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Section II

ARRANGEMENT OF MACHINERY
 

1. GENERAL DISCUSSION

Machinery in the engineering plants of the DD445 and DD692 Class destroyers is so arranged that the forward fireroom and the forward engineroom can be operated together as a completely independent engineering plant, as can the after fireroom and after engineroom. This means, then, that all machinery necessary to the operation of the main propulsion plant must be duplicated in each engineroom and fireroom, and that means must be provided to positively separate the systems in the two plants. The same thing can be said of the machinery necessary to the operation of the ship's service generators. Various auxiliary units, not directly related to the operation of

  the main propulsion plant or the generating plants, are located throughout the engineering spaces wherever space is available. The following sketches show the relative location of the units of machinery in the engineering spaces. In order to properly show- this arrangement, it has been necessary to break each plant down into upper and lower levels. It will be noted that there are considerable differences between the arrangements of the DD445 Class and the DD692 Class. This by no means indicates any difference in the operating principles of these two plants. A comparison between the two will show that the machinery necessary to the operation of the main plant of both classes is exactly the same.

2. LIST OF MACHINERY

Grouping together one engineroom and its corresponding fireroom as a "plant" the following machinery appears in each plant of both the DD445 Class and the DD692 Class destroyers:

EACH FIREROOM

Boilers 2 enclosed draft, superheat control by separately fired superheater.
Blowers 4 horizontal, turbine driven, propeller type.
Fire and bilge pump 1 vertical simplex, double-acting reciprocating.
Emergency feed pump I vertical simplex, double-acting reciprocating.
Fuel oil transfer and booster pump 1 vertical rotary gear, turbine driven.
Port and cruising fuel oil service pump. 1 vertical variable stroke, motor driven. (These pumps are not installed in all ships but the foundations and fittings are installed to provide for future installation of the pumps.)
Fuel oil service pumps 2 vertical rotary gear, turbine-driven.
Fuel oil hand pump 1 horizontal gear, hand-driven.

EACH ENGINEROOM

Cruising turbine 1 pressure-velocity compounded, impulse.
High pressure turbine 1 pressure-velocity compounded, impulse.
Low pressure and astern turbines. 1 double-flow, pressure-compounded, astern turbines. The low pressure turbine is double flow in all installations, but in some is pressure compounded, impulse, and in others is reaction.
Main condenser 1 single pass.
Main reduction gear 1 double reduction, double helical, locked train type gear.
Main air ejector 1 two-stage, condensing.
Deaerating feed tank 1 in DD445 class either the Cochrane or Elliott types. In DD692 class all are the Elliott type.
Main circulating pump 1 propeller type, turbine-driven.
Ship's service generator 1 in DD445 class, 290 kw., geared turbine-driven, and in DD692 class, 450 kw. geared turbine-driven,
670586-46-2
3

Auxiliary air ejector 1 two-stage, condensing.
Lubricating oil purifier 1
Lubricating oil cooler 1 single-pass, reverse flow.
Lubricating oil service pumps 2 vertical rotary gear. (Some ships of DD445 class have two turbine-driven pumps and some have one turbine-driven and one motor-driven pump. All ships of the DD692 class have two turbine-driven pumps.)
Main feed pumps 2 horizontal, turbine-driven, multistage, centrifugal.
Main feed booster pumps 2 vertical, single-stage, centrifugal. (DD445 class has one turbine-driven and one motor-driven, and the DD692 class has both turbine-driven)
Main condensate pumps 2 vertical two-stage, centrifugal. (DD445 class has one turbine-driven and one motor-driven, and DD692 class has both turbine-driven.)
Fire and bilge pump 1 vertical, simplex, double-acting, reciprocating.
Fire-and-flushing pump 1 horizontal, centrifugal, motor-driven.
Auxiliary condenser 1 two pass.
Auxiliary condensate pump 1 vertical, centrifugal, two-stage, motor-driven.
Auxiliary feed booster pump 1 vertical, centrifugal, single-stage, motor-driven.
Auxiliary circulating pump 1 horizontal, centrifugal, motor-driven.

Below is listed the additional auxiliary machinery for the DD445 class, with the space in which it is located indicated:
 
High-pressure air compressor 1 No. 2 fireroom-four-stage, reciprocating, driven by a geared turbine.
Distilling plant 1 No. 1 engine room-Griscom Russell Soloshell-2 effect rated capacity, 12,000 gallons per day. All pumps auxiliary to this unit are horizontal, centrifugal, motor driven.
Fresh water pumps 2 No. 1 engineroom-horizontal, centrifugal, motor driven.
Low-pressure air compressor 1 No. 2 engineroom-two-stage V-type, motor-driven.
Diesel fuel oil purifier 1 No. 2 engineroom.
Diesel oil supply and transfer pump 1 No. 2 engineroom-horizontal, rotary gear, motor-driven.

Below is listed the additional auxiliary machinery for the DD692 class, with the space in which it is located indicated:
 
High pressure air compressor 1 No. 2 fireroom-four-stage, reciprocating, geared turbine-driven.
Distilling plant 1 No. 1 engineroom-Griscom Russell Soloshell, double effect-rated capacity 12,000 gal. per day. All pumps auxiliary to this unit are horizontal centrifugal, motor-driven.
Distilling plant 1 No. 2 engineroom-same as above except that capacity is 4,000 gal. per day.
Low-pressure air compressor 1 No. 2 engineroom-two stage, V-type, motor-driven.
Fresh-water pumps 2 one in each engineroom-horizontal, centrifugal, motor-driven.
Shaft driven lubricating oil service pumps 1 vertical rotary gear chain drive from the main shaft in No. 1 engineroom; 1 horizontal rotary gear chain drive from the main shaft in No. 2 engineroom.

It will be noted that the Diesel fuel oil pump and purifier do not appear on this list for the DD692 class. This is because they have here been removed from the engineroom and placed in the gland compartment (C-3E). In the DD445 class only one Diesel generator is installed, and that in the Diesel generator room forward. In the DD692 class two Diesel generators are installed, each in its own space one forward and one aft.

 
4

Outline of position of the listed pieces of machinery.
1. AUXILIARY AIR EJECTOR
2. MAIN SWITCHBOARD
3. EVAPORATING PLANT
4. MAIN GENERATOR
5. MAIN CIRCULATOR
6. DEAERATING TANK
7. GLAND EXHAUSTER
8. MAIN AIR EJECTOR
9. MAIN GAUGE BOARD
10. MAIN REDUCTION GEAR
11. LOW PRESSURE TURBINE
12. HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE
13. CRUISING REDUCTION GEAR
14. CRUISING TURBINE
15. LUBRICATING OIL PURIFIER
16. #4 BLOWER
17. FUEL OIL STRAINER
18. FUEL OIL HEATERS
19. #2 BOILER
20. #3 BLOWER
21. #2 BLOWER
22. #1 BOILER
23. #1 BLOWER

ARRANGEMENT OF MACHINERY
UPPER LEVEL - FORWARD PLANT
445 CLASS
FIG. 1
 
5

Outline of position of the listed pieces of machinery.
1. FRESH WATER PUMP
2. AUXILIARY CONDENSER
3. DISTILLING CONDENSER CIRCULATING PUMP
4. EVAPORATOR BRINE PUMP
5. FRESH WATER PUMP
6. AUXILIARY CONDENSATE PUMP
7. AUXILIARY CIRCULATOR PUMP
8. FIRE AND FLUSHING PUMP
9. 1ST EFFECT DRAIN PUMP
10. DISTILLER CONDENSER COMPENSATE PUMP
11. #2 FIRE AND BILGE PUMP
12. #2 MAIN FEED PUMP
13. #1 MAIN FEED PUMP
14. MAIN CIRCULATOR
15. STEAM FEED BOOSTER PUMP
16. AUXILIARY FEED BOOSTER PUMP
17. STEAM CONDENSATE PUMP
18. ELECTRIC FEED BOOSTER PUMP
19. STEAM LUBRICATING OIL SERVICE PUMP #2
20. STEAM LUBRICATING OIL SERVICE PUMP #1
21. ELECTRIC CONDENSATE PUMP
22. LUBRICATING OIL STRAINER
23. MAIN REDUCTION GEAR
24. LUBRICATING OIL COOLER
25. MAIN CONDENSER
26. HAND FUEL OIL PUMP
27. PORT AND CRUISING FUEL OIL PUMP
28. #2 FUEL OIL SERVICE PUMP
29. #1 FUEL OIL SERVICE PUMP
30. EMERGENCY FEED PUMP
31. #1 FUEL OIL BOOSTER PUMP
32. #1 FIRE AND BILGE PUMP
33. #2 BOILER
34. #1 BOILER

ARRANGEMENT OF MACHINERY
LOWER LEVEL - FORWARD PLANT
445 CLASS
FIG. 2
 
6

Outline of position of the listed pieces of machinery.
1. LUBRICATING OIL PURIFIER
2. MAIN REDUCTION GEAR
3. HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE
4. CRUISING REDUCTION GEAR
5. CRUISING TURBINE
6. LOW PRESSURE TURBINE
7. DEAERATING TANK
8. GLAND EXHAUSTER
9. MAIN GAUGE BOARD
10. MAIN GENERATOR
11. MAIN CIRCULATOR PUMP
12. AUXILIARY AIR EJECTOR
13. SWITCHBOARD
14. #4 MAIN FEED PUMP
15. #3 MAIN FEED PUMP
16. #8 BLOWER
17. #4 BOILER
18. #7 BLOWER
19. HIGH PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSOR
20. #6 BLOWER
21. #3 BOILER
22. FUEL OIL STRAINER
23. FUEL OIL HEATERS
24. #5 BLOWER
25. MAIN AIR EJECTOR

ARRANGEMENT OF MACHINERY
UPPER LEVEL - AFTER PLANT
445 CLASS
FIG. 3
 
7

Outline of position of the listed pieces of machinery.
1. LUBRICATING OIL COOLER
2. MAIN REDUCTION GEAR
3. MAIN CONDENSER
4. STEAM LUBRICATING OIL PUMP
5. STEAM LUBRICATING OIL PUMP
6. ELECTRIC CONDENSATE PUMP
7. STEAM BOOSTER PUMP
8. FIRE AND BILGE PUMP
9. STEAM CONDENSATE PUMP
10. ELECTRIC BOOSTER PUMP
11. AUXILIARY CONDENSATE PUMP
12. AUXILIARY BOOSTER PUMP
13. SPRING BEARING
14. AUXILIARY CONDENSER
15. AUXILIARY CIRCULATOR
16. FIRE AND FLUSHING PUMP
17. DIESEL OIL SUPPLY PUMP
18. DIESEL OIL PURIFIER
19. LOW PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSOR
20. LOW PRESSURE AIR ACCUMULATOR
21. #4 BOILER
22. #3 BOILER
23. #2 FUEL OIL BOOSTER PUMP
24. #2 EMERGENCY FEED PUMP
25. #4 FUEL OIL SERVICE PUMP
26. #3 FUEL OIL SERVICE PUMP
27. PORT AND CRUISING FUEL OIL PUMP
28. #3 FIRE AND BILGE PUMP
29. HAND FUEL OIL PUMP

ARRANGEMENT OF MACHINERY
LOWER LEVEL - AFTER PLANT
445 CLASS
FIG 4
 
8

Outline of position of the listed pieces of machinery.
1. CONDENSATE COOLER #1
2. EVAPORATING PLANT
3. DISTILLER FRESH WATER PUMP
4. MAIN SWITCHBOARD
5. AUXILIARY AIR EJECTOR
6. MAIN GENERATOR
7. MAIN CIRCULATOR
8. DEAERATING FEED TANK
9. GLAND EXHAUSTER
10. MAIN AIR EJECTOR
11. MAIN GAUGE BOARD
12. LUBRICATING OIL PURIFIER
13. LOW PRESSURE TURBINE
14. HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE
15. CRUISING REDUCTION GEAR
16. CRUISING TURBINE
17. #4 BLOWER
18. FUEL OIL STRAINER
19. FUEL OIL HEATERS
20. #2 BOILER
21. #3 BLOWER
22. #2 BLOWER
23. #1 BOILER
24. #1 BLOWER

ARRANGEMENT OF MACHINERY
UPPER LEVEL - FORWARD PLANT
692 CLASS
FIG 5
 
9

Outline of position of the listed pieces of machinery.
1. DISTILLING CONDENSER CIRCULATING PUMP
2. DISTILLING CONDENSER CONDENSATE PUMP
3. AUXILIARY CONDENSER
4. 1ST EFFECT COIL DRAIN PUMP
5. FRESH WATER PUMP
6. FIRE AND BILGE PUMP
7. EVAPORATOR BRINE PUMP
8. AUXILIARY CONDENSER CONDENSATE PUMP
9. AUXILIARY CONDENSER CIRCULATING PUMP
10. FIRE AND FLUSHING PUMP
11. MAIN FEED PUMP #2
12. MAIN FEED BOOSTER PUMP #2
13. MAIN FEED PUMP #1
14. MAIN CIRCULATING PUMP
15. MAIN FEED BOOSTER PUMP
16. AUXILIARY FEED BOOSTER PUMP
17. MAIN CONDENSATE PUMP #2
18. LUBRICATING OIL SERVICE PUMP 2
19. LUBRICATING OIL SERVICE PUMP #1
20. MAIN CONDENSATE PUMP #1
21. LUBRICATING OIL DISCHARGE STRAINER
22. MAIN REDUCTION GEAR
23. LUBRICATING OIL COCL
24. MAIN CONDENSER
25. FUEL OIL HAND PUMP
26. PORT AND CRUISING
27. FUEL OIL SERVICE PUMP
28. FUEL OIL SERVICE PUMP
29. EMERGENCY FEED PUMP
30. FUEL OIL BOOSTER PUMP
31. FIRE AND BILGE PUMP
32. #2 BOILER
33. #1 BOILER
34. #1 CHAIN DRIVEN LUBRICATING SERVICE PUMP

ARRANGEMENT OF MACHINERY
LOWER LEVEL -FORWARD PLANT
692 CLASS
FIG 6
 
10

Outline of position of the listed pieces of machinery.
1. LUBRICATING OIL PURIFIER
2. LOW PRESSURE AIR ACCUMULATOR
3. LOW PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSOR
4. HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE
5. CRUISING TURBINE
6. LOW PRESSURE TURBINE
7. DEAERATING FEED TANK
8. GLAND EXHAUSTER
9. MAIN CONDENSER AIR EJECTOR
10. GAUGE BOARD
11. TURBO GENERATOR
12. MAIN CIRCULATOR
13. POWER PANELS
14. AUXILIARY AIR EJECTOR
15. EVAPORATOR
16. DISTILLER F. W. PUMP
17. DISTILLER CONDENSATE TANK
18. #8 BLOWER
19. #4 BOILER
20. #7 BLOWER
21. HIGH PRESSURE AIR COMPRESSOR
22. #6 BLOWER
23. #3 BOILER
24. FUEL OIL STRAINER
25. FUEL OIL HEATERS
26. #5 BLOWER

ARRANGEMENT OF MACHINERY
UPPER LEVEL - AFTER PLANT
692 CLASS
FIG. 7
 
11

Outline of position of the listed pieces of machinery.
1. LUBRICATING OIL COOLER
2. MAIN REDUCTION GEAR
3. LUBRICATING OIL DISCHARGE STRAINER
4. LUBRICATING OIL SERVICE PUMP #4
5. LUBRICATING OIL SERVICE PUMP #3
6. STEAM CONDENSATE PUMP #3
7. STEAM BOOSTER PUMP #4
8. FIRE AND BILGE PUMP #4
9. STEAM CONDENSATE PUMP
10. MAIN CONDENSER
11. STEAM BOOSTER PUMP
12. AUXILIARY CONDENSATE PUMP #2
13. AUXILIARY FEED BOOSTER PUMP #2
14. SPRING BEARING
15. AUXILIARY CONDENSER
16. AUXILIARY CONDENSER CIRCULATING PUMP
17. FRESH WATER PUMP #2
18. DISTILLER CONDENSATE PUMP
19. DISTILLER CONDENSER CIRCULATING PUMP
20. EVAPORATOR BRINE PUMP
21. 1ST EFFECT COIL DRAIN PUMP #2
22. FIRE AND FLUSHING PUMP #2
23. MAIN FEED PUMP #4
24. MAIN FEED PUMP #3
25. #4 BOILER
26. #3 BOILER
27. #2 FUEL OIL BOOSTER PUMP
28. #2 EMERGENCY FEED PUMP
29. #4 FUEL OIL SERVICE PUMP
30. #3 FUEL OIL SERVICE PUMP
31. PORT AND CRUISING FUEL OIL PUMP
32. HAND FUEL OIL PUMP
33. #3 FIRE AND BILGE PUMP
34. #2 CHAIN DRIVEN LUBRICATING OIL SERVICE PUMP

ARRANGEMENT OF MACHINERY
LOWER LEVEL - AFTER PLANT
692 CLASS
FIG 8
 
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Section III

STEAM CYCLE OF THE PRESSURE CLOSED FEED SYSTEM
 

1. GENERAL DISCUSSION

With the continued increase in the strength and heat resisting qualities of steel, made possible by the development of alloy steels, came a corresponding increase in pressures and temperatures available for use in steam power plants. This increase allowed for greater power and higher efficiency of marine propulsion units. However, these increases carried with them correspondingly higher temperatures in the boilers or steam generating units of these plants. As the temperature in the boiler increases, the presence of any oxygen, entrained or absorbed in the feed water, becomes, in direct proportion to the temperature, the cause of rapid corrosion. Wherever water is exposed to the air, oxygen will be absorbed by the water and, if not removed, will be carried into the boiler. The necessity, then, for keeping the feed water from coming into contact with air caused the development of the closed feed system.

2. TYPES OF CLOSED FEED SYSTEMS

(a) General.-There are several types of closed feed systems in general use. All of these are basically the same except for the method of removing oxygen and air from the condensate, and the degree to which it must be removed. The amount of oxygen which must be removed is proportional to the temperatures employed in the boiler and, since these temperatures are proportional to the steam pressure, the higher the pressure used the more oxygen must be removed.

(b) Semi-enclosed Feed System.-The semi-enclosed feed system is used for the lower steam pressures and temperatures. The major difference between this system and the systems later described is that an open feed tank is utilized. Since the lower temperatures involved do not require the removal of much oxygen, the oxygen absorbed in this open feed tank does not have as harmful an effect on the boiler.

(c) Vacuum Closed Feed System.-The vacuum closed feed system is used where the middle

  range of steam pressures and temperatures are used. The boiler corrosion problem here is not sufficiently great to require the removal of all oxygen and air from the feed water, but the continued absorption of air obtained with the open feed system must be prevented. To prevent this, a completely closed feed tank is used, the top of which is vented to the main condenser to prevent the presence of air in contact with the surface of water in the tank. The presence of this vacuum will also have the effect of aiding in the partial removal of air from the water.

(d) Pressure Closed Feed System.-With a normal operating pressure in the boiler of 615 p.s.i. and the consequently high temperature in the boiler tubes, it is necessary to accomplish the removal of all oxygen and air from the feed water before it is delivered into the boiler. To accomplish this purpose the pressure closed feed system is employed. Here the feed tank is also entirely enclosed. The tank is placed under a pressure of steam and incorporates, also, a device for mixing steam and water to accomplish scrubbing of the water and freeing of all entrained and absorbed air and oxygen from the water. This system is the system employed in the main propulsion plants of all DD445 and DD692 class destroyers.

3. OPERATION OF THE PRESSURE CLOSED FEED SYSTEM

Figure 9 is a diagrammatic representation of the pressure closed feed system. In this system water and steam circulate throughout the entire cycle of operation without ever being exposed to the atmosphere. This cycle, being continuous and completely enclosed, will allow us to follow the flow of water and steam, discuss it at any point, and trace the return to the starting point. For the purpose of this text, it is considered desirable to start with the water as it rests in the main condenser in the form of condensate. In the main condenser, steam has just been converted into water (condensate) and is ready to be prepared for use as feed water. To remove the condensate from

 
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the main condenser the condensate pump is used. This condensate pump discharges the condensate through an air ejector where it serves as cooling water in the condensers of the air ejector. From here it passes into the deaerating feed tank. In this tank the water is so treated that all the entrained and absorbed oxygen and air are removed and the water is heated preparatory to pumping it to the boilers as feed water. In this condition it can now be called feed water. The feed water is removed from the deaerating feed tank by the main feed booster pump and discharged under pressure to the main feed pump, which further raises the pressure, and discharges it through an   economizer where the water is further heated and finally into the boiler. Circulating through the boiler, the water is heated by heat from the furnace and steam is formed. The steam is then directed through a superheater where its temperature is raised to a point as far above its saturated temperature as desired. It is then directed into the turbines where it is expanded and its heat transformed into the mechanical energy of rotation. All the heat possible having been removed from the steam, and it having been expanded to a vacuum of approximately 29 inches, it is exhausted into the main condenser, where it is condensed back into condensate.
Illustration of the steam cycle showing generation, expansion, condensate and feed.
THE STEAM CYCLE
FIG. 9
 
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