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CHAPTER VI.

AMMUNITION.

GENERAL.

175. The object of this chapter is to give all the information that is required by an officer or man in his ordinary duties on board with respect to:-

(i) Ammunition supplied to Naval guns, including the colour and markings, and the packages in which it is supplied.

(ii) Fireworks supplied to the Service.

(iii) Magazines and shell rooms.

Detailed information regarding the construction and methods of working of the various stores has not been included. If such information is required the various text-books on the subject must be studied.

This chapter should be read in conjunction with the other chapters, certain portions of which are repeated here to make this chapter as self-contained as possible.

GUNS.

176. The simplest form of gun is a strong steel tube into which is placed a projectile; the gun is rifled to impart spin so that the projectile may be rotated and so kept steady in the air. In order to propel the projectile out of the muzzle a charge is placed in the gun behind the projectile; the space occupied by the charge is called the chamber, and the rear end of the chamber is closed with a breech block. Arrangements are made so that the charge can be ignited, with the consequent formation of a large volume of gas, in the chamber behind the projectile; the pressure thus created propels the projectile from the gun.

Guns are divided into two classes, according to the method adopted to make the breech end gas-tight.

First, B.L. (breech loading) guns, in which the breech is made gas-tight by an elastic pad (called the obturator) carried on the face of the breech block. When the charge is ignited, this pad is forced back against the breech block and made to expand outwards against the inside of the chamber, completely sealing the breech during the moment of firing.

Second, Q.F. (quick firing) guns, in which the breech end is made gas-tight by a brass case (known as the Q.F. cartridge case), in which the charge is carried. When the gun is fired, the cartridge case expands and seals the breech end.

EXPLOSIVES.

177. An explosive is a substance which, on being given a suitable initiation, is rapidly converted into a large volume of hot gases.

Explosives are used in Naval gunnery for two purposes.

Firstly, for the cartridge placed behind the projectile in the gun. When the gun is fired the cartridge is ignited, and the large volume of gas produced hurls the projectile out of the gun at a speed of over 2,750 feet per second (nearly 2,000 miles per hour). This type of explosive is known as a "propellant".

 

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Secondly, to fill, and subsequently burst, the shell. This type of explosive is known as a "disruptive", and when initiated it explodes with great violence.

The only difference between a disruptive and a propellant is the speed at which gas is produced when they are ignited. Disruptives explode almost instantaneously. Propellants burn comparatively slowly and regularly.

Cordite is the propellant chiefly used in Naval guns. It is a mixture of nitroglycerine and nitro-cellulose with a stabiliser or preservative. It is pressed into various shapes which have a brown hornlike appearance and, in the case of tubular cordite, into sticks not unlike macaroni.

The sticks are pressed in various thicknesses, and each size is given a three-figure number, which is its approximate diameter in thousandths of an inch. For instance, size 280 means that the stick is .28-inch in diameter, size 070 that it is .07 inch in diameter. All the cordite of any one size produced by the cordite factory in a certain period is blended together and given a lot number, which remains with that cordite throughout its life, thus enabling its behaviour to be observed.

Flashless cordite has a whitish appearance and is usually supplied in the slotted-tube form and is described in terms of exterior and interior diameters of the tube in thousandths of an inch, e.g., S.T. 164-048 means that the slotted tube is .164 inch external and .048 inch internal diameter.

Another form of propellant is called " N.H." or " non-hygroscopic ". This is a plain nitro-cellulose propellant and contains no nitro-glycerine. It is supplied in short lengths about .1 inch long and is usually " multi-tubular ", i.e., each piece is pierced with seven holes longitudinally.

N.H. is described by the " web " size, e.g., N.H. 050 means that the thickness of the web between the holes or tubes is .05 inch.

178. High explosives or "disruptives", are used for filling shells and aircraft bombs (and also mines and torpedo war-heads, etc., which do not come within the scope of this book). When properly initiated, they are instantly converted into gas with great violence, the process being called detonation. In order to assist the transmission of the impulse from the fuze to the filling, an exploder is fitted under the fuze which acts as a booster. The exploder consists of a small quantity of some high explosive which is more sensitive and therefore more readily affected by the fuze unit than is the main bursting charge of the shell. The composition of the exploder depends on whether the fuze gives a combustive or detonative impulse, i.e., whether the shell filling is required to "explode" or "detonate".

The high explosives used in the Naval Service as shell fillings are: R.D.X., T.N.T., shellite and lyddite (or picric acid).

The following high explosives are in use in the Naval Service as exploders and fillings for caps, fuzes and gaines: T.N.T., picric acid, C.E. (composition exploding), fulminate of mercury, lead azide and picric powder. Caps, fuzes and gaines are described later.

Gunpowder, one of the earliest explosives, was originally used both as a propellant and as a shell filling. Though now superseded in these two functions, it is still used in the Naval Service for many purposes, such as bursters in shrapnel and star-shell, and in tubes, igniters, primers, fuzes, blank charges and fireworks, all of which are described later.

CARTRIDGES.

179. For safety, convenience, and rapidity of loading, the cordite charges for guns are placed in silk cloth bags, or cylindrical metal cases, and are then known as cartridges.

 

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Cartridges for B.L. Guns.

180. These cartridges consist of a number of cordite sticks, tied together in a bundle with silk thread, and sewn up in a silk cloth bag. They are made up containing a whole charge, two-thirds, one-third, one-quarter or one-sixth of a charge, according to the size of the gun and the method of loading employed. When firing in action, cartridges are loaded to make up the "full charge". In peace-time full-calibre (as opposed to sub-calibre) practices, "reduced charges" are generally used for the large guns as they do not wear out the gun so much. Reduced charges are normally three-quarters or two-thirds of a full charge.

To facilitate igniting the cordite, igniters may be employed on cartridges for B.L. guns. The igniter consists of gunpowder in a red balloon bag, sewn over one or both ends of the cartridge. Gunpowder catches fire more readily than cordite, and the duty of the igniter is to ensure that the flash from the tube (see under " Tubes ", paras. 186-189) sets the cordite alight. The igniter, by its inflammable nature, is a potential source of danger in action; therefore, to reduce this danger, those cartridges which have igniters and are made up in fractions of full charges do not have an igniter on each fraction, but two per full charge. B.L. cartridges must be put into the gun with the red igniter end to the rear and as close as possible to the breech block of the gun. Special care is necessary in cordite handing rooms to ensure that where igniters are fitted the cartridges are placed in the hoists the right way round.

Igniters for certain cartridges are protected by silk igniter covers or millboard "tear-off" discs fitted over the end of the cartridge. These must be removed in the last place of handling, i.e., in the cordite handing room of turrets when using main loading, or at the gun in hand-worked mountings. The rear igniter cover only need be removed. Igniters of other cartridges are protected by non-removable igniter covers which are coloured red and are sewn both to the igniter and cartridge bag.

Most B.L. cartridges are fitted with lifting bands of tape or braid to assist in their removal from the magazine cases. These bands are to be taken off on withdrawal of the cartridge from the case, before passing it to the ammunition hoist.

Tin Foil is introduced into every B.L. cartridge to prevent coppering of the bore.

On the silk cloth bag is stencilled all information concerning the cartridge, which includes:-

(i) The gun for which it is intended.
(ii) Weight of the charge.
(iii) Nature, size and lot number of cordite.
(iv) Fraction denoting size of charge, i.e., 1/4, 1/6, etc.
(v) Date of filling and monogram of filling station.
(vi) N-for Naval Service.

Cartridges for Q.F. Guns.

181. For these the bundle of cordite sticks is placed in a brass Q.F. cartridge case. The ammunition for Q.F. guns is divided into two classes: fixed ammunition, in which the base of the projectile is secured in the mouth of the cartridge case, and separate ammunition, where cartridge and projectile are separate.

Where N.H. propellant is used the propellant is confined to the lower part of the case by a leatherboard cup held in position by a distance piece, one end of which bears on the top of the cup, and the other on the base of the shell in fixed ammunition and on the lid of the case in separate ammunition.

 

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In both classes the Q.F. cartridge case protects the cordite during transport and stowage, and seals the breech end of the gun when it fires. At the rear end of the cartridge case is a brass disc and flange, made solid with the case and drilled and screwed for the primer which initiates the firing of the cartridge (see para. 190). The primer is protected from accidental knocks by a clip, which is removed before loading. Clips are not provided for electric primers.

The gunpowder necessary to ensure regular ignition of the cordite is contained either in the magazine of the primer or in a metal igniter (see under "Primer", para. 190).

The front end of the cartridge case of separate ammunition is closed by a metal or plastic lid.

Tin foil is introduced to prevent coppering.

All information relating to the charge and cartridge case is stamped on the base and stencilled on the base or side of the case. This information includes:-

(i) Stamped on base:-

(a) Nature and mark of gun.
(b) Mark of empty case.
(c) Monogram of manufacturer of case and date of manufacture.
(d) Marks by which the history of the case may be read.
(e) Lot No. of cordite and distinguishing letter of cordite manufacturer.

(ii) Stencilled on base or side:-

(a) Lot number of cordite.
(b) Mark of cartridge.
(c) Monogram of filling station and date of filling.

Drill Cartridges.

182. To enable loading drills to be carried out, drill cartridges are supplied, having approximately the same weight and outside dimensions as the cartridges they represent. Those for B.L. guns are either wood covered with raw hide, or lengths of rope covered with canvas. Those for Q.F. guns, both fixed and separate, are usually made of wood with brass facings.

Blank Cartridges.

183. Blank cartridges, filled with gunpowder, and designed to make a great deal of noise and smoke, are supplied for saluting purposes and signalling. Blank cartridges for B.L. guns are enclosed in silk cloth bags, and are only supplied when specially required.

Blank cartridges for Q.F. guns are contained in Q.F. cartridge cases. They are usually supplied to ships in their component parts to be made up on board as required.

No projectile is used with a blank cartridge.

As gunpowder is easily ignited, blank charges should be treated very cautiously, and never exposed to a possibility of a spark or smouldering matter. They are usually stowed in a separate magazine or shell room, or with small arm ammunition.

184. All information is stencilled on the B.L. cartridge and on the bag of the Q.F. charge. This information includes:-

(i) Mark of cartridge.
(ii) Contractor's initials or recognised trade mark.
(iii) Nature of gun.
 

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(iv) Weight of charge.
(v) Class of powder.
(vi) N-for Naval Service.
(vii) Initials or monogram of filling station.
(viii) Date of filling.

The word "BLANK" is stamped or stencilled across the base of Q.F. cartridges supplied for such use.

Precautions to be observed.

185. On all occasions of withdrawing a blank cartridge from a B.L. gun it is to be passed overboard.

Before firing blank charges from a B.L. gun, the cartridge is to be kept in a Clarkson's case or waterproof duck bag and is not to be uncovered until the bore has been inspected.

TUBES AND PRIMERS.

186. B.L. cartridges are fired by tubes placed in the vent of the breech, while Q.F. cartridges are fired by primers screwed into the base of the cartridge case.

Tubes.

187. To distinguish them from other types of tube, they are known as tubes, vent.

Tubes, vent, consist of a means of ignition and a magazine of powder pellets and loose powder contained in a small brass case. The powder pellets, when ignited, fly, burning, into the igniter (where fitted) of the B.L. cartridge and ignite it. Tubes are of two types, electric and percussion.

Electric tubes are fired by an electric current passing through an electric lock. When this current is switched on, by the gunlayer or director-layer pressing his trigger, it flows along a thin iridio-platinum wire " bridge " surrounded by explosive inside the tube. The bridge fuses almost instantaneously, and ignites the explosive and the powder pellets in the tube magazine. Owing to the frailty of the bridge, electric tubes must be handled with care; otherwise the bridge may be broken and the tube missfire. Electric tubes are usually balanced by a megger before firing to confirm that they are electrically correct. Their resistance should lie between 0.9 and 1.1 ohms. Electric tubes which have missfired (i.e., which have been reported as "tube not fired") should be set aside for examination.

Percussion tubes are fired by the blow of the striker of a percussion lock. The striker, when it flies forward, hits the tube striker at the rear end of the tube and fires the cap of the tube. A flash from the cap ignites the powder pellets in the tube magazine. Percussion tubes must be handled with the greatest care, as an accidental blow on the cap may cause the tube to fire. Percussion tubes which have been struck, as indicated by a dent in the centre of the striker of the tube, but have not fired, are dangerous and should be thrown overboard as soon as possible.

188. Tubes are made in three sizes: 1-in., electric, and .5-in. and .4-in. electric or percussion:-

(i) 1-in. tubes are used in certain B.L. guns the cartridges for which are not fitted with an igniter.
(ii) .5-in. tubes are used in all other B.L. guns in the service, except as in (iii).
(iii) .4-in. tubes are now only used in 6-in. Marks VII and XI guns.
 

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Drill tubes, representing .5-in. and .4-in. percussion tubes, for use at loading drill, and dummy tubes for instructional purposes, are also supplied. Fired tubes may also be used for drill and at the loader.

189. Tubes can be identified as follows:-

(i) Electric tubes are left plain and smooth. Electric tubes for some guns have a raised contact piece in the head, and are fired by strikerless locks; they are called "S" tubes. The others have a small sunk disc in the head, where the striker makes contact.
(ii) Percussion tubes have four notches cut out of the rim of the head.
(iii) Drill tubes are blackened and have four longitudinal indents impressed on the body. The heads are milled.

Tubes are packed ten in a flat tin box, sealed by a soldered tear-off band. When this seal is broken, the date is to be recorded on the tin and the contents relegated for testing purposes only after one week (one month during war). Tubes are stowed in a special locker in the gunner's store room. Lockers are fitted near the guns for a ready-use supply of tubes in action.

Primers.

190. Primers screw into the bases of Q.F. cartridges and provide the means of firing them. Three types are used:-

(i) Percussion.
(ii) Electric.
(iii) Electric and Percussion.

Percussion primers consist of a powder magazine and a percussion cap contained in a metal holder. They are fired by a blow from a striker which hits and ignites the cap; flash from the cap passes into and ignites the contents of the magazine of the primer.

Electric primers are similar in operation to an electric tube, and are fired by electricity.

Electric and percussion primers may be fired either by percussion or by electricity.

Primers screw in flush with the base of the cartridge case, and are protected by a clip, which must be removed before loading. Special keys are provided for removing the primers after the cartridge has been fired.

AMMUNITION PACKAGES.

191. Cartridges are supplied to ships packed in aluminium alloy, steel or brass cases, or in steel or wooden boxes. Some of the latter have a tinned plate lining. The cases and boxes stow in magazines on board in such a manner that, so far as possible, their contents can be removed while they remain in their stowage. Boxes, however, may be carried with their contents to the place where they are required. (See also para. 245.)

Ammunition cases and boxes are made air-tight and water-tight by the use of luting (a sort of non-drying putty), and rubber or dermatine (a form of rubber) rings at the lid joint.

Cases and boxes containing cordite cartridges are "sealed" before being supplied to a ship, so that it will at once be apparent if anyone has opened or tampered with the lid of a case. The sealing is generally effected by sticking a

 

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station sealing label, with the Royal Naval Armament Depot monogram on it, over the junction of the lid and the body, or by the use of sealing tapes in conjunction with such labels.

192. The cases and boxes most generally encountered are:-

(i) Cylindrical cases, made of brass or steel. Used for stowing the cartridges for 14-inch and larger guns. One end has a circular lid, which is opened and closed with a metal key.

(ii) Rectangular cases, made of aluminium alloy or brass, the bodies usually corrugated or indented to give strength. Used for stowing B.L. cartridges of smaller guns. These cases are fitted at one end with a round lid, which is opened and closed by a metal key. Certain B.L. cartridges are enclosed, for additional security, in cardboard or box cloth wrappers, when in their magazine cases. Such cartridges should be kept in their containers until just before loading into the gun.

(iii) Boxes for Q.F. Ammunition. Most of these are made of wood and lined with tinned plate. Some bows arc made of steel. Diaphragms and packing pieces, termed furniture, are fitted inside the boxes to prevent movement of the cartridges. Boxes for fixed ammunition are termed " ammunition boxes "; those for the separate loading cartridges are termed " cartridge boxes." Various types of lids are employed, some of which can be opened without a key.

(iv) Metal-lined cases, made of wood and lined with tinned plate. These are used for small combustible stores and for boat work, as they can be made water-tight again after being opened. The lining is closed by a circular bung made water-tight by luting, while the case has a hinged wooden lid, secured by two screws, for which a key is supplied, over the bung. These cases are made in three sizes-whole, half, and quarter.

(v) Small arm ammunition (S.A.A.) boxes, made of wood with a tinned plate lining. These are used for small arms ammunition of all kinds. They can be opened, without a key, by removing a pin and knocking out the wedge-shaped sliding lid. The tinned plate lid below, which is soldered in place, is then torn off. Once opened S.A.A. boxes cannot again be made water-tight.

All cases and boxes containing ammunition should be handled with care to avoid injuring their contents. Rough usage of cases and boxes causes them to lose their air tightness, with detriment to their contents. It may well occasion hangfires, missfires, or even premature explosion, and jamming of the lids which causes loss of time in opening cases, a common result of rough usage.

COLOURING OF AMMUNITION PACKAGES.

193. Except as stated below, all packages containing ammunition and fireworks are painted a stone colour.

" Packages painted the following colours contain stores as shown:-

Green Target smoke ammunition. (Never to be stowed below.)
Brown stain S.A.A. bundled, belted or in cartons (for machine guns) or in chargers (for rifles).
Red Blank ammunition and cases for detonators.
Black Drill and dummy ammunition.
Stone with yellow lid Sub-calibre ammunition.
Yellow Bombs."
 

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The following packages are not painted externally apart from their special markings:-
Magazine cases made of aluminium-silicon alloy.
Boxes for warheads and projectiles.
Galvanised steel packages.

One end of some cylindrical cases is painted blue to show that that end is permanently closed.

The following band markings will be found:-

Two red All packages containing explosives, except those painted red.
Dark blue Packages for non-explosive Naval armament stores including drill and dummy ammunition boxes.
Practice (bright) yellow Q.F. target smoke ammunition boxes.

194. To assist in the rapid identification of the type of projectile, all fixed ammunition packages are marked with a coloured bar on the lid or on the side bearing the label:-

Light blue H.A. practice.
Dull yellow Common H.E.
Bright or practice yellow Practice.
Red Shrapnel.
White S.A.P.
Black (broken bar) C.P.
Black C.N.F.

Details of the contents of a package are stencilled on the outside of the box, and are also indicated on the contents label affixed to the outside of the package (except for cases, magazine).

A.S.A. boxes have coloured labels stuck on the outside so that their contents can quickly be recognised.

Boxes containing star-shell have a star-shaped piece of brass screwed to the lid to enable the contents to be identified in the dark by sense of touch.

All packages containing explosives are marked with a government explosives group label in red with a white numeral indicating to which group the contents belong for stowage purposes.

PROJECTILES.

195. There are various kinds of projectiles, whose design depends on the function they are required to fulfil. They can, however, be divided into three main groups:-

(i) Piercing shell.
(ii) H.E. shell.
(iii) Miscellaneous projectiles.
 

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All projectiles are fitted with copper or cupro-nickel " driving bands " near their bases. On the projectile being forced through the bore, the grooves of the rifling bite into the copper and so give the projectile the spin which keeps it steady in flight. The driving band also prevents any escape of cordite gas past the projectile while it is in the gun. Rope grommets or carriers for certain calibres are supplied to protect the driving bands of all separate loading projectiles during transport and stowage in the shell room bins. They should be removed when the shells are lifted from the bins preparatory to loading.

Piercing and H.E. shell, which are designed to do as much damage as possible to the enemy, are steel cases filled with disruptive explosives. The filling is detonated or exploded by a fuze screwed into the base or nose of the shell. Between the fuze and main filling is placed a small quantity of fairly sensitive explosive termed an " exploder " (see para. 178).

Piercing Shell.

196. These shells are designed to perforate thick armour at battle ranges, and to burst effectively when inside. To achieve this the shells are made with thick heads and walls, and consequently carry only a small amount of explosive. In modern shell, to assist perforation a penetrative cap of hard steel secured over the nose of the shell, is generally employed, the letter "C," for capped, being added to the title of the shell.

Sometimes light steel domes are fitted on the cap or nose of the shell to bring it to the best shape for flight through the air. These are called ballistic caps, and in no way assist the actual perforation. The suffix "B.C." is sometimes used to indicate the presence of a ballistic cap.

Fuzes of all piercing shell are fitted in the base, where they can be best protected from damage during penetration.

197. The following types of piercing shell are supplied to the Naval Service:-

(i) A.P.C. (Armour Piercing, Capped). The principal shell for 14-in. guns and above for use against battleships and battle cruisers which have thick armour protection.

(ii) S.A.P.C. (Semi-Armour-Piercing, Capped). Supplied for 8-in. guns for use against medium thicknesses of armour.

(iii) C.P.B.C. (Common Pointed Ballistic Cap). The latest type of piercing shell for 6-in. guns.

(iv) S.A.P. (Semi-Armour-Piercing). A type of piercing shell for 5.25-in guns and below.

(v) C.P.C. (Common Pointed, Capped). An older type of shell with inferior penetrative qualities but a correspondingly bigger bursting charge, supplied for 6-in. guns and above for use against unarmoured ships and light targets.

H.E. Shell.

198. These are designed to burst with great shattering effect on unarmoured targets, but have little or no penetration. They contain the largest possible bursting charge consistent with the shell having the necessary strength

 

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to withstand the shock of discharge from the gun. They are made for guns of all calibres, and are used for anti-aircraft fire and for bombardment. They may also be used against ship targets. They have nose fuzes.

Miscellaneous Projectiles.

199. The characteristics of other types of shell which are likely to be met with are as follows:-

(i) Shrapnel Shell are thin-walled shell containing balls of lead hardened with antimony and a small burster, and are for use against troops ashore and low flying aircraft. When the shell is burst by its time nose fuze, the balls are ejected from the case and spread out, in the form of a cone, over a large area, the shell being timed to burst a little short of the target.

(ii) Star Shell contain an illuminating star attached to a parachute, and are used for silhouetting the target during night actions. When the small bursting charge in the shell is exploded by the time nose fuze, the illuminating star is ignited and, with the parachute, blown out through the base of the shell. The burning star then sinks slowly throwing out a bright white light until it falls into the water.

These shell must be handled carefully to avoid damaging their weak bases. They are supplied to ships packed separately in boxes. The shell have a minimum wall thickness so that there is a maximum space available for the parachute and the star container. Until recently no star shell could be fired with a full charge because the remaining velocity, when the parachute was ejected, was too high for the parachute to remain intact. Strengthened parachutes are now fitted in all Star shell 4-inch - 5.25 inch, the shell being marked with a green star; only the 5.25-inch and the new long range 4.5-inch, however, may be fired with a full charge because of the limitation of the strength of shell design of the other calibres concerned.

(iii) Smoke Shell are designed (a) for firing from anti-aircraft guns so that the burst leaves a small grey smoke cloud which provides a target for anti-aircraft practice or for wind-finding observation, and (b) to provide a smoke screen for use in landing operations, etc. Type (b) can be of similar design to type (a), except that they are fitted with an impact instead of time fuze or they may be designed so that the smoke composition is held in a container which is ejected from the base. Type (a) are distinguished by the term, target smoke shell. Type (b) deliver a larger quantity of smoke.

(iv) L.A. Practice Projectiles contain no explosive filling, and are used for practice firings. They are frequently old shell with the explosive filling removed and replaced by an inert substance to keep the shell correctly weighted. Solid shot are also used.

(v) H.A. Practice Shell, designed to do the minimum of damage when they burst, contain a small powder burster and a few smoke pellets. On bursting, the fuze is blown out and a black smoke puff appears, while the body of the shell continues its flight. Their use enables a greater variety of firings at sleeve targets to be carried out than when H.E. shell, with the many safety restrictions necessary, are used.

(vi) Special Bombardment Shell are designed to do as little damage as possible, consistent with producing a burst large enough to be seen. They are H.E. shell with a large part of the filling removed, and replaced by an inert substance.

 

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(vii) Drill Shell of wood and Dummy Shell of wood covered with a tan hide are supplied for loading drill at the guns. Drill at the loading teacher is carried out with practice projectiles. Drill shell of iron (or practice projectiles) are also supplied for pusher hoists or Fuze Setting Drill, and are marked NOT TO BE LOADED IN GUN.

SUPPLY AND CARE OF PROJECTILES.

200. Projectiles 5.25 inch and above, except star shell, are supplied in bulk. Projectiles 4.7 inch and below, and star shell of all calibres, are packed in boxes which are returned to the depot after the shells have been stowed in the bins. Capstan-headed grabs are supplied for embarking and disembarking shell 8-inch and above. Quick-action grabs, as used in shell rooms, are never to be used for embarking or disembarking shell.

When handling projectiles, care should be taken:-

(i) That driving bands are not damaged. (Rope grommets are provided, to protect them.)
(ii) That caps are not subjected to any strain.
(iii) That markings are not obliterated.
(iv) That heavy shell are slung slightly nose heavy.
(v) That star shell are not subjected to rough usage or dropped. A drop of two feet on to its base may be sufficient to render a star shell unserviceable.

TRACERS AND IGNITERS.

201. To enable the flight of the projectile to be seen, a tracer may be fitted into the base. A tracer consists of a small tube or disc filled with tracer composition, which is ignited when the gun fires.

The igniter is a device to ensure self-destruction of the shell if the fuze has not operated by a given time.

The tracer and igniter is a similar device combining the functions of tracer and self destruction.

COLOURING AND MARKING ON PROJECTILES. Plate 19.

202. In order that they may readily be distinguished, types of projectile are painted differently (see Plate 19).

The bodies of shell are painted:-

Dull Yellow All shell filled with high explosive. These include A.P.C., C.P.B.C., C.P.C., S.A.P., S.A.P.C., and H.E.
Black All shell filled with gunpowder and practice projectiles. These include Star Shell, Shrapnel, Practice, H.A,. Practice, and Smoke Shell (old method only).
Green Smoke Shell (new method only).

The points or caps of shell are painted the same colour as the body, with the following exceptions:-

Red point Shrapnel Shell.
Green cap or point Shell filled with shellite.
 

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203. The following coloured bands are painted round projectiles:-

(i) Old Method.

POSITION OF BAND COLOUR OF BAND NATURE OF PROJECTILE DENOTING
Head or shoulder Red All shell filled explosive. Shell is filled with explosive.
Shoulder, above red band. White S.A.P.C. S.A.P.C. shell.
Body Green Shell is filled with T.N.T.
Bright yellow Practice and target smoke. Shell is for practice firings.
Two green with bright yellow between. H.E., special bombardment practice. Shell is tilled with T.N.T. (green) and is for practice firings (yellow).
Black zig-zag H.E. Radar Radar Shell
Two bright yellow Target ship practice. Suitable for practice firings at target ships.
White, 1/4-inch wide 15-inch Centre of gravity.
White, 1-inch wide 14 and 16-inch Position for grab.

(ii) Present Method.

POSITION OF BAND AND MARKING COLOUR OF BAND AND MARKING NATURE OF PROJECTILE DENOTING
Head or Shoulder Red - Shell is filled with explosive.
Shoulder above red band White S.A.P.C. and S.A.P. S.A.P.
Shoulder, above and below red band. White A.P. and A.P.C. A.P. or A.P.C. shell.
Shoulder or body Green or black and green. - Shell filled T.N.T. or head filled T.N.T.
Shoulder or body Black zig zag H.E. H.E. (Radar) shell.
Blue H.E Shell filled RDX/BWX.
Blue with T.N.T. stencilled below band. H.E. Shell filled RDX/T.N.T.
Bright yellow Practice Shell is for practice firings.
Above driving band Red Tracer shell Fitted with live tracers.
Body Two green with bright yellow between. H.E. special bombardment practice. Shell is filled with T.N.T. (green) and is for practice firings (yellow).
Body White, 1/4-in. wide 15-inch Centre of gravity.
White, 1-in. wide 16-inch Position for grab.

(G. 6619/46.-A.F.P. P.75147.

 

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"Starshell have a green or red star painted on a white circular background."

The letter "S" on a white circle denotes that the shell is fitted with a smoke box (present method).

The method of painting target smoke shell is best seen from Plate 19.

Stencilled on the shell are the calibre of gun from which it is to be fired, the date and place of filling the shell, and particulars of the exploder and the fuze, and game or tracer if fitted.

The gas check cover plate or disc tracer of base fuzed shell and the screwed ring which holds the cover plate in position are coloured to indicate what fuze is fitted.

FUZES.

204. Fuzes screw into the nose or base of shell, and are used to start the explosion or detonation of the bursting charge in the shell. They fall into three main groups:-

(i) Percussion (D.A. and base).
(ii) Time (Combustion and Mechanical).
(iii) Time and Percussion.

Fuzes contain a detonator, i.e., a small quantity of sensitive high explosive and a magazine.

Percussion Direct Action Fuzes.

205. These are the simplest kind of fuze. They screw into the noses of H.E. shell and burst them on impact. When the fuze hits the target, a striker in its nose is forced into the detonator which fires and detonates the fuze magazine, and thence the exploder and the shell filling. There are two main types of this fuze, direct action (D.A.) and direct action impact (D.A.I.). D.A. fuzes are very sensitive and are used for bombardment and in 2-pdr. shell. D.A.I. fuzes require a harder blow to cause them to work and are used in H.E. shell which is fired at ships.

The larger D.A. and D.A.I. fuzes have caps to protect them from accidental damage, spray, and moisture during transport and stowage. These fuzes are prepared for firing by removing the caps in the following manner:-

Nos. 44 and 45 P. .. (Old types of fuze screwing into a G.S., i.e., tapered, fuze hole). Pull out the pin securing the cap. Take off the cap, which fits on a bayonet joint. A second pin secured to die bottom of the cap by twine is pulled our when the cap is removed. In No. 44, Mark X and later fuzes, the second pin is secured to the first and is removed with it.

Nos. 118 and 230 .. (Modern D.A. fuzes, for all H.E. shell, 3 inch. to 15 in., screwing into a 2 in. fuze hole.) Unscrew the cap, which is lightly held by a flat spring. There is no pin. The striker cover, which acts as a wind cap, must not be removed.

If a fuze is prepared for firing and then not fired, the cap and pin, where fitted, should be replaced, except in No. 44, Mark X and later fuzes. In No. 44 Mark X and later fuzes, and in fuzes where the pin is difficult to replace the fuze should be carefully removed from the shell and thrown overboard.

H.E. shell for low angle work are supplied already fuzed to small ships. For larger ships the fuzes are supplied separate from the shell, the hole in the nose of

 

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the latter being plugged. On the outbreak of war, or when required, the shell are fuzed on board (see para. 210).

If nose-fuzed shell are to be left for more than a few hours on the weather deck, those fuzes which are not fitted with watertight caps are protected from damp by rubber covers or kit plasters which fit over them.

Percussion Base Fuzes.

206. Piercing shell, which are required to perforate armour before bursting, are fitted with base fuzes which are not damaged by the passage of the shell through the armour. The action of the fuze is started when the shell strikes, but the burst does not occur until a fraction of a second later, when the shell has got well inside the enemy ship.

Base fuzes are supplied screwed into their shell. Normally no preparation is required. Care must be taken not to damage them with the point of another shell. Base fuzes must never be removed on board.

Time Fuzes.

207. These are supplied for H.E. shell to be fired at aircraft, and for star shell H.A. practice, and target smoke shell. There are two types, powder burning and mechanical. In the powder-burning fuze, a powder train is started burning by the action of a detonator when the shell is fired. By revolving a ring the effective length of the train can be so adjusted that the projectile will burst in the air at any desired interval after leaving the gun. In the mechanical fuze, revolving the dome similarly causes the fuze to fire after the desired interval. Both types of fuze are "set" by revolving to the required setting immediately before loading the shell into the gun.

The setting must never be zero or very close to zero, as this may have the effect of bursting the shell whilst the gun and crew are still within the danger zone.

Some time fuzes have, in addition, a percussion arrangement that causes the shell to burst on impact if it strikes anything before the time fuze works. These fuzes are called time-and-percussion fuzes, and are used mainly with shrapnel. Time mechanical fuzes will also cause the shell to burst on impact with substantial targets.

The fuzes used in the ammunition for close range A.A. weapons must not be confused with time-and-percussion fuzes. The fuze in this case is a D.A. fuze. A self-destroying element, operating after a fixed length of time, is fitted inside the shell to prevent it returning to earth intact and possibly causing injury to a friendly party.

Most time fuzes have a cap as a protection. The cap must be removed before the fuze can be set and should immediately be replaced if the fuze is not going to be fired.

208. In addition, the following fuzes have safety pins which must be removed before loading: Nos. 65a, 81, 92, 93, 181 and 192. These pins are on no account to be replaced. If the pin has been withdrawn and the shell is not required for immediate use, the fuze is to be carefully removed from the shell and thrown overboard.

Time and time-and-percussion fuzes are always supplied to ships separately in suitable packages. The shell are fuzed with them on the outbreak of war, or when required in peace-time. If the shell are going to remain fuzed on the weather deck for more than a few hours, the fuzes, if not fitted with water-tight caps, should be protected by rubber covers or kit plasters.

If a time or time-and-percussion fuze has been set and is then not fired, it is reset to SAFE usually indicated by a small red triangle a little beyond the highest

 

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setting mark. It is then removed from the shell, sealed in its tin and, unless it has got wet, may be considered serviceable for three months. After this period, or if it has got wet, it should be returned to an armament depot. When resetting a mechanical time fuze to SAFE the motion of the dome must always be clockwise as viewed from above.

Safety Arrangements of Fuzes.

209. In addition to the caps and pins mentioned above, all fuzes have internal safety arrangements to prevent their functioning accidentally during transport or stowage. The chamber pressure, shock of discharge, and rotation, " arm " the fuze when it leaves the gun, so that it may function correctly at the end of its flight.

FUZING OF SHELL.

210. The regulations concerning this are laid down in N.M. and E.R. Detailed directions are given in the Handbook on Ammunition (B.R.932/45).

The most important points to remember are:-

(i) Fuzing must be done on the upper deck.
(ii) No two fuzing parties may be within 100 feet of each other.
(iii) Only one shell at a time may be fuzed at each position.
(iv) No other shell may be within 10 feet of shell being fuzed.
(v) Screw-threads must be scrupulously clean.
(vi) Special fuzing keys are required, and no force may be used except that which can be normally applied by the hand.
(vii) No tools are to be used other than those supplied for the specific purpose, or otherwise than in the manner prescribed.

GAINES.

211. A gaine is a small magazine of sensitive high explosive which is placed between time fuzes (except No. 211, which has the gaine incorporated in it) and the exploders of the shell in which they are fitted. Its object is to step up the explosion of the fuze so as to produce detonation of the shell filling. Shell fitted with gaines are also used occasionally with D.A. fuzes, for bombardment.

AIRCRAFT BOMBS.

212. Bombs at present in use can be divided into 7 groups:-

(i) A.P. (Armour-Piercing) and S.A.P. (Semi-Armour-Piercing)
(ii) G.P. (General Purpose) and M.C. (Medium Capacity) }H.E. Bombs
(iii) A/S (Anti-Submarine). }H.E. Bombs
(iv) Anti-personnel. }H.E. Bombs
(v) Incendiary.
(vi) Practice.
(vii) Drill.

The main filling of H.E. bombs is detonated by similar means to those employed in shell, i.e., by an exploder which in turn is ignited by a detonator. The detonator is initiated by means of a pistol. In some bombs the detonator and pistol mechanism are combined in one unit termed a fuze. In either case when a bomb is

 

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fitted for service it is said to be fuzed. Mechanical arrangements in the pistol or fuze allow the bomb to be dropped "Safe" or "Live" as desired. When dropped live, the fuze cannot function until the bomb has travelled through the air far enough to " arm " the fuze. This travel is called the " arming distance."

(i) A.P. Bombs-2,000 lb.
These bombs are designed for use against heavily armoured targets and are made of steel. They contain a comparatively small charge in relation to the total weight. Detonation is initiated by a fuze in the tail.

S.A.P. Bombs-500 lb. and 250 lb.
These bombs are designed for use' against lightly armoured targets. They are made of steel and contain a comparatively small charge. Earlier types are fitted with a tail fuze, and the latest type with a tail pistol and detonator, giving the required delay.

(ii) G.P. 250 lb. and M.C. Bombs, 500 lb.
These bombs, as the name implies, are used to attack a variety of targets. They rely chiefly on blast effect to cause damage and have a relatively large charge. They are fitted for nose (instantaneous) or tail (delay) fuzing, and use a pistol and detonator in both cases.

(iii) A/S Bombs, 100 lb.
These bombs are used against submarines, and also against certain targets where a large blast effect is required. They have a relatively large charge, and are fitted for a tail pistol and detonator. (Earlier types were fitted for a nose fuze.)

(iv) Anti-Personnel Bombs, 40 lb. G.P. and 20 lb. Fragmentation.
These bombs are designed to give a large number of small fragments on bursting and are fitted with a nose pistol and detonator only. Otherwise they are generally similar to the larger G.P. bombs.

(v) Incendiary Bombs, 25 lb. and 30 lb.
The 25 lb. incendiary bomb consists of a metal case containing seven magnesium and thermite firepots which are ejected at 4-second intervals by means of small explosive charges. The 30 lb. incendiary bomb contains an incendiary filling which is ignited and spread by means of an exploder contained in a nose fuze.

(vi) Practice Bombs. 8 1/2 lb., 10 lb. and 11 1/2 lb.
These bombs contain either a smoke flame or a flash composition; smoke for day and flame or flash for night use respectively. On impact a small detonator-burster is ignited by means of a pistol which is an integral part of the bomb.

(vii) Drill Bombs.
These may be of any of the above types differing only in that the filling is inert.

Safety Arrangements.

213. Bomb pistols and fuzes are fitted with safety arrangements to prevent detonation of a bomb before it is required for use or in the event of a crash or premature release. The safety arrangements take the following forms:-

 

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(i) Safety Pillar: This is fitted to fuzes to prevent the rotation of the arming vanes (see below) during transit and is removed only after the bomb is loaded on to the aircraft.

(ii) Safety Clips: These are fitted to pistols and fuzes to prevent the rotation of the arming vanes whilst attached to the aircraft in the air. They are removed when the bomb is released " live," or remain on the bomb if it is dropped " safe."

(iii) Arming Vanes: These are fitted to fuzes and pistols and rotate as the bomb falls through the air if the safety clip has been removed. In the case of fuzes they drive a system of gears which renders the fuze " live " requiring only the shock of impact to fire the detonators. In the case of pistols they unscrew an arming nut or cap from the striker which is then held by a creep spring or shear wire only.

Note. In the case of tail pistols the arming vane is fitted on the bomb tail and connected to the pistol by means of a spindle.

Supply and Fuzing.

214. Bombs of 100 lb. and above are supplied unboxed, their tail units and nose pistols being in separate containers. Tail pistols are usually supplied in position in the bomb. Smaller bombs are supplied boxed with pistols in position. Detonators and fuzes are supplied in separate boxes.

Fuzing is carried out in accordance with N.M. and E.R. Article 249.

Markings. Plate 20.

215. Stencil markings on bombs give the following information:-

(i) Nomenclature and mark.
(ii) The monogram of filling station or trade mark of filling contractor.
(iii) The date of filling.
(iv) The lot number of filling.

Coloured markings are as follows:-

(i) H.E. bombs are coloured green (old supply were yellow).
(ii) A red band round the nose denotes Filled.
(iii) A white band contiguous to the red band denotes S.A.P.
(iv) A white band either side of the red band denotes A.P.
(v) A plain green band denotes T.N.T. filling. T.N.T. is stencilled on or near the band.
(vi) A plain green band with a numeral above and a fraction below indicates an amatol filling of low grade.
(vii) A criss-cross green band with a fraction below denotes an amatol filling of high grade.
(viii) Incendiary bombs are painted dull red.
(ix) Practice bombs are painted white. Two green bands on the tail denote "filled with smoke composition "; two black bands on the tail and a red band on the body denote" filled with flash composition."
(x) Drill bombs are painted black with yellow band.

Note. In (v) and (vi), new supply, the green band is of a lighter shade than the body colour.

Drawing of sailor falling back with cigarette left on deck.
... such as smoking ... (para 126)

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION.

216. The term Small Arms Ammunition includes ammunition for aiming rifles, machine guns, aircraft guns, rifles and pistols of 1 inch or less calibre.

Various types are supplied. Except for 20 m.m. Oerlikon the type is indicated by letters preceding the mark number stamped on the base of the cartridge. The interpretation of the letters is as follows:-

No letter Ball H Rifle Grenade.
B Incendiary J Illuminating.
D Drill. L Blank.
F S.A.P. U Dummy.
G Tracer W Armour Piercing.

Letters after the mark of a cartridge are an indication of the nature of the propellant, e.g., Cartridge, S.A. .5 inch W Mark I Z. has an armour piercing bullet and a nitrocellulose propellant. Similarly, the letter T in place of Z would indicate a black powder propellant, and absence of a final letter a cordite filling.

(i) 1 inch Aiming Rifle Ammunition is fired from aiming rifles, which fit into parent guns. It is manufactured either for electric or percussion firing.

(ii) 20 m.m. Ammunition of various types is fired from 20 m.m. automatic guns such as the Oerlikon and Hispano. It fires by percussion and is supplied in bulk. The different types are distinguished by the colour of the shell.

(iii) .5 inch Ammunition is fired from Vickers and Browning machine guns. It fires by percussion and is supplied in bulk and in articulated belts. Care should be taken that this ammunition is fired only from guns for which it is intended. Types now available are Ball, Tracer, A.P., S.A.P., S.A.P. Tracer, Incendiary and Drill.

(iv) .303 inch and .30 inch Ammunition is fired from machine guns, including aircraft machine guns, and rifles. It fires by percussion. The cartridges are supplied in chargers, bandoliers, strips, articulated belts, and in bulk. Ammunition is not to be fired from synchronised aircraft machine guns more than fourteen days after the box has been opened and the rounds " exposed "; this period may be extended to forty days if such ammunition has been exposed and subsequently kept in airtight lockers. Types now available are Drill, Blank, Dummy, Ball, Armour Piercing, and various sub-types of Tracer and Incendiary.

(v) .45 inch Ammunition is fired from the Thompson sub-machine gun.

(vi) .455 inch Revolver Ammunition is fired from the Webley Revolver (Pistol, revolver, No. 1). It is supplied in packets of six (828 rounds in box, A.S.A. 1/2 N., H.3).

 

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(vii) .38 inch Revolver Ammunition is fired from the .38 inch Revolver (Pistol, revolver, No. 2). It is supplied in cartons of twelve (360 rounds in boxes A.S.A. H.9).

(viii) .22 inch Ammunition is fired from Service rifles and pistols that have been tubed to fire this small cartridge. Unique amongst percussion-fired cartridges, it is fired by a blow on the rim of the base instead of in the centre. The designation R.F. means rim-fire. It is supplied in boxes of 100 (10,000 rounds in case, powder, M.L. quarter).

RIFLE GRENADES.

217. The No. 36M grenade, the only one likely to be encountered, consists of a Mill's bomb, to the bottom of which a gas check plate has been screwed. The grenade is projected by a special blank cartridge, out of a 2 1/2 inch discharger, which can be fixed to the muzzle of a rifle; the latter is specially strengthened for the purpose. The special blank ballistite cartridge is blackened for half its length from the mouth, which is not crimped. No other cartridge is to be used.

Outside the grenade is a striker lever. Before it is projected, one end of this lever holds the striker against its spring away from the detonator, while the other end of the lever is kept into the side of the grenade by a retaining pin. When the grenade has been loaded into the discharger, this retaining pin is removed; the striker lever is then held against the grenade by the wall of the discharger.

218. On firing, the striker lever is no longer restrained by the wall of the discharger, and is thrown off by the striker travelling downward under the action of its spring. The striker fires a cap, which ignites a length of safety fuze in the grenade. The safety fuze burns for four or seven seconds before firing the detonator which detonates the filling. If for some reason the grenade is not projected, either from the discharger or by hand, the pin retaining the safety lever must be replaced before the safety lever is released either from the side of the discharger or the hand. Should the safety lever be released inadvertently, there must be no hesitation in throwing the grenade clear, or serious injury, possibly death, will result to anyone nearby.

Detonators for grenades are issued separately and are provided with instructions for fitting them to the grenades.

FIREWORKS.

219. The fireworks supplied to the Service are:-

Signal Rockets.
Illuminating Rockets 9 lb. and 3 3/4 lb.
Line Carrying Rockets.
Rockets, Target, Practice.
P.A.C. (anti-aircraft) Rockets.
Short Lights.
Portfires.
Slow Match.
Signal Cartridges (1 inch).
Magnesium Flares.
Distress Signals.

In addition the following are for use by aircraft:-

Signal Cartridges (1 inch Red)
(Magnesium Star).
Distress Signals, 2 Star Red.
Flotation Gear Actuating Cartridges.
Signal Cartridges (1 1/2 inches).
Reconnaissance Flares.
Aircraft navigation smoke floats.
Flame floats.
Sea Markers.
Engine starting cartridges.

FIREWORKS SUPPLIED FOR NAVAL SERVICE.

Signal Rockets.

220. Rockets are employed for signalling and display.

Rockets on board are fired from a rocket machine by means of a copper friction

 

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tube. Before the rocket is put in the machine, the tear-off disc or plug in the base of the rocket is removed, and a stick is attached to it by pushing the stick up into the socket on the side of the rocket, and pressing in the tongue. One end of the stick is shaped to fit the socket, and has a small piece cut away to take the tongue.

The friction tube is a small copper cylinder in which fits a friction bar. When the bar is pulled out smartly the tube fires and its flash ignites the composition in the base of the rocket.

Rockets are fired from a boat by means of a rocket upright, a portfire or slow match being employed to ignite the rocket.

At the end of its flight the rocket bursts, and throws out a number of white stars. The rocket supplied to the Service is:-

Rocket, Signal, 1 lb., Service, with red, green, or white stars.

Line-carrying Rockets. (see para. 239.)

Rockets, Target Practice.

221. These are ignited by friction match and safety fuze: 'they eject a paper or cotton red parachute as an aiming mark for A.A. practices. Short Lights.

222. Short Lights burn with a white light for about two minutes, and are used for signalling and illuminating purposes. They are supplied fitted with a handle, which has an igniter plug in the bottom like a large match. To ignite the light, tear off the cap, pull out the plug, and draw its primed end lightly across the top of the light in an upward direction. Hold the light so that it points away from the body and with the back to the wind.

Portfires.

223. Portfires are brown paper cylinders filled with composition, and are used for lighting rockets or setting fire to anything They burn for about 10 minutes and normally cannot be put out by water. They can be lit by short light or slow match, and put out by cutting off the burning end.

Slow Match.

224. Slow Match is hemp soaked in saltpetre. It is generally used for keeping a light burning, as in a boat. It burns at a rate of one yard in eight hours. A yard weighs about 1/4 lb.

Signal Cartridges.

225. Signal Cartridges (1 inch) are fired from a special pistol and are used for signalling at night and by day at limited distances. When fired, a star is shot a short distance into the air, and burns red, green or white as it travels. Where practicable the pistol should be fixed to a bracket or otherwise secured, and fired by a lanyard.

The cartridge which contains the star is made of metal or cardboard, and the end is closed by a paper disc of the same colour as the star. In the dark the colours may be recognised by feeling the rim at the base of the cartridge:-

Red is milled.
Green is smooth.
White is half milled and half smooth.

A useful mnemonic is to associate the colours of road-crossing lights, viz., Red the way is barred, Green the way is clear, and White is halfway between the other two.

 

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The foregoing markings identified by sense of touch are being superseded in the 1 inch signal cartridges by a metal closing disc at the mouth of the cartridge on which is embossed a different mark for each colour as follows:-

Red. A Cross.
White. A Circle.
Green. A Triangle.

To fire a signal cartridge, open the pistol by pressing down on the catch on the side. Insert the cartridge and close the pistol. If the pistol is not held in a holder, it should be lashed to a boathook or an oar. Before pressing the trigger, the head should be turned away. The pistol should be pointed about 60 degrees in the air to windward.

Magnesium Flares.

226. Magnesium Flares are of two types:-

(i) Flare illuminating white, Type 26. Fired by friction.
(ii) Flare illuminating white, Type 26E. Fired by an electric current (an ordinary service torch battery will do).

Two flare stands are allowed to each small vessel supplied with flares. Instructions for firing appear on each flare. Flares can be burned either from the rigging or from the special stand supplied. When the flare is burned from the rigging, precautions must be taken to ensure that the molten residue does not set fire to anything on which it may fall. When burned from a stand this residue falls into the sea. Flares burn for about 4 1/2 minutes. As they temporarily blind personnel in the ship burning the flares, full value is only obtained when observing vessels are present. The flares illuminate an area of water which extends for a range of about 3/4 mile, and hence any object between the observer and the flare will be illuminated or silhouetted. The flare burning vessel should be to leeward. When flares are required for immediate use they should be kept away from heat. The packages in which flares are supplied should be kept in a cool dry place and no more should be taken out than necessary.

FIREWORKS SUPPLIED FOR USE IN AIRCRAFT.

227. A Distress Signal is ignited in the same way as a short light. When ignited, it shows a red flare for about 10 seconds and then ejects 5 red balls like a signal cartridge at approximately five second intervals to a height of about 50 feet.

Flotation Gear Actuating Cartridge when fired allows carbon dioxide to inflate the collapsible dinghy carried in aircraft. It functions by means of an electrical circuit which is completed on immersion in salt water and which ignites a filling of guncotton dust.

The above-mentioned fireworks are kept stowed in or near the aircraft dinghy.

228. Cartridges, 1 1/2 inch are fired from a 1 1/2 inch signal pistol in a similar manner to the 1-inch cartridges described in para. 225 above. They include:-

(i) Signal Cartridges, emitting red, white, yellow, or green, stars or combination of stars and used for various signalling purposes.

(ii) Smoke Drill Cartridges (large brown or small white), producing smoke for windfinding and signalling purposes.

(iii) Illuminating Cartridges, giving a bright illumination for about 10 seconds and used to obtain a fleeting glance of an object when the use of a reconnaissance flare is unjustifiable.

229. Reconnaissance Flares have a candle power of about 750,000 and are fitted with parachutes to reduce the rate of fall to 500 ft. per minute.

 

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230. Various pyrotechnics are used for marking positions on the sea. They include:-

(i) Aircraft Navigation Smoke Floats, producing white smoke for about six minutes.

(ii) Flame Floats giving a calcium phosphide flare for about six minutes.
Flame floats must be kept dry when not in use.
Flame Floats, Message Carrying, are similar to Flame Floats, only their buoyancy chamber is fitted to take a piece of paper coiled round a wire inside a cylinder. To get the message the man in the dinghy must hold the burning float under water with one hand while with the other he unscrews a plug, which brings the cylinder containing the message with it. The float will flood and sink when its plug is withdrawn.

(iii) Sea Markers which scatter aluminium dust on the surface thus forming a patch easily recognisable in daylight.

(iv) 13-lb. Smoke Float which is dropped from a ship to indicate a departure point in the sea.

231. Engine Starting Cartridges are filled with a propellant charge in the form of pellets. Five cartridges are carried in the breech of the starter in certain aero-engines and their explosion drives the piston for the first stroke.

FIREWORK BOXES.

232. Fireworks are supplied to ships in firework boxes or metal-lined cases, which are stored in the Firework Magazine, Firework Tank or Shell Room. But as fireworks may be wanted in a hurry, ready-use supplies are kept in the following:-

Night signal box,
Sea-boats' boxes,
Boats' magazines and gigs' magazines.

233. The Night Signal Box is kept on or near the fore bridge. It contains:-

3 signal rockets.
1 tin of friction tubes.
18 1-inch signal cartridges, 6 of each colour.
1 pistol, signal, 1 inch.
2 short lights.

As the firing of a rocket is the signal at night for " man overboard," the rocket machine is always kept loaded and lashed to the weather side of the bridge between sunset and sunrise. The placing of the rocket is the duty of the Seaman Gunner of the Watch.

234. A Sea-boat's Box is kept in each sea-boat whilst the ship is at sea. It contains:-

24 1-inch signal cartridges, 6 red, 6 green and 12 white.
1 pistol, signal, 1-inch.
4 short lights.

235. A Boat's Magazine forms a ready supply of ammunition and fireworks to be taken away in case of prolonged duty in a cutter or larger boat armed with 3-pdr. Q.F. or .303-inch machine guns. It contains:-

204 rounds of pistol ammunition in a special pouch with a strap.
1 key for metal-lined cases.
1-1b. slow match.
2 portfires.
2 1-lb. signal rockets.
2 Short lights.
 

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236. A Gig's Magazine is supplied for boats armed with rifles only. It contains:-
96 rounds of pistol ammunition in a pouch with strap.
1 signal rocket.
1 portfire.
1 short light.
1-lb. slow match.
1 key for metal-lined cases.

237. Power-worked boats are at all times to carry:-

18 1-inch signal cartridges, 6 of each colour.
1 pistol, signal, 1-inch.
6 short lights.

LINE-THROWING GUNS.

238. All ships are supplied with one or more of these. Older ships are supplied with Coston guns, but these are being replaced by rifles, M.L.E. .303-inch, (long). Both types of gun are supplied with special projectiles and blank cartridges. The cartridge for use with the Coston gun has a diameter of nearly .5 inches, that for the M.L.E. .303-inch rifle is blacked all over.

The guns are fired as follows:-

(i) Attach the line to the projectile and coil it down, free for running, in the box provided or in a Clarkson's case.

(ii) Load the projectile into the muzzle of the gun and load the blank cartridge provided into the breech.

(iii) See the range clear, and line clear outside the left arm and berthing rail.

(iv) Fire the gun with an elevation of about 20° and slightly to windward. The butt of the Coston gun should be rested on the deck or against a stanchion. The rifle may be fired from the shoulder, but the face should be kept clear and the trigger pulled with the tip of the finger, keeping the part of the hand between the first finger and the thumb well clear of the bolt.

(v) The cartridge cases for Coston guns occasionally split on firing. Should this occur, any piece of brass remaining in the chamber should be removed before re-loading.

LINE-CARRYING ROCKETS.

239. The Schermuly line-carrying rocket is supplied for carrying the end of a line through the air. It consists of a steel tube, filled with rocket composition, to the outside of which a short steel rod, or outrigger with a thin wire pennant, is attached; to this is secured the end of the line.

The rocket is to be fired as follows:-

(i) Coil down the line free for running in the box provided or in a Clarkson's case, having secured the standing end.

(ii) Attach the free end of the line to the rocket.

(iii) Load the rocket into the muzzle of the pistol and the cartridge into the breech.

(iv) See the range clear and the line clear outside the left arm.

 

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(v) Hold the pistol at an elevation of about 20 degrees, and fire it pointing slightly to windward as necessary.

MAGAZINES AND SHELL ROOMS.

240. Cartridges for guns are kept in magazines. Projectiles are stowed in bays or sliding shell stowages, in shell rooms. Fixed ammunition is stowed in magazines. When required, the cartridges are passed from the magazine to the handing room outside, and thence to the guns. Handing rooms are not found in sloops or destroyers. In some ships shell-handing rooms are also fitted.

241. Magazines of big ships, i.e., battleships, battle-cruisers, cruisers, aircraft carriers, and depot ships, are built as water-tight compartments and protected from shell fire by armour. They are fitted with ventilation arrangements; magazines sited in hot positions (e.g., near machinery spaces) and also those in certain ships in which bare cordite charges are handled have, in addition, cooling arrangements incorporated in the ventilation system. By adjusting the valves in the ventilation system the fan can supply fresh air direct to the magazine or alternatively recirculate the air on a closed circuit, either through or by-passing the cooler, as desired. Magazines with cooling arrangements are fitted with long-distance thermometers, or with thermometers in tubes, called temperature tubes, which project into the magazine, so that the temperature can be taken without entering the magazine. When cooling arrangements are fitted the temperatures are taken every watch. The temperatures of all magazines are taken daily and entered into the magazine log.

The principal magazines of big ships are protected from flash, such as might occur if a cartridge became ignited on the way to or at the gun, by flash-tight doors and scuttles, through which the cartridge must pass on its way to the gun. Smaller magazines in big ships and magazines of small ships are not fitted with any special flash-tight arrangements. This is to save weight and because Q.F. cartridges, which are better protected against flash than B.L. cartridges, are usually stowed in these magazines.

Magazines of small ships are either unprotected or protected by light armour only. In some cases the magazine and shell room together make a water-tight compartment, the bulkhead between magazine and shell room being flash-tight only.

Magazines, handing rooms, and shell rooms are inspected every 24 hours and after work, drill, or firing.

242. Points to receive special attention at inspections are:-

(i) Doors, hatches, and man-holes efficient and properly secured.
(ii) Compartments properly stowed, battens and stanchions in place.
(iii) Lids of cases and boxes on and properly secured.
(iv) Deck clean and free from dust.
(v) No cleaning gear, rags, inflammable material or other unauthorised articles in the compartment.
(vi) Oil from glands efficiently caught.
(vii) Flooding and spraying arrangements correct and free from leaks.
(viii) Lighting switches efficient and properly covered.
(ix). Clarkson's cases clean, empty and dry.
(x) Temperatures; these are also noted.
 

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Much of the responsibility for the state of the magazines, on which the safety of the ship depends, rests on the men forming their crews.

243. In the event of fire, the magazines and shell rooms of big ships can be flooded through pipes running directly from the ship's side. In addition, the cordite cases in the main magazines can be sprayed with salt water from the ships fire main.

The valves operating the flooding gear can be worked from at least two positions, one close to the magazine and the other in a flooding cabinet or locker some distance away. The spraying gear can be operated from inside the magazine, from outside the magazine, and from the cabinet or locker.

Flooding arrangements are to be tested weekly, except when the valves are too numerous to be worked conveniently once a week. In this case they are divided into groups, each group being worked in rotation so that every valve is tested during the course of each month.

Valves on the spraying system are to be worked weekly or, by groups, at least once a month. The perforated pipes are to be blown through every two years. A thorough test of the system by the admission of water is to take place whenever the magazine is cleared.

The above systems are quite separate from the drenching system which in the case of 15 inch or 14 inch turrets works off the hydraulic pressure main.

Magazines of "small" ships have no cooling plant, and usually no spraying arrangements. Water for flooding is supplied by the fire main system.

244. To prevent unauthorised persons from entering the magazines and shellrooms, all doors and hatches which lead to these compartments are kept locked. The keys for these locks are called " Magazine Keys," and are grouped 1, 2 and 3, according to their importance. They are kept on a special key board, under the charge of a sentry, and only officers and certain specified ratings are allowed to draw them.

The times when magazine keys are drawn from and returned to the magazine keyboard are recorded, against signature, in the magazine log. In the log are also recorded magazine temperatures and results of the various inspection rounds. The sentry signs the log at the end of each watch to attest the accuracy of the entries relative to the issue and return of the keys during his watch.

Before a party goes into a magazine, all knives, matches, and anything which may cause sparks or fire must be left outside. To obviate any possibility of sparks being caused by the sole of a boot striking the deck, special rubber or felt-soled shoes are always to be worn in B.L. magazines. The lights are switched on by special switches outside the magazine, and a light shows at the magazine keyboard when these switches are all off. The sentry is thus able to check that all the lights have been switched off when the keys are returned. Should the main lighting fail, portable electric hand lamps are used.

245. The cases in the magazine are stowed in bays, care being taken that, when possible, the lid of each case is accessible without having to remove stowage battens. Lids of cases are removed by hand or by gunmetal keys, but must not be taken off until the contents are actually required. In modern warships with Q.F. ammunition the cartridges are removed from the transport cases and stowed in bottle-rack stowages built into the magazine. The cartridges are kept in place by a spring-loaded clip which takes over the edge of the base of the cartridge. A small key is supplied to lift the clip against the pressure of the spring, thus enabling the cartridge to be removed from the rack.

 

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Shell rooms of big ships are fitted with flooding, but not spraying, arrangements. They are kept locked with their keys on the magazine keyboard. They are inspected daily.

AMMUNITIONING SHIP.

246. The regulations regarding this are laid down in N.M. and E.R. The more important of them are summarised below.

Before commencing to embark ammunition, all stowages are to be thoroughly cleaned; ventilation, flooding and spraying arrangements tested, and compartments dried out.

No smoking material is to be taken into the hold of the ammunition ship or lighter. Smoking is prohibited while work is going on. When work is not going on, smoking may be permitted in places set apart and well removed from the explosives; the latter are to be guarded by sentries.

Explosives or cases and boxes containing explosives are to be hoisted and lowered with care. Shot mats are to be used at the dumping positions. Rough usage is liable to loosen shell caps, injure driving bands, impair the flash-tight, and water-tight properties of cases, and render tubes dangerous or inefficient.

The receipt or discharge of ammunition should never be treated as an evolution, and care should be taken not to bump cases on the deck. Cylindrical cases should not be rolled. Should a box or case catch or jam in any way such that damage may be caused, it should be set aside and carefully examined. If any damage or suggestion of damage be found the package should be returned to an Armament Depot for examination.

247. Embarking or disembarking ammunition is not to be carried out in very wet weather if it can be avoided. If it cannot be avoided, protection from the wet is to be provided. Wet cases and shell are to be wiped thoroughly dry before being stowed.

W/T transmission is prohibited when embarking or disembarking ammunition.

In the event of a thunderstorm, the operation of embarking or disembarking ammunition is to be suspended from the time the first thunderclap is heard until the storm has ceased. During this period, whips must be removed at least 6 feet from any explosive.

248. None other than the authorised appliances are to be used for lifting and transporting explosives, and the proper lifting handles and beckets fitted to the cases and boxes are to be used. Where two or more beckets are fitted, two of these are always to be used. In many ships special whips for hoisting ammunition are provided, and are to be used; they are not to be used for any purpose other than ammunitioning. Ammunition whips are to have the standing part of the wire secured to the drum of the winch.

Special capstan-headed grabs are supplied for hoisting shell 8 inch and above. Care must be taken that the grab is screwed properly down before lifting and that, when removing it, it is pulled clear of the shell before "Hoist" is ordered.

249. All whips, tackles and other appliances used for embarking or disembarking ammunition are to be examined before starting work, and occasionally afterwards, to ensure that they are sound.

Double or multi-legged, slings are not to be used for shell grabs owing to the possibility of damage to, or the opening up of, the palms of the grabs. This may be caused by their clashing together when being hoisted. An exception to this

 

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is allowed for 8-in. projectiles; for these, a steel spreader, to which two grabs are shackled directly, may be used for hoisting two shells simultaneously.

250-254.

Illustration of sailor with a medium size shell in one hand, book in the other.


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