONDUIT WITH A HACKSAW AT THIS LAST NARK.

e. THREAD THIS END OF THE CONDUIT.

1) Ream it with a pipe reamer.
 
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C. How to make a Type B kickpipe (continued)

f. SCREW ON THE EXTRA-HEAVY COUPLING AND TIGHTEN IT WITH A PIPE WRENCH.

g. SCREW A BUSHING INTO THE OPEN END OF COUPLING.

h. THE TYPE B KICKPIPE IS READY FOR INSTALLATION.

4. Illustrations

Type B Kickpipe, (Parts)
Type B Kickpipe
(Parts)
 
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IV. HOW TO MEASURE CABLE RUN

A. Introductory information

After the cable run has been determined from the blueprints, it is generally spotted in, chalked in, or painted in on the ship's structure. It is then necessary for the electrician or his helper to measure the length of the run in order that the cable may be cut the correct length before pulling in. It must be measured from its start to its finish with all due allowances made for offsets and for racking. (See accompanying illustration.)

B. Supplies, tools, and equipment

6' zig-zag rule
pencil
Paper

C. Procedure

1. DETERMINE THE LOCATION OF THE TWO ENDS OF THE RUN FROM THE BLUEPRINT.

2. FIND THE LOCATION OF THE CABLE RUN WHERE IT HAS BEEN SPOTTED IN BY THE LAYOUT MAN.

3. START AT ONE END AND ALLOW FOR MAKING UP IN JUNCTION BOX, OUTLET BOX, OR OTHER TERMINAL BOX. (SEE ILLUSTRATION, A.)

a. This measurement is based on an estimate gained by experience. The beginner should ask the electrician the allowance to make.

4. MEASURE THE FIRST STRAIGHT RUN. (SEE ILLUSTRATION, B.)

a. Do not take off for cable cutting across bends.

b. Make all measurements as though they were at right angles.

5. MEASURE ALL STRAIGHT RUNS (A TO B, B TO C, D TO E, AND E TO F) IN THE SAME WAY. (SEE ILLUSTRATION.)

6. MAKE ALLOWANCE FOR MAKEUP IN TERMINAL BOX AS IN PROCEDURE NO. 3.

7. ADD TOGETHER ALL MEASUREMENTS TAKEN.

a. If the run is a long one, it is advisable to add 5 feet for every 100 feet of run. (Add 2-1/2 feet for 50 feet of run, etc.)
 
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D. Illustration
Measuring Cable showing dimensions.
 
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