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Materials on USS Constitution

Patrick Otton, Technical Writer
Naval Historical Center Detachment Boston
Bldg 24 M&R B.N.H.P.
Charlestown Navy Yard
Boston, MA 02129 USA
617-242-0752, phone
617-241-5232, fax
e-mail: potton-nhcdetbos@worldnet.att.net

Logo of Naval Historical Center, Detachment Boston

SYNOPSIS

This is a summary of the principal materials used during the 1992 - 1995 Rehabilitation and Restoration of USS Constitution. Material specifications, dimensions, and sources are given.

INTRODUCTION

Constitution is still a commissioned naval ship that places all purchasing of materials under the procurement rules of the Federal government. While these purchasing regulations make Constitution unique within the historic ship community the definitions of the many parts and pieces used may be of benefit to other ships.

This paper focuses on the major constituents used for Constitution:
Wood: timber, laminated, untreated and treated,
Fasteners: copper and steel,
Rope: standing and running rigging,
and Sails,

and lists possible commercial sources for some materials.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIVE OAK TIMBER
WHITE OAK TIMBER:
DOUGLAS FIR TIMBER, UNTREATED: PLANKING
DOUGLAS FIR TIMBER, UNTREATED:DECKING
WHITE OAK GLUED LAMINATES, UNTREATED: TIMBERS
WHITE OAK GLUED LAMINATES, UNTREATED: KNEES
DOUGLAS FIR GLUED LAMINATES, UNTREATED
DOUGLAS FIR, GLUED LAMINATED, TREATED (ACZA)
COPPER
COPPER BAR
COPPER SHEET
STEEL
RIGGING
STANDING RIGGING
RIGGING
RUNNING RIGGING
BLOCKS
SAILS

LIVE OAK TIMBER:

Live oak is not commercially harvested nor is it available through conventional sources. As a consequence, the Navy acquires the needed live oak through donations and works closely with private and public sectors to enable this process.

Live oak grows in the southern states, e.g., Florida, Georgia, the Carolinas, Texas. Principal sourcing contacts are the forestry service, cities, park service, commercial logging companies, and private individuals that may share the interest in acting as a resource for this much needed timber.

Places live oak timber was used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution:
Futtock and Top Timber
sided 11 1/2", molded 9" at the port sill.
Pin Rails, Sheet Bitts, Fife Rail
Main Mast
Rails
1 ea. 5" X 13" X 17'
2 ea. 5" X 12-1/2" x 8'
Sheet bitts
2 ea. 11" x 11" x 8'
Stanchions
6 ea. 9-1/2" X 9-1/2" x 7'
Coamings, Hatches, upper deck and gun deck.

Specifications:
Live oak materials to be a minimum of 20 inches diameter at the butt and greater than 15 feet long.

WHITE OAK TIMBER:

White oak is a highly desired wood for Constitution. While available commercially, the quality, sizes and dimensions of timber required for Constitution precludes availability from many sources. The Navy sources needed oak timber from "Constitution Grove" a Naval timber reserve, at Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane Indiana.

For the 1992 Repair, it was estimated that 8,500 bf of white oak timber would be supplied. A 24 inch diameter tree yields one timber 12 x 14 inches square, a 30 inch diameter tree yields 2 pieces of 7 x 14 inch planking.

Places white oak timber was used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution: Planking, Below the Waterline
ITEM THICKNESS 
inches 
WIDTH 
inches
LENGTH 
feet
QTY 
each
notes
planking 7 12 40    
planking 6 12 40 15  

Example
Black Strakes:
5 1/2" - 4 1/2" thick, by 10" wide, 40 feet long
Thick Work under the wales
6" thick, by 10" wide, 40 feet long

Specifications: PROCUREMENT ITEM DESCRIPTION
Lumber, Hardwood, White Oak, untreated, for use on the USS Constitution
Lumber Hardwood:
In accordance with Mil. Spec. MIL-L-2037E, 21 Aug 90, Class 1 (planking) - Grade A. Untreated.
Species:
White Oak, Vertical Grain
Surfacing:
Rough
Moisture Content:
Any stage of seasoning
Antistain Treatment: (Chlorinated phenols not permitted.)
Required, Two coats end coating required
Antisplitting devices e.g., S-irons, required both ends

DOUGLAS FIR TIMBER, UNTREATED:

PLANKING
Whereas the original materials for deck, ceiling, and deck beams were specified to be "best heart pitch pine", today Douglas Fir is used.

Places Douglas fir timber, untreated was used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution:

Planking
ITEM THICKNESS 
inches 
WIDTH 
inches
LENGTH 
feet
QTY 
each
notes
planking 6 12 40 10  

Specifications: PROCUREMENT ITEM DESCRIPTION
Lumber, Softwood, Douglas Fir, untreated, for use on the USS CONSTITUTION
Lumber Hardwood:
In accordance with Fed. Spec. MM-L-751H, 13 Aug 70.
Species:
Douglas Fir
Grade:
"Margin Plank" -- Para 176a, WCLIB grading rules
Surfacing:
Rough
Moisture Content:
25% maximum
Antistain Treatment: (Chlorinated phenols not permitted.)
Required, Two coats end coating required.
Antisplitting devices e.g., S-irons, required both ends

DOUGLAS FIR TIMBER, UNTREATED:

DECKING
Whereas the original materials for deck, ceiling, and deck beams were specified to be "best heart pitch pine", today Douglas Fir is used.

Places Douglas fir timber, untreated was used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution:

Decking
ITEM THICKNESS 
inches 
WIDTH 
inches
LENGTH 
feet
QTY 
each
notes
inches inches feet each  
decking 5 12 40 10  

Specifications: PROCUREMENT ITEM DESCRIPTION
Lumber, Softwood, Douglas Fir, untreated, for use on the USS CONSTITUTION.
Lumber Hardwood:
In accordance with Fed. Spec. MM-L-751H.
Species:
Douglas Fir
Grade:
Grading rules, Ship Decking -- Para 175a, WCLIB grading rules*
Surfacing:
Rough
Moisture Content:
19% maximum
*Except,
a. Bright sapwood on face limited to 1/8 the width or equivalent.
b. Sound, tight knots limited to 1/4" in diameter.

WHITE OAK GLUED LAMINATES, UNTREATED

TIMBERS

White oak is the principal wood for construction throughout the ship and is used as structural pieces for the spars. The Navy does not keep large stock piles of materials on hand. Given the time frame of the production schedule, the quantity and the size and dimension of the timbers needed, the use of natural timber was precluded. Production was kept on schedule by using timbers made of glued laminates that were purchased to nearly finished dimensions as well as being of proper moisture content. The time to procure, prepare, dry, and then dimension wood components would have exceeded the time of repair in dry dock. Having material ordered as laminate materials assured consistent material quality, minimized waste and preparation time, and allowed the Repair to remain on schedule.

JUSTIFICATION FOR USING LAMINATES

The lack of solid material of sufficient quality, quantity, moisture content, dimensional size and material species has required the use of laminates.

MATERIALS PARTS LIST:

Base materials:
Laminated White oak
Typical stock size:
10" x 12" x 48", used for the straight sills
12" x 16" x 48", used for the curved sills forward

Places white oak glued laminates, untreated was used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution:
ITEM THICKNESS 
inches 
WIDTH 
inches
LENGTH 
feet
QTY 
each
notes
Mast Partners 12  12  12     
Shoe 6 18  20   
Spirketting 7 14  40   
timber 3 12 12 2  
" 4 4 18 1  
" 4 6 40 2  
" 4 8 28 2  
" 8 22 1  
" 6 12 40 34  
" 7 12 30 16  
" 7 12 40 12  
" 7 12 45 19  
" 8 12 40 17  
" 8 14 45 14  
" 12 12 30 3  
" 14 20 20 1  
" 14 20 25 16  
" 14 36 6 1  
" 18 40 7 1  
" 20 48 8 1  
Waterway 16 20 28 6  
Lock strakes          
Diagonals 12 24 38 16  
Fish timber          
Bull nose          
Cap          
Gun port sills          
Margin strakes          
Decking          
Rail 12 12 16    
Bibbs          

WHITE OAK GLUED LAMINATES, UNTREATED

KNEES

Knees and breasthooks were originally gotten from natural grown timbers. Today, the Navy does not keep large stock piles of materials on hand. Procurement of natural timber for knees of the number, size, and quality needed for Constitution's repair was precluded by availability of proper material. The time to procure, prepare, dry, and then dimension all needed knees would have exceeded the time of repair in dry dock. Production was kept on schedule by using timbers made of glued laminates that were purchased to nearly finished dimensions. Knees for each deck are of similar dimensions and the quantity needed can be ordered as one lot. Having material ordered from laminate materials assured consistent material quality, minimized waste and preparation time, and allowed the Repair to remain on schedule.

JUSTIFICATION FOR USING LAMINATES

The lack of solid material of sufficient quality, quantity, moisture content, dimensional size and material species has required the use of laminates.

Places white oak glued laminates, untreated was used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution:
ITEM THICKNESS 
inches 
WIDTH 
inches
LENGTH 
feet
QTY 
each
notes
Std Knees 12  18" moulded  72  22 feet
Std Knees 12  18" moulded 72 26 feet
Composite Knees 13"   arm 6 feet long to reach upper edge of gun deck clamps  
Knees, Upper deck 12 30 radius 18" 78 90 18
Knees, Upper deck 11 30 radius 18" 72 72 32
gun deck knees 12 30 radius 18" 78 90 48
bitt knee 12   32 12' 4
Orlop deck knees 12 30 radius 18" 55 75 2
Orlop deck knees 12 30 radius 18" 50 70 24
Orlop deck knees 12 24 radius 18" 50 60 2

Specifications: PROCUREMENT ITEM DESCRIPTION
Lumber, glued laminate, white oak, untreated, for use on USS Constitution

Laminated timbers shall conform to the requirements of ANSI/AITC A190.1-1992, American National Standard for Wood Products - Structural Glued Laminated Timber, 16 March 1992 (including conformance to AITC 200-92), and AITC 119-85 Hardwood Glued Laminated Timber, with requirements/exceptions as stated below:

Species:
White Oak (NHLA) heartwood only.
Material:
Shall meet the requirements of AITC 119-85. Table 2. Combination Symbol C. Design values per Table 1. For Oak.
Lamination Quality:
Laminations shall be free from: splits, surface checks over 1/32 inches wide or 4 inches long, ring shake, honeycomb, collapse, case-hardening, wane, and decay in any stage.
Laminated Timber Grade:
Architectural Appearance Grade (AITC 110-84)
Grain:
Flat grain only or edge (vertical) grain only.
Lamination Thickness:
3/8 inch maximum (net surfaced) - Laminations to be parallel to the 12 inch faces.

7/8 inch maximum (net surface) - Laminations to be parallel to the 14 inch face

7/8 inch maximum (net surface) - Laminations to be parallel to the 18 inch face

Adhesive (wet-use):
Shall conform to Mil Spec MIL-A-22397 8 Sep 1960. Amendment 1, 12 June 1964 and associated Qualified Products List or to ASTM D2559-90 for wet-use. Adhesive must be a phenol and/or resorcinol resin type only, and may be cured at the minimum temperature recommended by the adhesive producer and approved under ANSI/AITC A-190.1 by AITC. But not less than 70 degrees F. Adhesive may be applied by roller or extruder.
End Joints:
In accordance with ANSI/AITC A190.1, Para. 4.5.2.4 (a) Tension Members. Scarf or finger joints permitted, but must be preglued and cured prior to laminating. End joints shall not be spaced in a regular repetitive pattern. Finger joints not permitted on face laminations.
End Joint Spacing (within the laminate):
Arrangement 1 - Spacing of adjacent end joint tips at a glueline shall be not less than 6 inches. Any plane at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the laminate that intersects an end joint in the adjacent lamination to either side. Any 6 inch long section of the finished laminate shall not contain more end joints than 1/4 of the total number of laminations in the 6 inch section.
Edge Joints:
All edge joints to be pre-glued and staggered laterally in adjacent laminations by at least the net thickness of one lamination. Strips to be edgeglued shall have a 1 1/2 inch minimum width.
Moisture Content (of laminating stock and finished laminate):
Sixteen (16) percent maximum, but not less than 10 percent at the time of gluing and after final curing.
Tests:
All testing shall be conducted in accordance with AITC 200-92 with requirements/exceptions as stated below:

  1. End Joints - One end joint from each day's production for this order but not less than three joints, shall be tested in accordance with AITC 200-92, Para. 5.3.7. ANSI/AITC A190.1 strength and wood failure criteria apply.
  2. Delamination - At least one delamination sample shall be taken from each laminated member. End joints and face joints shall be represented. Delamination requirements of ANSI/AITC A190.1 shall apply.
  3. Block Shear - At least one block shear sample shall be taken from each production member. All face joint bonds shall be tested for shear strength and wood failure in accordance with Para. 7.6.5.1(a) of AITC 200, and shall meet the requirements of ANSI/AITC A190.1 Para. 5.3.2.
Surface Sealer:
A translucent penetrating sealer shall be applied to all surfaces prior to shipment.

Marking:

  1. Laminated timber shall be marked per ANSI/AITC A190.1 Para. 7.1 AITC Certificate of Conformance also required.
  2. Bundle(s) to be marked in accordance with MIL-STD-129 including the following:
Packaging:
  1. Members shall be bundle-wrapped, totally enclosing the bundle, with water resistant paper, opaque polyethylene, or their equivalent.
  2. Bundle(s) to be secured with steel strapping. Edge protectors are to be used to protect the members from cutting by the strapping.
Reports:
A laminating inspection and test report comparable to AITC Form 1B-2-79 shall be part of the documents accompanying the shipment to the final destination.
The report shall include test data on end joints, moisture content, and adhesive certification. Detailed data shall be reported, not summaries or averages.

Government Inspection:
Timbers to be inspected by a Government inspector at the manufacturer's facility prior to shipment for conformance to this specification and to ANSI/AITC A190.1.

Note: Adhesive: Penacolite Adhesive, Mil Spec: MIL-22397B

DOUGLAS FIR GLUED LAMINATES, UNTREATED:

Whereas the original materials for deck, ceiling, and deck beams were specified to be "best heart pitch pine", today glue laminated Douglas Fir is used.

The Navy does not keep large stock piles of materials on hand. Given the time frame of the production schedule, the quantity and the size and dimension of the timbers needed, the use of natural timber was precluded. The time to procure, prepare, dry, and then dimension all needed spars would have exceeded the time of repair in dry dock. Production was kept on schedule by using timbers made of glued laminates that were purchased to nearly finished dimensions. Having material ordered from laminate materials assured consistent material quality, minimized waste and preparation time, and allowed the Repair to remain on schedule.

JUSTIFICATION FOR USING LAMINATES

The lack of solid material of sufficient quality, quantity, moisture content, dimensional size and material species has required the use of laminates.

Places Douglas fir glued laminates, untreated was used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution:
ITEM THICKNESS 
inches 
WIDTH 
inches
LENGTH 
feet
QTY 
each
notes
Decking 12 30 - 40 50  
Deck Beams 13 15 25 2  
Deck Beams 13 15 25 2  
Deck Beams 14 16 25 2  
Deck Beams 14 16 25 2  
Deck Beams 16 16 25 2  
Deck Beams 16 18 25 12  
Deck Beams 18 16 25 18  

Specifications: PROCUREMENT ITEM DESCRIPTION
Timber, glued laminated, Douglas-Fir, untreated for use on the USS CONSTITUTION.

Laminated timber shall conform to the requirements of ANSI/AITC A-190 1-1983, American National Standard for Wood Products - Structural Glued Laminated Timber, (compliance with the Quality Control requirements of AITC 201 -83 and AITC 202-83 also necessary) with requirements/exceptions listed below:

Species:
Douglas-Fir
Lumber Grade:
WWPA - Laminating One "L1"
WCLIB - "L1" Dense Laminating

Laminated Timber Grade:
Architectural, Appearance Grade per AITC 110-84.

Grain:
Flat only or edge (vertical) only.
1 in 15 max slope.

Lamination Thickness:
1 1/2 inch max. (net surfaced)
*Parallel to the 13 face*
note: Decking, Laminated Douglas fir

Ship Decking:
Material to be laminated from Douglas fir 2x6 lumber per WCLIB #17 paragraph 151c "C" Industrial clears. Material to be all heartwood, flat grain laminations which give vertical grain on the wide face when laminated, maximum 1 in 10 slope of grain and kiln dried to 12-14% moisture content, slope scarfs only, no finger scarfs.

All material laminated per AITC specifications with quality control procedures per the AITC standards.


Adhesive (wet-use):
Shall conform to Mil Spec MIL-A-22397, 8 Sep 1960, Amendment 1, 12 June 1964 and associated Qualified Products List or to ASTM D2559 for marine use. Adhesive must be a phenol and/or resorcinol resin type only, and may be cured at the minimum temperature recommended by the adhesive producer and approved under A190.1 by AITC, but not less than 70 degrees F. Adhesive may be applied by roller or extruder.

Edge Joints:
All edge joints to be preglued and staggered by at least the thickness of one lamination.

Tests:
All checking shall be conducted in accordance with AITC 200 with requirements/exceptions listed below:

  1. End Joints - One end joint from each day's production for this order, but not less than three joints shall be tested in accordance with AITC 200, Test T106, T114 or T119. Para 5.3.7 therein shall apply. Laminate design stress is 1950 PSI.
  2. Delamination - At least one delamination sample shall be taken from each laminated member. End, edge, and face joints shall be represented and reported separately. End joint specimens may be taken from sample production members if impractical to obtain from production members. Delamination test T110 of AITC 200 shall be used. Delamination requirements of para 5.3.5 therein shall apply. All gluelines shall be tested and no single glueline shall show more than 25 percent delamination. All tests shall be run at least 2 cycles.
  3. Block Shear - At least one block shear sample shall be taken from each production member. All face joint bonds shall be tested for shear strength and wood failure in accordance with Test T107 of AITC 200 and shall meet the requirements of para. 5.3.5 therein.
Marking:
  1. Lumber - WWPA/WCLIB gradestamp or WWPA/WCLIB official Certification of Inspection required.
  2. Laminated Timber - Per A190.1, para. 7.1 AITC Certificate of Conformance also required. MIL-STD129 marking applies.
Packaging:
Members to be wrapped I/A/W para. 4.3.1 of AITC 111-79.

Government Inspection:
Laminated timber shall be inspected prior to shipment for conformance to this specification and ANSI/AITC A190.1.

Reports:

  1. Laminating - A laminating inspection and test report comparable to AITC for IB-2-79 shall be a part of the documents accompanying the shipment to the final destination. The report moisture content, and adhesive certification. Detailed data shall be reported, no summaries or averages.
  2. Recommended finishing practices from the laminator shall accompany the shipment to its final destination.
Note: Adhesive: Penacolite Adhesive, Mil Spec: MIL-22397B

DOUGLAS FIR, GLUED LAMINATED, TREATED (ACZA)

Whereas the original material for decks was specified to be "best heart pitch pine", today Douglas Fir is used. For Upper deck, the exposed weather deck, the first glue lamination is pressure treated.

Originally, material for the spars would had been white pine, today pressure treated glue laminated Douglas fir is used.

The Navy does not keep large stock piles of materials on hand. Given the time frame of the production schedule, the quantity and the size and dimension of the timbers needed, the use of natural timber was precluded. The time to procure, prepare, dry, and then dimension all needed spars would have exceeded the time of repair in dry dock. Production was kept on schedule by using timbers made of glued laminates that were purchased to nearly finished dimensions. Having material ordered from laminate materials assured consistent material quality, minimized waste and preparation time, and allowed the Repair to remain on schedule.

JUSTIFICATION FOR USING LAMINATES

The lack of solid material of sufficient quality, quantity, moisture content, dimensional size and material species has required the use of laminates.

Places Douglas fir, glued laminated, treated (ACZA) was used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution:
ITEM THICKNESS 
inches 
WIDTH 
inches
LENGTH 
feet
QTY 
each
notes
Gaff 13 13 42 1  
Boom 12 12 60 1  
Mizzen lower mast 13 13 90 4  
Main lower mast 18 18 106 4  
Fore lower mast          
Fore topmast          
Main topmast 21 21 66 1  
Mizzen topmast 16 16 50 1  
mizzen top gallant royal mast 12 12 50 1  
Decking Upper, Weather Deck 5 12 30 - 40 50 Upper Exposed laminate

Specifications:
Douglas Fir, glued laminated, treated (ACZA) for use on the USS CONSTITUTION.

TREATED:
Pressure Treated: ACZA Water borne Chemonite perservative, retention of 0.40 pounds of preservative per cubic foot.
Ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate, for protection against termite attack and decay. % ACZA analysis certification
% Cu 0.92
% Zn 0.57
% As 0.515

Specifications: PROCUREMENT ITEM DESCRIPTION
Timber, glued laminated, Douglas-Fir, treated (ACZA) for use on the USS CONSTITUTION.

Laminated timber shall conform to the requirements of ANSI/AITC A-190 1-1992, American National Standard for Wood Products - Structural Glued Laminated Timber, 16 March 1992. (compliance with the Quality Control requirements of AITC 200 -92 also necessary) with requirements/exceptions listed below:

Species:
Douglas-Fir

Lumber Grade:
WWPA - Laminating One "L1"
WCLIB - "L1" Dense Laminating

NOTE: DECKING Top lamination shall be vertical grain, all heartwood and conform to the quality of WCLIB
"Ship Decking" (para. 175-a).

Laminated Timber Grade:
Premium Appearance Grade per AITC 110-84.

Grain:
Flat only or edge (vertical) only.
1 in 15 max slope.

Lamination Thickness:
1 1/2 inch max. (net surfaced)
*Parallel to the 12 face*

note: Decking, Laminated Douglas fir Ship Decking:
Material to be laminated from Douglas fir 2x6 lumber per WCLIB #17 paragraph 151c "C" Industrial clears. Material to be all heartwood, flat grain laminations which give vertical grain on the wide face when laminated, maximum 1 in 10 slope of grain and kiln dried to 12-14% moisture content, slope scarfs only, no finger scarfs.

All material laminated per AITC specifications with quality control procedures per the AITC standards.

Adhesive (wet-use):
Shall conform to Mil Spec MIL-A-22397, 8 Sep 1960, Amendment 1, 12 June 1964 and associated Qualified Products List or to ASTM D2559 for marine use. Adhesive must be a phenol and/or resorcinol resin type only, and may be cured at the minimum temperature recommended by the adhesive producer and approved under A190.1 by AITC, but not less than 70 degrees F. Adhesive may be applied by roller or extruder.

Edge Joints:
All edge joints to be preglued and staggered by at least the thickness of one lamination.

Tests:
All checking shall be conducted in accordance with AITC 200 with requirements/exceptions listed below:

  1. End Joints - One end joint from each day's production for this order, but not less than three joints shall be tested in accordance with AITC 200, Test T106, T114 or T119. Para 5.3.7 therein shall apply. Laminate design stress is 1950 PSI.
  2. Delamination - At least one delamination sample shall be taken from each laminated member. End, edge, and face joints shall be represented and reported separately. End joint specimens may be taken from sample production members if impractical to obtain from production members. Delamination test T110 of AITC 200 shall be used. Delamination requirements of para 5.3.5 therein shall apply. All gluelines shall be tested and no single glueline shall show more than 25 percent delamination. All tests shall be run at least 2 cycles.
  3. Block Shear - At least one block shear sample shall be taken from each production member. All face joint bonds shall be tested for shear strength and wood failure in accordance with Test T107 of AITC 200 and shall meet the requirements of para. 5.3.5 therein.
Marking:
  1. Lumber - WWPA/WCLIB gradestamp or WWPA/WCLIB official Certification of Inspection required.
  2. Laminated Timber - Per A190.1, para. 7.1 AITC Certificate of Conformance also required. MIL-STD129 marking applies.
Packaging:
Members to be wrapped I/A/W para. 4.3.1 of AITC 111-79.

Government Inspection:
Laminated timber shall be inspected prior to shipment for conformance to this specification and ANSI/AITC A190.1.

Reports:

  1. Laminating - A laminating inspection and test report comparable to AITC for IB-2-79 shall be a part of the documents accompanying the shipment to the final destination. The report moisture content, and adhesive certification. Detailed data shall be reported, no summaries or averages.
  2. Recommended finishing practices from the laminator shall accompany the shipment to its final destination.
Note: Adhesive: Penacolite Adhesive, Mil Spec: MIL-22397B

COPPER

COPPER BAR

Copper is the material of choice used for all fasteners below the water line of Constitution. Copper stock was purchased as stock bar material of the diameters required and then the individual fasteners: bolts and drifts were fashioned and manufactured by NHC DET Boston.

All copper products were purchased within the Federal supply system.

Places Copper fasteners were used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution:

Copper fasteners:
drifts: 1/2 inch, 7/8 inch, 1 inch diameter by approximately 14 inches long were fabricated from bar stock.
bolts: 1 inch, 1 1/8 inch, 1 1/4 inch, 1 3/8 inch diameter, length varies from 40 inches to 10 feet.

Specifications:
Copper Fasteners
Item: Bar, metal
Fabrication Method: Any, acceptable
Length: 6.0 feet minimum and 12.0 feet maximum
Cross section outside diameter: 0.5, 0.75, 0.875, 1.0, 1.125, 1.25, 1.375 inch in diameter nominal
Basic shape: D7 round
Weight per unit measure:  
Heat Treatment: HARD
Material: Copper, ASTM B133
Spec/STD Data: H04 Temper

COPPER SHEET

The duration of time in which Constitution was out of the water required that her bottom be re-caulked. This required the re-coppering of Constitution's bottom.

All copper products were purchased within the Federal supply system.

Metal Sheet:
Copper:
0.032 in thick, 36 in wide x 144 in long
approx: 53.28 lb/sht
Supplied by:
Revered Copper Products Inc.
Sub of Revere Copper and Brass Inc.
Seneca Street
P.O. Box 300
Rome, NY 13440

STEEL

Today, steel -- galvanized, is the material of choice used for all fasteners above the water line of Constitution. This replaces what would have originally been wrought iron. Steel stock was purchased as stock bar material of the diameters required. Then the individual fasteners: bolts and drifts were fashioned and manufactured by NHC DET Boston. The piece was galvanized, hot dipped, as a final piece.

All steel stock was purchased within the Federal supply system.

Places steel fasteners were used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution:

Steel, galvanized, fasteners:
drifts: 1/2 inch, 7/8 inch, 1 inch diameter by approximately 14 inches long were fabricated from bar stock.

bolts: 1 inch, 1 1/8 inch, 1 1/4 inch, 1 3/8 inch diameter, length varies from 40 inches to 10 feet.

Specifications:

Steel Fasteners
Item: Bar, metal
Fabrication Method: Hot Rolled
Length: 16.0 feet minimum and 22.0 feet maximum
Cross section outside diameter: 0.5, 0.75, 0.875, 1.0, 1.125, 1.25, and 1.375 inch in diameter, nominal
Basic shape: D7 round
Weight per unit measure:
Material: Steel, ASTM A36
Spec/STD Data: 81348-QQ-S-741, (canceled) Government specification
note: ASTM reference:
American Society for Testing and Materials
100 Barr Harbotr Drive
Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 USA

RIGGING

STANDING RIGGING:

All rigging was replaced this repair period. A change was made in materials; polypropylene was removed and polyester was used as replacement material. After review and study, it was concluded that polyester would have better UV resistance than currently available polypropylene.

Rigging used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution:
All rigging has been replaced.
Circumferences (inches) Number of Feet (purchased) Use
10 600 MAIN STAY
9 2000 MAIN LOWER SHROUDS
8 1200  
7 1200 MAIN TOPMAST SHROUDS
5 1/2 1000  
5 1200 MAIN TOPGALLANT SHROUD
4 1/2 600  
4 8000 MIZZEN TOPGALLANT SHROUD
3 3/4 1500  
3 1/2 800  
3 5000  
2 1/2 1400  
2 1/4 5200  
2 4500  
1 3/4 800  

SPECIFICATION:
STANDING RIGGING:
POLYESTER:
color: BLACK,
size: diameters: 1 3/4" -- 10" circumference, and
lay: Hawser,
material: Polyester

sources:
Frank W. Winne & Son Inc.
P.O. Box #E-22
So. Boston, MA 02127
617-268-1037

Andrew Crowe and Sons, Inc.
Main Street, Knox County
Warren, ME 04864
207-273-2426

RIGGING

RUNNING RIGGING:

Approximately 8 miles of running rigging has been installed.

example:
.875 inch Roblon MIZZEN TOPSAIL, SHEET
1 inch Roblon MIZZEN TOPSAIL HALYARD
1.25 inch Roblon MAIN TOPSAIL HALYARD

SPECIFICATION:
POLYPROPYLENE, fibrillated film yarns, Made by ROBLON, Denmark.
3-Strand rope, specifically designed and made from fibrillated polypropylene film yarns. UV stabilized and resistant to acids, alkalines, and sunlight.
size (diameter) amount on spool
3/8" / 10 mm 3,000'/915M
1/2" / 12 mm 3,000'/915M
5/8" / 16 mm 5,000'/1525M
3/4" / 20 mm 6,000'/1830M
7/8" / 22 mm 8,000'/2440M
1" / 26 mm 8,000'/2440M
1 1/4" / 32 mm 5,000'/1525M
1 1/2" /  not available
1 3/8" / 36 mm 6,000'/1830M
Distributed by:
Allen C. Rawl
P.O. Box 2
Bradshaw, MD 21021 USA
410-592-2170

BLOCKS

Some of the blocks and many of the lignum vitae dead eyes removed from the CONSTITUTION when dismantled in 1992, were found to be usable, some of which required repairs and a number were renewed. Deadeyes and wood blocks were either refurbished or manufactured in-house.

The wood blocks were manufactured of ash with lignum vitae sheaves, common bushing. In some cases cast iron sheaves were substituted. Running blocks were either refurbished or purchased from Dauphinee & Sons, Limited, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Running rigging: 229 blocks installed
Standing Rigging: 440 blocks

SAILS

Constitution will sail July 21, 1997, under limited conditions, as a salute to the Nation in celebration of her bicentennial celebration. Topsails, spanker, jib and flying jib will be set and Constitution will sail for the first time since 1881.

Synthetic material was selected, based on cost, weight, availability, intended longevity of the sail material.

The six sails represent Constitution's battle configuration, and represents 12,225 square feet, approximately 35% of Constitution's total sail area of 42,710 square feet.

Sails used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution:
Fore Topsail: 800 pounds 2640 sq. ft.
Main Topsail: 1080 pounds 3400 sq. ft.
Mizzen Topsail: 500 pounds, 1620 sq. ft.
Spanker: estimated: 400 pounds, 1690 sq. ft.
Jib: estimated: 350 pounds, 1720 sq. ft.
Flying Jib: 280 pounds, 1180 sq. ft.
The main topsail is Constitution's largest sail, measuring 56 feet wide at the head, 50 feet high at the leeches, and 74 feet wide at the foot.

Specifications:
OCEANUS a synthetic cloth closely resembling natural cotton duck material. It was developed by Nathaniel S. Wilson, Sailmaker, East Boothbay, ME. and sailcloth engineer by Brian Doyle. It is woven by North Cloth of Amherst, MA from polyester fiber made by DuPont.

Oceanus is superior in strength to cotton duck and will not retain water. Oceanus:
Is of traditional texture, handles much like canvas, takes hand stitching, machine stitching, roping and hand work the same as canvas. The stitching buries into the fabric, similar to duck

Is of traditional appearance, dyed to look like cotton duck. Oceanus will retain it's color and will not turn gray over time.

Manufacture to industrial standards

Oceanus Sailcloth, 15 oz Ships Canvas.
SPECIFICATION: No: NSC-MS-112696
Width:  60 inch as manufactured, with slitting in integer multiples
Weight: 14.8 oz/sailmakers square yard (average)
Tensile Strength:  
warp 660 Lbs./inch
fill 345 Lbs./inch
Elongation:  
warp 15 Lbs./inch at 2%
fill 15 Lbs./inch at 1%
Color: Light beige to match master color sample supplied by manufacturer
Materials: Warp and Fill contain a proprietary combination of DuPont Dacron ¨ filament polyester yarn and spun polyester yarn

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Version 1.01, 25 Sep 199